Appendix 4: Profile of major stakeholders.
Institutionalizing WID and GAD in PNG
A good deal of the confusion which exists in the history of WID/GAD machineries in the country now, can he explained by the fractured history of Ms nationalization within the bureaucracy and the constant reorganization and attempts at reform of the bureaucracy or parts of the bureaucracy. Other contributing factors include a lack of a women's movement in the country that is focused, motivated and organized which could press for their interests on the state of PNG. The manner in which women's and gender issues were introduced to the country was largely imposed by donors since 1975 UN's Women's International Year. The high rate of female illiteracy means that women are only now being educated (mostly Informally) about gender issues and how interventions can be made within the state apparatus. This explains the ad hoc manner in which women's machineries have been developed (or their lack of) within the national and provincial levels.
The current restructuring within the national and provincial governments means that women's machineries at both tiers of government are in a state of flux. This restructuring is also affecting the national and provincial councils of women. Linkages between the national department and the provincial departments are weak. The government women's machinery at both the national and provincial levels does not have a network through which implementation of policy and programs can take place. It is the Non Government women's machinery that has this network through the Provincial Councils of Women.
Government Focal Points
National Women's Machinery
The implementation of donor funded projects has been hampered by lack of staff and resources in the Women's Division of the Department of Home Affairs, the agency responsible for overseeing the implementation of women's projects in the provinces. This is the focal point for national policies and legislation on women and gender issues. It is also empowered to enforce, administer and implement various international conventions to which Papua New Guinea is a signatory.
The Women's Division has tried to improve inter agency cooperation with the establishment of the Inter Departmental Women's Advisory Committee (IWAC) which could act as a formal venue for coordinating women's policy issues within the Government. The IWAC also acts as an advisory body to the Ministry on policy, programs and training matters for women in Papua New Guinea. It was the intention to have Departmental Women's Advisory Committees established in all provinces. However, to date these have not been set up. The IWAC concept has not worked partly due to the fact that when it was convened in the early 1980s, Departments nominated fairly junior staff to represent them.
Preparation for the UN's Fourth World Conference in Beijing in 1995 was a catalyst for convening a group of representatives from departments, agencies, and Non Government organizations. During the preparations for Beijing, interagency cooperation was better than it had ever been. Unfortunately, this committee was disbanded soon after the Beijing conference.
The functions of the Department of Home Affairs are supposed to be taken on by one officer located in each of the twenty provinces in the country. In the provinces these officers, whether they be called Women's Officers, Community Development Officers or Welfare Officers come under the provincial Department. In most cases one officer looks after women, religion, sports, youth and welfare in the province.
Provincial departments decide on policy and programs for provinces but like the national department, they do not have a network through which these programs can be implemented. Rather it is the national and provincial councils of women which have the network.
In 1994, the National Council of Women (NCW) called for the establishment of an Office of the Status of Women (OSW). This came in the form of a policy submission. This suggestion was incorporated in the department's Five Year Management Plan. The Women's Division supported the NCW proposal for an OSW. The concept of a separate office of women appears to have been received favorably. However, the Department of Home Affairs' new structure has not been approved and the concept of an Office of the Status of Women has received the green light only in principle. However, the department's budgetary process for 1998 does not include provision for an OSW.
A few government departments have gender desks or units: Department of Agriculture and Livestock, Prime Minister's Department, the Department of Planning and Implementation, Investment Promotions Authority, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Labour and Employment, and until 1997, Fisheries. The working relationship of various government departments with the Women's Division of the Department of Home Affairs varies from time to time.
Provincial Women's Machineries
Provincial structures of Home Affairs depend on the officer(s) and their ability to use the provincial government bureaucracy. Those who possess good lobbying skills and initiative are able to create a unit and develop cooperative working relations with officers within the provincial bureaucracy and the provincial councils of women. Often this harmonious working relationship breaks down when a change in personnel occurs in the leadership of the Provincial council as well as within the provincial women's office.
As an example, there are ten officers in the Provincial Department of Home Affairs in the Department of Eastern Highlands. Two are specifically assigned as women's officers. They plan and conduct programs for the various women's groups within the province. These two women's officers also act as the secretariat for the Eastern Highlands Provincial Council of Women. They have successfully lobbied for an executive officer to be paid by the provincial government to oversee the work of the council in the eight districts that come under the Eastern Highlands province. They are presently negotiating for a credit/ women's/community officer to be hired as a casual employee at the scheme that was launched by the national Department of Home Affairs in 1996. However, only three of the eight district administrators have agreed to this arrangement.
With the recent Provincial and Local-Level Reforms (1995) the national Department of Home Affairs presence in the provinces is located in the Department of Provincial Affairs in the form of one or two officers, in some provinces no positions exist to take on these functions. In some provinces, women's officers have gone down to the districts as community district officers'. Each district may cover from four to seven local level governments. It varies from province to province. There is no direct link between the national and provincial government women's machineries.
NON GOVERNMENT FOCAL POINTS
National Council of Women (NCW)
There is full time secretariat which oversees the work of the National Council of Women (NCW). It plans, coordinates and organizes programs for its member organizations either on its own or in consultation with various national government departments. It also liases with various donors who use the council's network to run donor-initiated projects. For the first time in 1997 the PNG NCW became an executing agency for a project, the PNG UNFPA Role Model project.
A women's congress is held every three years when a new executive is elected. An Annual General Meeting is held every eighteen months. The national executive meets quarterly. Special national and regional workshops and consultations may be called from time to time when the need arises. For example, in September 1997, a special national consultation on the new provincial and local-level reforms was called with all presidents and women's officers of member organizations; some district presidents attended as well.
The secretariat is kept busy with consultations with government departments, aid donors, Non Government bodies and project consultants, partly as a result of the emphasis in development cooperation programs to consult with civil society.
