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Appendices.

After a few days the boxes formed a maze within the house, where each (of the inhabitants) had a corner, their own storey, their own level, to hide away or gather together and talk about a book or some physical instrument that had started to function in some completely unexpected way.

Alejo Carpentier

El siglo de las luces (1962)

GEOLOGICAL UNITS: STRATIGRAPHIC TIME DESIGNATIONS

1 No Record (Prephanerozoic)

2 Archean Eon (Prephanerozoic)

3 Proterozoic Eon (Prephanerozoic)

4 Phanerozoic Eon

a) Paleozoic Era

1] Cambrian Period

2] Ordovician Period

3] Silurian Period

4] Devonian Period

5] Carboniferous--Mississippian Period

6] Carboniferous--Pennsylvanian Period

7] Permian Period

b) Mesozoic Era

1] Triassic Period

2] Jurassic Period

3] Cretaceous Period

c) Cenozoic Era

1] Tertiary--Paleogene Period

a] Paleocene Epoch

b] Eocene Epoch

c] Oligocene Epoch

2] Tertiary--Neogene Period

a] Miocene Epoch

b] Pliocene Epoch

3] Quaternary Period

a] Pleistocene Epoch

b] Recent or Holocene Epoch

SOILS CLASSIFICATION

(National Cooperative Soil Survey)