Provincial Councils of Women (PCW)
The executive members of most provincial councils reside in their villages. Except for Milne Bay, Manus, Eastern Highlands, Western Highlands, Enga, New Ireland, Bougainville and East Sepik, most provincial council do not have an office or staff and so communicating with provincial councils can be a problem. West New Britain, East New Britain and Western Province have a good operational base.
Provincial councils organize and run their own programs independent of the provincial Department of Home Affairs although technical assistance may be requested from the provincial department. Provincial councils may also request direct technical assistance from the national Department of Home Affairs. Where harmonious working relations between the Council and the Women's Officer exist, technical assistance and some secretariat support is forthcoming from the provincial Department of Home Affairs. Financial support from the provincial governments also varies from excellent, as in Manus, to none at all, as in Oro. Most of the councils in the Papuan Region do not have an office, or a good working arrangement with the women's officers. These are Southern Highlands, Gulf, Western, Oro, National Capital District, Central Province and include Sandaun Province. At least three provinces have male women's officers.
With the provincial and local-level reforms, the channels for technical and financial support have expanded. The difficulty lies in the ability of local-level and district women's councils to gain access to such resources. Theoretically women's councils at all levels, i.e. provincial, district and local, should be able to submit annual requests for funding projects. However, because local-level council elections have only just been held, women's knowledge of the new system is limited. Most PCWs and District councils raise their own money for adrninlstration, travel and program costs. The PNG NCW has only been able to run one national consultation on the new reforms but did not focus on how to access government resources now being distributed to lower levels of government.
An added problem the lack of infrastructure at the district level. Most districts do not even have houses for government officers, and government workers (technical staff) are still operating from the provincial headquarters. Some provincial governments, such as Oro, did allocate funding for building new district headquarters, but emergencies such as the drought have drawn on the budgetary allocation for the construction of district headquarters for the last two years.
A number of provincial councils of women have begun to restructure their councils in line with the new reforms. In provinces where district and local-level women's council's did not exist, some have since been organized. In Milne Bay Province in the old provincial system, the PCW had seven districts; under the new reforms, there are only four districts and so the Milne PCW is reorganizing its district councils into four instead of seven. This is happening ahead of the PNG NCWs amendment of its constitution, structure and rules.
Non Government Organizations
The Churches and Non Government Organizations run programs in support of women independently of the PNG NCW. The program goals and objectives of these agencies are similar to those in the PNG Platform of Action, although the church's organizations place a stronger emphasis on spiritual concerns.
The church women's networks are well mobilized because of their closeness to the communities they serve. Each parish runs programs for the congregation. The seven mainline churches are grouped together under the Papua New Guinea National Council of Churches (NCC). The NCC may conduct national programs for its member churches from time to time. The Evangelical Alliance churches are also grouped together. The women's network under this alliance is not functioning at the present time (1997) and so individual Alliance churches continue to conduct programs for women and the community at the parish and congregation/community levels. Most of the church women's organizations are part of the church establishment and so interventions have to be made through the churches.
With the exceptions of the East Sepik Council of Women (ESCOW) and the East New Britain Social Action Committee (ENBSAC)--both of which are provincially based--all NGOs mentioned in this study operate nationally through their member organizations or networks throughout the country. NGOs operate autonomously though they maybe a part of a network such as the case of PNG Trust which networks with Melanesian Environment Foundation and Individual and Community Rights Advocacy Forum (ICRAF).
Most NGOs focussing on women's programs are affiliated to the PNG NCW (notable exceptions include the YWCA, CWA and Girl Guides). The Soroptimists (Lae) and Business and Professional Women's Associations (BPW) are also affiliated to the PNG NCW. These international women's organizations maintain some autonomy in deciding programs and activities to support but with some input from the parent (international) organizations.
The absence of women in public political life and the low level of success by women in the formal political arena is symptomatic of the infancy of a 'woman's movement' in Papua New Guinea. The women's movement is overwhelmingly based on local women's participation.
A few women candidates were endorsed by the major political parties in the 1997 national elections but none were successful. Out of a total of 56 female candidates who contested as independents, only two were elected (one of whom is the first female to be elected as governor). Prior to being elected, she served a term of three years as the national president of the National Council of Women, and was elected with support from a bloc vote of women from the Milne Bay province. The second elected female member of parliament, Lady Carol Kidu, is a shadow minister for the social sector. She received strong backing from the United Church, women and youth groups and people from the settlements in her electorate and has emerged as a spokesperson for disadvantaged groups both nationally and within her electorate.
A female wing of the Peoples Progress Party was established in the lead up to the 1997 elections but was so strongly associated with the New Ireland branch of the Party, that since its defeat at the recent (1997) elections, the female wing has diminished.
An advisor to the Prime Minister on women has been appointed as a member of the Prime Minister's political staff. However the position remains politicized and appointees are generally supporters of the Prime Minister and not necessarily well-versed gender specialists.
The Provincial Government and Local-Level Government reforms have ushered in a new wave of restructuring within the bureaucracy, which has resulted in the relocation of the women's desks or units within departments.
The new Organic Law on Provincial and Local Level Governments created two nominated seats for women. The National Council of Women is to be consulted on these appointments at the district or provincial levels. This gives greater political power to the National Council of Women which now has some influence over who gets nominated to the various local government councils throughout the country. Women or women's groups who want to influence the selection of nominees will now have to be affiliated to the NCW at the village, district or provincial level, or through their church or NGO membership. Under the reforms the provincial and local level governments decide on funding allocations, thus creating a political opening for women to participate directly in the development of their communities. NCW has organized consultation on the reforms with presidents of all its affiliates to enable women to understand the reforms and what they mean for women and for the National Council of Women in particular.
Traditional and Indigenous Networks
It is difficult to make generalizations about indigenous networks in a country with over 700 cultural and linguistic units but judging from the voting patterns, the country is still largely clan/tribal based. In rural PNG women are tied to the village, lineage, clan and tribal affinities, which remain strong. But in the rural areas we also see the strength of church networks, by parish and denomination. Women (and men) identify strongly with their church and its wide networks. These are important when there is a death, a feast or brideprice is being paid.
It is difficult to make a similar characterization of communities. Where concentrations of tribal or provincial groups conglomerate in peri-urban areas, e.g. Engan, Kiwai, Gulf or Oro peoples in Port Moresby. Among those in formal middle class employment, wantok and church networks tend to influence the strength of linkage in the urban areas. Traditional affinities have been expanded somewhat with intermarriage (tribal, clan, province, race and nation) and friendships created through sports, church, work, school clubs and membership in community organizations.
OUTLINE OF THE GENDER WORK OF STAKEHOLDERS
Government of PNG
Women's Division, Department of Home Affairs
The Department of Home Affairs is the government focal point for gender and development issues. The Women's Division has been in existence since 1974 (then known as the Women's Unit under the Department of Social Development and Home Affairs). Appendix 2 outlines the historical development of the women's movement in PNG and identifies the development of various women's machineries.
The Division has taken on the implementation of various donor funded projects such as the UNFPA funded Family Life Education Project, the Population and Family Planning Program funded by the World bank, ADB and Australia and has undertaken two credit schemes, one funded by the NZODA limited to eight provinces and the second nationwide scheme funded by the church launched in 1996. In 1997 the Women and Fisheries project, to be funded by Japan, was also transferred to the department. Many other projects currently being managed by or through the Division are discussed within the donor section. These projects include the ADB funded institutional strengthening activity which facilitated the development of the 5 Year Management Plan launched in 1994.
The most innovative program in Home Affairs addresses the consequences of male violence. The Men Against Violence (MAVj Program within the Department of Home Affairs is the only program to address the issue of male violence directly by offering violent men alternative models of behavior.
National Planning Office
A Gender and Development Unit exists within the Social Planning Division of the National Planning office. The Unit was set up under the UNIFEM Pacific Mamstxeaming Project to coincide with the endorsement of the National Women's Policy. Its principle objective was to initiate a gender sensitive approach in national policies, programs and projects and prioritize women's concerns in the process of national development. The GAD unit exists to facilitate gender mamstreaming in government departments responsible for policy and planning and to conduct intersectoral workshops on gender awareness for department officers at the national and provincial levels.
Except for the burst of activity in 1990 when planners and other senior officers of departments attended gender sensitive training, its effectiveness has not lived up to its strategic location. The number of officers in the Unit has been reduced to one. The National Planning Office operates on a national level from the office in Waigani, Port Moresby. Provincial work from the office regarding gender issues would be coordinated through Provincial Departments of Home Affairs.
Though gender mainstreaming appears to have again been marginalized by adding new responsibilities for this one officer, she has used the opportunity to mainstream gender in the new areas under her responsibility of law and order, and administration.
A manual 'Gender Training for planners in Papua New Guinea' has been completed by the Unit.
Department of Agriculture and Livestock (DAL)
The Department of Agriculture and Livestock is a national level department and in the provinces it combines with fisheries, forestry and other industries as a part of the Provincial Department of Primary Industries (DPI).
The 1993 WID sector Review by UNDP identified key areas for gender sensitization in DAL. These included: The development of sex disaggregated and gender specific data in agriculture and livestock; recruitment planning for women in the Agricultural Training and Manpower (sic) Program; planning and support for Non Government women's associations involved in promoting agricultural production; inclusion of a gender sensitive approach to curriculum development for in-service training courses; strengthening of provincial agricultural extension programs to develop strategies for promoting special women to women's extension components; involvement of women's groups in smallholder market access and food supply project; inclusion of women in the Marketed Fruit and Vegetable Project; and increasing training for women and distribution of livestock.
Women's major role in food production in the subsistence sector has been recognized by the establishment of a Women and Development Unit in 1996.
Department of Health (DOH)
The Department of Health operates as a national body (National Department of Health) with provincial departments.
Although a great deal of money has been invested in the PNG health system over the past couple of decades, it appears that standards are decreasing in some areas. Due to the high rate of maternal and child mortality, DOH has a major focus on maternal and child health. In many provinces the basic services are not available and The Department adopts a primary health care approach to health improvement. The increasing incidence of tuberculosis, malaria, and sexually transmitted diseases has prompted an expansion of the immunization program targeting women and children.
Several national and international donors are working with the department on projects which have women and the girl child as a primary focus. WHO and UNFPA, in conjunction with the DOH, is completing a technical assistance project in maternal and child health and family planning. DOH is also working jointly with UNFPA on a project to strengthen reproductive health, focussing on services in East Sepik, Madang, Manus and Central.
The most innovative project on gender which the DOH has pioneered is the billboard awareness campaign. Titled 'PNG Artists for Health: Mi Man Tru', the project aims to address issues of the husband's responsibility for the health of his wife and family. The campaign is aimed to break down the stereotype of a 'real man' as someone who does consider the needs and concerns of his family. The 'real man' pictured in the billboards takes up some of the family burdens: As a teenager he thinks twice before enjoying in sexual activity; as a 'Midnight Cowboy' he is not afraid to practice safe sex, and as a father he discusses the size of the family with his wife and is proud of his 'only girls' family. This project aims at attitudinal change, and was launched in August 1997 with billboards throughout NCD and a series of national radio scripts in Tok Pisin.
Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources
The National Program for Women in Fisheries was established in the late 1980's to transfer post harvest technology skills and knowledge to rural women through information, education and training. A Women in Development Officer was appointed to the Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources. The Women's Division in the DHA followed this initiative with training courses in 1989. The Fisheries Council in 1990 recommended the commitment of funds to fisheries activities focusing on women. The Department of Home Affairs then appointed a liaison officer in DHA to work closely with the Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources Women In Development Officer.
In 1993 there was a cooperative signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Fisheries Department and the Department of Home Affairs. The Fisheries Authority provides technical inputs (staff) to the Women's Division which provides support to women through the Provincial Councils of Women to encourage and increase the participation of women in fishing industries both as contributors and beneficiaries. The Fisheries Authority sent a representative to the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995.