Order 1. Alfisols

Suborder 1 Aqualfs

Gt. Group 1 Cryaqualfs

Gt. Group 2 Plinthaqualfs

Gt. Group 3 Duraqualfs

Gt. Group 4 Natraqualfs

Gt. Group 5 Fragiaqualfs

Gt. Group 6 Kandiaqualfs

Gt. Group 7 Vermaqualfs

Gt. Group 8 Albaqualfs

Gt. Group 9 Glossaqualfs

Gt. Group 10 Epiaqualfs

Gt. Group 11 Endoaqualfs

Suborder 2 Cryalfs

Gt. Group 1 Palecryalfs

Gt. Group 2 Glossocryalfs

Gt. Group 3 Haplocryalfs

Suborder 3 Ustalfs

Gt. Group 1 Durustalfs

Gt. Group 2 Plinthustalfs

Gt. Group 3 Natrustalfs

Gt. Group 4 Kandiustalfs

Gt. Group 5 Kanhaplustalfs

Gt. Group 6 Paleustalfs

Gt. Group 7 Rhodustalfs

Gt. Group 8 Haplustalfs

Suborder 4 Xeralfs

Gt. Group 1 Durixeralfs

Gt. Group 2 Natrixeralfs

Gt. Group 3 Fragixeralfs

Gt. Group 4 Plinthoxeralfs

Gt. Group 5 Rhodoxeralfs

Gt. Group 6 Palexeralfs

Gt. Group 7 Haploxeralfs

Suborder 5 Udalfs

Gt. Group 1 Natrudalfs

Gt. Group 2 Ferrudalfs

Gt. Group 3 Fraglossudalfs

Gt. Group 4 Fragiudalfs

Gt. Group 5 Kandiudalfs

Gt. Group 6 Kanhapludalfs

Gt. Group 7 Paleudalfs

Gt. Group 8 Rhodudalfs

Gt. Group 9 Glossudalfs

Gt. Group 10 Hapludalfs

Order 2. Andisols

Suborder 1 Aquands

Gt. Group 1 Cryaquands

Gt. Group 2 Placaquands

Gt. Group 3 Duraquands

Gt. Group 4 Vitraquands

Gt. Group 5 Melanaquands

Gt. Group 6 Epiaquands

Gt. Group 7 Endoaquands

Suborder 2 Cryands

Gt. Group 1 Duricryands

Gt. Group 2 Hydrocryands

Gt. Group 3 Melanocryands

Gt. Group 4 Fulvicryands

Gt. Group 5 Vitricryands

Gt. Group 6 Haplocryands

Suborder 3 Torrands

Gt. Group 1 Duritorrands

Gt. Group 2 Vitritorrands

Gt. Group 3 Haplotorrands

Suborder 4 Xerands

Gt. Group 1 Vitrixerands

Gt. Group 2 Melanoxerands

Gt. Group 3 Haploxerands

Suborder 5 Vitrands

Gt. Group 1 Ustivitrands

Gt. Group 2 Udivitrands

Suborder 6 Ustands

Gt. Group 1 Durustands

Gt. Group 2 Haplustands

Suborder 7 Udands

Gt. Group 1 Placudands

Gt. Group 2 Durudands

Gt. Group 3 Melanudands

Gt. Group 4 Hydrudands

Gt. Group 5 Fulvudands

Gt. Group 6 Hapludands

Order 3. Aridisols

Suborder 1 Cryids

Gt. Group 1 Salicryids

Gt. Group 2 Petrocryids

Gt. Group 3 Gypsicryids

Gt. Group 4 Argicryids

Gt. Group 5 Calcicryids

Gt. Group 6 Haplocryids

Suborder 2 Salids

Gt. Group 1 Aquisalids

Gt. Group 2 Haplosalids

Suborder 3 Durids

Gt. Group 1 Natridurids

Gt. Group 2 Argidurids

Gt. Group 3 Haplodurids

Suborder 4 Gypsids

Gt. Group 1 Petrogypsids

Gt. Group 2 Natrigypsids

Gt. Group 3 Argigypsids

Gt. Group 4 Calcigypsids

Gt. Group 5 Haplogypsids

Suborder 5 Argids

Gt. Group 1 Petroargids

Gt. Group 2 Natrargids

Gt. Group 3 Paleargids

Gt. Group 4 Gypsiargids

Gt. Group 5 Calciargids

Gt. Group 6 Haplargids

Suborder 6 Calcids

Gt. Group 1 Petrocalcids

Gt. Group 2 Haplocalcids

Suborder 7 Cambids

Gt. Group 1 Aquicambids

Gt. Group 2 Petrocambids

Gt. Group 3 Anthracambids

Gt. Group 4 Haplocambids

Order 4. Entisols

Suborder 1 Aquents

Gt. Group 1 Sulfaquents

Gt. Group 2 Hydraquents

Gt. Group 3 Cryaquents

Gt. Group 4 Psammaquents

Gt. Group 5 Fluvaquents

Gt. Group 6 Epiaquents

Gt. Group 7 Endoaquents

Suborder 2 Arents

Gt. Group 1 Ustarents

Gt. Group 2 Xerarents

Gt. Group 3 Torriarents

Gt. Group 4 Udarents

Suborder 3 Psamments

Gt. Group 1 Cryopsamments

Gt. Group 2 Torripsamments

Gt. Group 3 Quartzipsamments

Gt. Group 4 Ustipsamments

Gt. Group 5 Xeropsamments

Gt. Group 6 Udipsamments

Suborder 4 Fluvents

Gt. Group 1 Cryofluvents

Gt. Group 2 Xerofluvents

Gt. Group 3 Ustifluvents

Gt. Group 4 Torrifluvents

Gt. Group 5 Udifluvents

Suborder 5 Orthents

Gt. Group 1 Cryorthents

Gt. Group 2 Torriorthents

Gt. Group 3 Xerorthents

Gt. Group 4 Ustorthents

Gt. Group 5 Udorthents

Order 5. Gelisols

Suborder 1 Histels

Gt. Group 1 Foliistels

Gt. Group 2 Glacistels