The Department of Agriculture and Livestock (DAL), the Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources only has a national level structure. At the provincial level it joins with agriculture and livestock as a part of the Provincial Department of Primary Industry.
Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce funded the Small Business Development Services project. One aspect of this project was to 'conduct business skills training for women entrepreneurs including participants for credit schemes managed by the Department of Youth and Home Affairs'
At the local level the Provincial Departments of Commerce provide advice for investment and business skills training for clients. The Division of Commerce also provides resource people for business training courses which are run by the Department of Home Affairs. Although not specifically aimed at women, some recent projects run by the Department of Trade and Industry are available to women include the Small Business Development Service.
Non Government Organizations
National Council of Women (NCW)
An Act of Parliament in 1979 established the NCW as a statutory authority but it exists as a program of the Department of Home Affairs. The NCW reaches out to the twenty provinces through its provincial councils (PCWs). Though the PCWs vary in strength, leadership, communications and outreach and have different links to NGO's in the villages. The PCWs are supported by Provincial Government.
The NCW has a large network both across the country and down to the villages. Its membership includes the provincial councils of women (20), Non Government organizations and most of the churches in PNG under Papua New Guinea Council of Churches (PNGCC) or the Evangelical Alliance, Seventh Day Adventists and Bahai. The Non Government membership includes Women in Politics (WIP), UPNG Women's Association, UPNG female students, University of Technology Women, the Teachers Union, PNG Nurses Union, Business and Professional Women, ICRAF, Ramu-Sugar, Wanchef, the Filipino Women's Association and YWCA. Except that of the national secretariat, all the work done in member organizations is voluntary. The most pressing need is to strengthen the network with an office, full time staff and communications links to the provinces and districts.
Of the Non Government organizations affiliated to the NCW, most are NCD-based (the exception is the Nurses Union). The Teachers Union is affiliated but not a member of NCW. Although there has been an increase in the number of NGO's in the country in recent years, many NGO's exist only in the provinces and do not have a national organization.
PNG Watch Council /NANGO
In 1996 a number of NGOs were requested to affiliate to an umbrella NGO known as the PNG Watch Council for Socioeconomic justice. This alliance was basically a resurrected National Alliance of NGOs (NANGO) which had become defunct in 1995 (due to internal politics and leadership struggles). However, the PNG Watch Council has been active in political issues and NANGO may reemerge as the national NGO alliance. A meeting of stakeholders was held in Port Moresby in late September 1997 to discuss the network.
YWCA is one of the oldest NGOs in PNG (since 1962). The YWCA has a national office in Port Moresby as well as branches in Port Moresby, Lae, Goroka and Tabubil.
The current President is Dame Rose Kekedo. Initially YWCA's activities centered on the provision of hostels for girls and women, vocational and child care centers and preschools. However, YWCA is they are now involved in a wide range of projects exclusively for women, children and communities throughout PNG. The major sectors of work are house, education and refugee support. YWCA also has a handicraft shop in Port Moresby which sells handicrafts created by PNG women.
One of the most successful projects the YWCA is currently running is supported financially through its Australian counterpart YWCA. This is a rehabilitation program for women prisoners to teach skills to assist these women to reintegrate into their communities. The development of a support peer network for women prisoners is another aspect of this project.
The YWCA in Goroka has been running a highly successful literacy project for several years. Adult literacy and numeracy classes are given to women who have never had access to formal schooling to provide them with basic skills, such as being able to read bank statements and other essential documents.
Women in Politics
Formed in 1987, the group aims to increase women's awareness of political processes, to lobby political parties and pre-select women to stand for seats in national and provincial elections. Many of the active members of the group stood themselves as candidates in the 1997 election. Dame Josephine Abijiah, one of the two women voted into parliament at the recent election, has been an active member of the group.
Business and Professional Women
The Association of Business and Professional Women is a voluntary association of women within professions and private enterprises. The group's primary aim is to provide support for other professional and business women, although it has also lobbied government and the private sector to increase the recognition for, and participation of women in professional and business activities. The group has been active in promoting the education advancement of young women through scholarship schemes.
Public Employees Association (PEA)
Approximately one seventh of the members of the PEA are women. It is the only union organization with a Women's Unit. Although the unit is under-resourced, priorities for the unit include: Terms and conditions of employment; selection and promotion procedures and other personnel practices; sexual harassment; housing; superannuation, and child care.
PNG Teachers Association (PNGTA)
Over 50% of the PNGTA are women. The focus of the group is on the professional development of teachers and on improving the social and economic aspects of teaching. The PNGTA plans to develop an office for women and to increase the participation of women and improve their terms and conditions of employment.
PNG Nurses Association
Many of the members of this association are also members of the PEA. The association focuses on the working conditions of its members.
Country Women's Association
This is traditionally a more conservative group dealing with welfare issues facing women in health and education, particularly in the provision of basic services. The association is comprised of mostly expatriate women although there are attempts to attract more PNG women members. The CWA in PNG tends not to get involved in women's NGO meetings, and did not participate in the Beijing Conference preparations.
PNG Family Planning Association
The Papua New Guinea Family Planning Association has been involved in family planning advocacy and service delivery. It has recently lost its funding source from the United States of America. A small group of members are trying to maintain the work of the association.
The Girl Guides, like the YWCA, is also active in hostel accommodation and leadership training. It has a large membership base and active groups in Port Moresby, Lae and all major urban areas. However, unlike the YWCA it is not as involved in advocacy issues or project work aimed at the empowerment of women (such as the YWCA's prisons project).
The Individual and Community Rights Advocacy Forum Inc. (ICRAF) has a Women's Desk (staffed by Ms Hilan Los). The organization has developed policy (March 1997) on Gender equality which incorporates equal participation, education, employment, family law, and domestic and sexual violence against women, and it has drafted amendments to the Criminal Code Act, Health and Safety, and Equality in the Legal System.
ICRAF focuses its work on strategic gender needs of women and aims its project work at elimmating or decreasing structural forms of discrimination against women.
ICRAF has been providing awareness programs on women's legal rights and discrimination. ICRAF also operates the only Rape Crisis Center for women in Papua New Guinea.
East Sepik Council of Women (ESCOW)
The East Sepik Council of Women is the most successful provincial Council of Women in PNG. For many years it has been the leading organization in rural based gender projects. Its programs have included: Awareness programs on womens' and childrens' rights; health and environment issues; police violence and training issues, and; community discussion of gender issues using drama, radio and song.
PNG Integral Human Development Trust
This Trust acts as an umbrella organization for a large network of literacy organizations. It has been active in working with local communities to identify their development needs and has provided literacy materials relevant to small communities. The Trust provides training for Tok Priskuls and adult literacy.
East New Britain Social Action Committee
A small provincial based NGO, the ENBSAC has a good reputation for running effective extension volunteer programs. The group has been in existence for over 20 years. The programs are aimed at supporting and strengthening village based women's organization, adult education, literacy, leadership and health. It works closely with Save the Children's Fund and it has attracted a great deal of other funding for specific projects over the past decade.
Foundation for Law, Order and Justice (FLOJ)
The Foundation for Law, Order and Justice is Non Government, non church organization with a Board of Trustees drawn from the government and private sector. The foundation is involved in research, community awareness, policy development and project work and aims to reduce crime and violence through community development. The training package for community capacity building includes a section on women and gender equity.
Australian NGO Development Agencies
There are numerous Australian NGOs working in PNG, many with funding assistance through AusAID. They play a key role in development projects in PNG and are major stakeholders in policy, project identification and implementation.
The Australian organizations which deal exclusively in women and gender projects are Soroptomists Overseas Development Program, International Women's Development Agency (IWDA) and the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) which runs a very small program in PNG (outlined in the YWCA section of PNG NGOs). The Soroptimists ran a small business training course in Lae in 1995. The IWDA has been working closely with the East Sepik Council of Women in a rural support program, the framing of birth attendants in villages, and in a women's environment and awareness project. IWDA also played a major role in the preparations of some PNG NGOs in the lead up to the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women. Funded through AusAID, they ran the Pacific Women's Documentation Project, which involved the development of materials of PNG women, with other Pacific women, and participation in the NGO Forum in China.
The Adventist and Development Relief Agency focuses in water supply housing and small industry. Rotary has also been active in water supply projects. World Vision Australia ran a preschool and adult literacy project through their PNG counterpart and the Bunapas integrated health project. Save the Children's Fund has operated the Madang kindergarten project. The Credit Union of Australia is active in financing cooperatives in rural regions, Caritas Australia in Civic Education.
Many Australian NGOs have been active in Bougainville restoration or refugee programs including Australian People for Health, Education and Development Abroad (APHEDA), Australian Refugee Council, Community Aid Abroad, Overseas Service Bureau, Marist Mission Center and Moral Rearmament.
The churches are extremely active in PNG and have a strong base in the provinces. The churches have the most extensive network amongst all NGOs and often work jointly with the Provincial Councils of Women and the Women's Office of the Department of the Province in implementing projects.
Papua New Guinea National Council of Churches
The Papuan New Guinea Council of Churches (PNGCC) replaced the Melanesian Council of Churches and consists of the seven mainline churches. These are: The evangelical Lutheran Church; the Baptist Union of Papua New Guinea; the United Church; Salvation Army; Goodnius Lutheran; the Catholic Church and the Anglican Church. There is a women's desk (full time) at the PNGCC and it is affiliated to the National Council of Women. The PNGCC runs ecumenical activities and trainers training programs for member organizations, Women's programs are run by individual churches such as the United Church Women's Fellowship, Anglican Mothers Union, Catholic Women's Federation. The main areas of work focus to strengthen Christian networks and spiritual development, human resource development and health, family life education, law and order, literacy and refugees.
Catholic Women's Federation
The Catholic Women's Federation is a well established Catholic women's network. It has been operating for ten years. It is a voluntary organization but it is serviced by a full time secretariat at the national level. Twenty diocese (provincial) associations are linked to the Catholic Women's Federation. All projects are ran at the diocesan level; the national body concentrates on coordination and the training of trainers. A new three year plan (19982000) has been prepared. The plan focuses on: Spiritual development; family life which includes family planning; primary health care; economic empowerment with a strong emphasis on self reliance; literacy, and; management skills, budgeting and planning. They also carry out campaigns on drug abuse and domestic violence. The bulk of their programs are funded by the church including the development of materials for their literacy programs.
United Church Women's Fellowship
The United Church Women's Fellowship has been in existence since 1971 and has a nationwide membership of 64,000 women. It has a network which reaches down to the congregation or village level. In addition to spiritual development, it runs literacy programs, sporting fixtures, seminars on topical issues and carries a prison and hospital visitation program. A national secretariat serves this voluntary organization. Programs are funded by the church, but funding is also sought from other churches outside PNG and from other donors.
The Salvation Army has been in PNG since 1954. Its network exists in NCD, Gulf, Central, Eastern Highlands, Morobe, West New Britain and Western Highlands provinces. The Women's Ministry forms a division within the command and the network reaches down to the corp (parish) level. Projects include spiritual, sports and other recreational programs, hospital and prison visitations, craft, health, literacy for youth and women and early childhood education.
Evangelical Lutheran Church of PNG
The Lutheran women's work has been carried out by Wokmeri which has existed informally since the 1950s. It has strengthened its network in recent years reaching out from the national down to district, circuit, parish and congregation levels. Wokmeri organizations exist in Morobe, Simbu, Southern Highlands, Western Highlands, Eastern Highlands, Madang, New Ireland, East and West New Britain and Bougainville provinces. Wokmeri has not been active in Bougainville in the last nine years due to the Bougainville crisis.
Projects undertaken include: Spiritual development; health; literacy; AIDS education; environment, political education, agriculture, and; violence against women and children. Funding for these programs come through the church in PNG and from abroad.
Bahai Women has a well established network reaching down to the provincial and local level. An affiliate of NCW, Bahai Women run family life, health, literacy and spiritual development activities. The Bahai faith has only recently been introduced to PNG but already has some 60,000 adherents. They are in all twenty provinces but are concentrated in Milne Bay, West New Britain, Central and the National Capital District. Office bearers including the national president are appointed by the church council.
The Evangelical Alliance, affiliated to the National Council of Women, consists of 40 denominations. Some denominations are more active than others--the most active groups are in West Sepik and Western Highlands. They undertake projects in spiritual development, literacy and primary health.
Over the past decade women have become more active in business and the private sector. Their involvement ranges from small scale rural enterprises such as farming and gardening, production of handicrafts, mrrning trade and food stores, to larger scale private enterprises. An example is Web Books, a company owned and run by Mrs Winifred Abijiah in Port Moresby. Support for women in private sector enterprises has been provided by the PNG government and by national and international donors through the provision of small credit schemes. There are several networks which have been established for women in business. This includes BEST (a Canadian funded business enterprise for women), Meri Bung (women in business) and various local cooperatives such as Wok Meri in the Highlands.
The Business and Professional Women's Association (BPWA) is another network of women focused on the private sector and women in management and professional positions in the Public Service. Although women are not in management and decision making levels of the private sector to any extent, there are some women pioneering in these areas (a high profile example is Aiva Tauvasa, the Managing Director of the Investment Promotion Authority). The BPWA of PNG encourages women and their business initiatives and lobbies for greater recognition of the needs and concerns of women in the private sector.
Investment Promotion Authority (IPA)
The Investment Promotion Authority is a Government funded authority. Although it does not currently have provincial offices, staff from IPA have assisted in the setting up of the National Women's Entrepreneur Association, and provincial branches of this are currently being established. A loose network has been formed, consisting of IPA, the Rural Bank of PNG, departments of Commerce, Agriculture and Livestock, Home, Affairs and the Small Business Development Center (SBDC). This network aims to collaborate in exploring ways to improve and advance national women entrepreneurs in management training, business planning, investment and business opportunities, loans and credit.
South Pacific Appropriate Technology Foundation (SPATF)
This is a national self supporting institution in PNG which was originally established in the 1970s. Although it is not a government institution it still receives an annual grant of K100,000 from the Government.
The Community Enterprise Support Unit (CESU) within the SPATF promotes appropriate technology and services for creating employment and Improving productivity. Services range from information, training, marketing and research, supply of tools, equipment and machines. Women have been direct beneficiaries of courses on food processing and handicrafts.
This is a women's credit cooperative that has been successful in the Highlands in promoting women in business.
Women in Business Associations
Several provincial regions have active Women in Business Associations. These associations support women in the urban informal sector through loans and/or training. The training may include an educational component on literacy and bookkeeping, as is being provided by the Women in Business Association of East Sepik and Simbu.
The Toma Women in Business Association of East New Britain runs a 'Toma Ningit Group'. This group own 50% of a garment factory in Lae and a health, beauty and home services company.
Other areas which Women in Business associations encourage are village marketing and handicrafts. In West New Britain which has a shop outlet for handicrafts has been established in Kimbe.
This is a Papaua New Guinea NGO established in 1990 with financial support through Canadian grants. This group promotes the 'integration of small business development and equitable sustainable community development in rural PNG'. The program focuses on women as a target group. 'Ol Meri I Ki bilong Go Het bilong Papua Nuigini' (Women are the Key to PNG's Future Growth) is a program consisting of slides and a video. These are distributed to groups as an awareness tool to raise awareness of the value of women's work and to build the self confidence of women.
A business consulting service is provided to rural small business groups by BEST. This addresses problem areas for businesses inkling problem solving, setting realistic expectations, conflicts which arise between traditional customs and business, bookkeeping and planning.
Chamber of Commerce
There are currently no projects or components of programs in the Chamber of Commerce which deal directly with women as the target group. Gender sensitive training is required for this area.
The World Bank currently concentrates its PNG Program in agriculture, infrastructure and urban development, education, health, human resources as well as an adjustment loan (US$100 million 1996-1997).
In 1992 the World Bank commissioned a paper on women in development in Papua New Guinea. This paper outlined a strategy for WID in PNG in regard to World Bank projects. This detailed the need for women to increase access to and control over income, land policy, the forestry industry and non-formal education and training. It also called for regulatory measures to reduce the consumption of alcohol, as well as the use of a checklist for involvement of gender sensitized NGOs, and the development of useful statistical information from socioeconomic surveys.
The gender component of the World Bank program in PNG is limited to several projects at present. This includes a US$35 million loan for education development for increased access to upper secondary education for boys and girls. The other major project is the 'Population and Family Planning' Project jointly funded through the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, the Government of PNG and Australia (World Bank contribution US $6.9 million). This project has two main elements, Through family planning services in five provinces and the National Capital District to upgrade health facilities and training. Secondly, institutional strengthening in the Department of Health and other delivery agencies to support service delivery and health promotion.
The other World Bank project with a gender component is the Oro Smallholder Oil Palm Development project (US$ 27 million) which has conducted consultations with women to ensure land is available to the women for food production, rural health and education facilities are available and economic opportunities for women in the conservation program are provided.
Apart from project work, the World Bank has recently undertaken several studies in PNG including a Poverty Assessment in 1996, which identified issues affecting women and children and concerns in project development.
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
ADB's work in PNG has focused on the sectors of agriculture, transport, industry, finance and the social sector. Women have been direct beneficiaries in the social sector programs through population, family planning, higher education projects, urban development and housing, urban water supply and sewerage, and rural health services.
A Report on WID in the Asian Development Bank's program was developed in 1987 with a recommendation for gender analysis to be included in appropriate Advisory and Operational Technical Assistance (AOTA) and in loan processing at the Project Planning Technical Assistance (PPTA) stage. Some of the first ADB projects implemented adopting these recommendations include the Fisheries and Coastal Resource Management and Development Project. The women's component of this project was to commission a study of how women could be mainstreamed into the fisheries sector to participate more effectively.
The Third Rural Health Services Project targeted women for assistance in family planning and health and the Central Province Rubber Schemes and Smallholder Rubber Development in Selected Provinces (Western, Gulf and East Sepik) contained WID Components to identify gender issues for inclusion in the design phase. The TOR included an extension and training program for women, effective ways to channel the project activities to female farmers and to examine women's income generating opportunities such a tapping, weeding and fertilizer application.
The first of the ADB's technical assistance specifically for WID in PNG was the project for institutional strengthening of the Women's Division in the Department of Home Affairs and in Sandaun and Gulf Provinces. This entailed the services of an institutional planning consultant and a management information system expert. These technical specialists were employed over a 2 year period to develop the Five Year Management Plan and an implementation guide for the Women's Division, as well as 5 Year Development Plans for both Sandraun and Gulf Provinces. The Asian Development Bank contribution to the Population and Family Planning project is US$6.8 million.
Although Australia is the largest donor to Papua New Guinea, very few of the projects are gender specific. However most of the projects do have a gender component.
In 1997 Australia released a new Gender and Development Policy and a set of check lists/guidelines for the implementation of aid projects in different sectors.
The Australian aid program to PNG is administered through the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). The key projects targeting the needs of women fall into the sectors of health, education, and credit schemes. Appendix 3 identifies the location of the major Australia projects.
Several small grants are funded from Australia direct to local PNG NGOs. These projects are limited to approximately K40.000 each. The sectors which target women and children are education and health, small business enterprises, agriculture (fishing and water supply) and various small scale social sector projects. In the 1995-1996 period the following community based organizations were funded through this program: East Sepik Council of women, Cheshire Homes, World Vision PNG, Gulf Christian Services, Rotary International, Church Medical Council, Bulolo Hospital, Aroma Development Committee, Wandi and Kusbau Community Schools Board of Management, Mohkolo and Seagull Fishing Groups, Pipi Community School, Ombudsman Commission, Dongan Bosnian Community and others.
In health AusAID is funding: Medical officer, nursing and allied health science training; tertiary health services consisting of Australian specialist surgical teams; hospital operations and management improvement; pigbel vaccine supply to prevent child deaths; malaria vaccine trials; health sector support program; technical assistance for the Department of Health and contributing to the Family Planning project discussed under the World Bank section. (More detail on these and other projects conducted by AusAID can be found in the accompanying booklet Australian Agency for International Development Profile of Activities, Australia- Papua New Guinea Cooperation Program).
A sexual health and STDs project will support community based programs strengthen clinical services, train health workers and plan and implement HIV prevention and care education programs. The location of this project is in the Highlands, Morobe, East New Britain and NCD.
AusAID is implementing a gender specific education project titled 'Female participation in education, training and employment'. There is also a major gender component in the primary and Secondary teacher education Project which will employ a gender specialist for 9 months to work on issues of teacher training and gender equity in the curriculum.
Other education projects include: Institutional strengthening for the Department of Education; upgrading provincial high schools in Simbu, Western Highlands, New Ireland and Manus; volunteer teacher support; elementary teacher training; Australian sponsored training scholarships; Australian Development Cooperation Scholarships; secondary school students project; technical college course transfers, amongst others. Within the scholarship program AusAID identifies quotas for girls and women, although they are not able to strictly reinforce this. It is often the case that the selections made in PNG favor boys over girls.
AusAID is funding the LikLik Dinau Micro Credit Project for disadvantaged rural women. AusAID is providing seed funding for a trial of this credit scheme.
Other major AusAID projects in transport and communications, renewable resources, law and justice, institution building, Gazelle Peninsular restoration and Bougainville restoration, do not have major gender components, although all aim to integrate gender concerns. AusAID also funds many NGO run projects both through Australian NGOs and National PNG NGOs. These projects will be discussed in the final section.
New Zealand Overseas Development Assistance (NZODA, within the NZ Department of Foreign Affairs) in PNG has a sectoral focus on agriculture and forestry. In directly targeting women in these sectors the program has included training awards and assistance for women's participation in conferences and seminars, small scale equipment purchase and small agricultural marketing projects.
NZODA is working jointly with the Government of PNG on the National Women's Credit Scheme. It is being piloted in 10 districts of 8 provinces in the four years from 1995-1998 at a cost of $2 million. It has been the first major credit project aiming at self employed women, and is aimed to extend to the remaining 12 provinces throughout PNG.
Other current programs run through NZODA include study scholarships for tertiary students in PNG and a fresh food marketing program.
Federal Republic of Germany (FRG)
The development cooperation program of the FRG in Papua New Guinea has focussed on the sectoral areas of food security, rural development, environmental protection, improved energy supply and population policy. Throughout the program emphasis is given to women and the poorest sections of the population.
Canadian University Service Organization (CUSO)
CUSO has a history of involvement in gender issues. In 1986 the CUSO Women's Advisory Committee commissioned the CUSO Women in PNG Development Report and in 1991 it supported the printing of the National Women's Training Package.
CUSO has an office in Port Moresby from which it runs its volunteer program and micro projects. The national program for the organization identifies education and health as major sectors of work.
US Peace Corps
As with the German Development Service and CUSO, the Peace Corps has been active in recruiting volunteers for placements in the sectors of education and health in PNG.
International Center for Ocean Development (ICOD)
The ICOD contributed funding for the Women in Fisheries Project, discussed in the section on Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources.
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
Japan's ODA focuses mostly on economic infrastructure (transport, energy, telecommunications), social infrastructure (education, health, water supply and sewerage, human resource development) and the productive sector (agriculture, fisheries, industry, trade and tourism).
In 1994 a PNG-Japan high level consultation was held on development cooperation. This meeting reaffirmed the direction of Japanese assistance to focus in its technical cooperation in basic needs in the social sector (support of rice and grain development by DAL), with OECF loans in infrastructure.
JICA has recently commissioned a gender study to be undertaken in PNG to provide advice for the integration of gender issues into its current program.
United States Agency of International Development (USAID)
The focus of the USAID program in PNG has been in the social sectors with the objective to promote and consolidate democracy and governance, population and family planning, promoting market principles, conservation and environment, promoting peace to achieve the stability essential for economic growth and political freedom, sustainable development, protecting against transitional threats and meeting urgent human needs'.
The Government of PNG and the US signed a development cooperation agreement in 1990. The yearly bilateral assistance is approximately US$ 13 million. Major projects in the bilateral program included child survival support, malaria and immunology vaccine trials, social marketing test project, family planning service expansion and technical support project, the Pacific islands marine resources project, and the Johns Hopkins University Project on strengthening reproductive health. In November 1993 the US Congress decided to close the Port Moresby Office in late 1994 with the foreclosure of various projects listed above. Scholarship funding continued until 1996.
European Union aid to PNG comes through agreements made under the Lome Conventions, of which PNG is a signatory. The PNG Government has consistently identified rural and human resources development as principal sectors for development assistance from the EU.
The European Union has also provided assistance for capital works in particular for building the Women's Center in Milne Bay.
The World Health Organization focuses on health projects. Two of its projects are run jointly with UNFPA and the Department of Health. One is the technical assistance in maternal and child health and family planning, and the other the strengthening of reproductive health in East Sepik, Manus, Central and Madang Provinces.
UNITED NATIONS AGENCIES
United Nations Development Programme
The United Nations Development Program commissioned a review of WID policy issues in PNG (1993) as a part of the Fifth Country Program preparation exercise.
The sectors which were identified for WID recommendations from this report were agriculture, fisheries and marine resources, and central government agencies including the Department of Finance and Planning (to set up a Population Planning and Coordination Unit), and the Economic Policy Unit, Social Affairs Division and National Statistical Office to provide sex disaggregated data.
Under the terms of this program, the UNDP is required to work with other donors in supporting work to mainstream women's issues into all areas.
The social and education sectors are the main areas of focus for UNDP, and its current projects impacting on women concentrate on literacy and education programs for girls and women.
Although the UNDP had a full-time WID Program Officer in the beginning of the 1990's this position was not continued. The UNDP is about to funded a gender specialist for a period of approximately 6 months to look at gender specific work.
The key areas of UNIFEM support over the past few years has been through: The Gender Mamstxeaming project; a feasibility study in credit for self employed women; the Pacific NGO preparations for the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women; the Women in Politics program; training workshops, and; assisting Pacific NGO consultations on Lome 2000.
UNIFEM has been active in mobilizing women in the Pacific region, particularly in bringing together women for training. The UNIFEM mainstreaming project was trialed in the Pacific with PNG as one of the 4 pilot countries. Handbooks were developed for planners, community workers and trainers in gender sensitization and planning. Additional funding for the project in PNG has been provided from Australia. This has lead to PNG specific training manuals developed from the National Planning Office.
The UNIFEM regional office in Fiji, and the South Pacific Commission Women's Desk, also acted a major focal points for Pacific preparations for the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women held in China in 1995. Women from PNG played an active role in Pacific preparations and were assisted financially in this role through UNIFEM, as well as the Australian International Women's Development Agency and AusAID which acted as the South Pacific lead donor for the region. UNIFEM, Pacific YWCA and the Fiji National Council of Women have worked to establish a Pacific NGO Post Beijing monitoring mechanism.
UNFPA leads in the identification and implementation of UN funded projects addressing issues related to women and girls in PNG. Projects currently being funded by UNFPA fit into the health and education sectors.
Education projects include a 'Family Life Education' project being implemented through the Department of Home Affairs, and the population education project conducted through the Department of Education. The most innovative project is the 'Gender Sensitization through Role Models' project, which is being implemented through the National Council of Women. This project involves female role models visiting schools, and the development of an education kit on gender equity.
The UNFPA is also working with the University of PNG on health projects addressing adolescent reproductive health. This involves brining for university students to become peer educators on sexuality issues. The 'Integration of population factors into development planning' is a project run jointly between UNFPA, ILO and the National Planning Office. This project focuses on the implementation of the National Population Policy in the provinces.
As noted above, there are two health projects being jointly run by the UNFPA, DOH and WHO in the area of health. One is a technical assistance project currently being completed in maternal and child health, and the other is in reproductive health.
A Tok Stret' radio project is also being funded through the YWCA to provide information on gender and adolescent sexuality issues.
UNICEF has had a country office in Port Moresby for over a decade and has spent over $1 million in WID related activities and programs including assisting small business groups, as well as programs in mother and child health and education.
UNICEF is currently taiplementing a major Child Survival Program, which is also funded through AusAID. This focuses on government and church based preventative health services through the provision of mobile health clinics and patrols and training for health personnel. Other major aims of the project center on an effort to eradicate and decrease the polio virus, measles, vitamin A deficiency, salt ionization, and increase the use of oral rehydration therapy.
United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)
UNHCR has been active in programs for Bougainville and for refugees from Irian Jaya in settlement camps in Westera and West Sepik Provinces.
United Nations Educational Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Focusing in education , UNESCO has been working jointly with the Women's Division in DHA and the Curriculum Division of the Department of Education (DoE) on piloting a skills based literacy program for young girls and women in the Banz area of the Western Highlands Province.
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|Title Annotation:||Gender Analysis in Papua New Guinea|
|Publication:||Gender Analysis in Papua New Guinea|
|Date:||Nov 1, 1998|
|Previous Article:||Appendix 3: Papua New Guinea platform for action.|
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