Gt. Group 3 Fibristels

Gt. Group 4 Hemistels

Gt. Group 5 Sapristels

Suborder 2 Turbels

Gt. Group 1 Histoturbels

Gt. Group 2 Aquiturbels

Gt. Group 3 Anhyturbels

Gt. Group 4 Molliturbels

Gt. Group 5 Umbriturbels

Gt. Group 6 Psammoturbels

Gt. Group 7 Haploturbels

Suborder 3 Orthels

Gt. Group 1 Historthels

Gt. Group 2 Aquorthels

Gt. Group 3 Anhyorthels

Gt. Group 4 Mollorthels

Gt. Group 5 Umbrorthels

Gt. Group 6 Argiorthels

Gt. Group 7 Psammorthels

Gt. Group 8 Haplorthels

Order 6. Histosols

Suborder 1 Folists

Gt. Group 1 Cryofolists

Gt. Group 2 Torrifolists

Gt. Group 3 Ustifolists

Gt. Group 4 Udifolists

Suborder 2 Fibrists

Gt. Group 1 Cryofibrists

Gt. Group 2 Sphagnofibrists

Gt. Group 3 Haplofibrists

Suborder 3 Saprists

Gt. Group 1 Sulfosaprists

Gt. Group 2 Sulfisaprists

Gt. Group 3 Cryosaprists

Gt. Group 4 Haplosaprists

Suborder 4 Hemists

Gt. Group 1 Sulfohemists

Gt. Group 2 Sulfihemists

Gt. Group 3 Luvihemists

Gt. Group 4 Cryohemists

Gt. Group 5 Haplohemists

Order 7. Inceptisols

Suborder 1 Aquepts

Gt. Group 1 Sulfaquepts

Gt. Group 2 Petraquepts

Gt. Group 3 Halaquepts

Gt. Group 4 Fragiaquepts

Gt. Group 5 Cryaquepts

Gt. Group 6 Vermaquepts

Gt. Group 7 Humaquepts

Gt. Group 8 Epiaquepts

Gt. Group 9 Endoaquepts

Suborder 2 Anthrepts

Gt. Group 1 Plagganthrepts

Gt. Group 2 Haplanthrepts

Suborder 3 Cryepts

Gt. Group 1 Eutrocryepts

Gt. Group 2 Dystrocryepts

Suborder 4 Ustepts

Gt. Group 1 Durustepts

Gt. Group 2 Calciustepts

Gt. Group 3 Dystrustepts

Gt. Group 4 Haplustepts

Suborder 5 Xerepts

Gt. Group 1 Durixerepts

Gt. Group 2 Calcixerepts

Gt. Group 3 Fragixerepts

Gt. Group 4 Dystroxerepts

Gt. Group 5 Haploxerepts

Suborder 6 Udepts

Gt. Group 1 Sulfudepts

Gt. Group 2 Durudepts

Gt. Group 3 Fragiudepts

Gt. Group 4 Eutrudepts

Gt. Group 5 Dystrudepts

Order 8. Mollisols

Suborder 1 Albolls

Gt. Group 1 Natralbolls

Gt. Group 2 Argialbolls

Suborder 2 Aquolls

Gt. Group 1 Cryaquolls

Gt. Group 2 Duraquolls

Gt. Group 3 Natraquolls

Gt. Group 4 Calciaquolls

Gt. Group 5 Argiaquolls

Gt. Group 6 Epiaquolls

Gt. Group 7 Endoaquolls

Suborder 3 Rendolls

Gt. Group 1 Cryrendolls

Gt. Group 2 Haprendolls

Suborder 4 Cryolls

Gt. Group 1 Duricryolls

Gt. Group 2 Natricryolls

Gt. Group 3 Palecryolls

Gt. Group 4 Argicryolls

Gt. Group 5 Calcicryolls

Gt. Group 6 Haplocryolls

Suborder 5 Xerolls

Gt. Group 1 Durixerolls

Gt. Group 2 Natrixerolls

Gt. Group 3 Palexerolls

Gt. Group 4 Calcixerolls

Gt. Group 5 Argixerolls

Gt. Group 6 Haploxerolls

Suborder 6 Ustolls

Gt. Group 1 Durustolls

Gt. Group 2 Natrustolls

Gt. Group 3 Calciustolls

Gt. Group 4 Paleustolls

Gt. Group 5 Argiustolls

Gt. Group 6 Vermustolls

Gt. Group 7 Haplustolls

Suborder 7 Udolls

Gt. Group 1 Natrudolls

Gt. Group 2 Calciudolls

Gt. Group 3 Paleudolls

Gt. Group 4 Argiudolls

Gt. Group 5 Vermudolls

Gt. Group 6 Hapludolls

Order 9. Oxisols

Suborder 1 Aquox

Gt. Group 1 Acraquox

Gt. Group 2 Plinthaquox

Gt. Group 3 Eutraquox

Gt. Group 4 Haplaquox

Suborder 2 Torrox

Gt. Group 1 Acrotorrox

Gt. Group 2 Eutrotorrox

Gt. Group 3 Haplotorrox

Suborder 3 Ustox

Gt. Group 1 Sombriustox

Gt. Group 2 Acrustox

Gt. Group 3 Eutrustox

Gt. Group 4 Kandiustox

Gt. Group 5 Haplustox

Suborder 4 Perox

Gt. Group 1 Sombriperox

Gt. Group 2 Acroperox

Gt. Group 3 Eutroperox

Gt. Group 4 Kandiperox

Gt. Group 5 Haploperox

Suborder 5 Udox

Gt. Group 1 Sombriudox

Gt. Group 2 Acrudox

Gt. Group 3 Eutrudox

Gt. Group 4 Kandiudox

Gt. Group 5 Hapludox

Order 10. Spodosols

Suborder 1 Aquods

Gt. Group 1 Cryaquods

Gt. Group 2 Alaquods

Gt. Group 3 Fragiaquods

Gt. Group 4 Placaquods

Gt. Group 5 Duraquods

Gt. Group 6 Epiaquods

Gt. Group 7 Endoaquods

Suborder 2 Cryods

Gt. Group 1 Placocryods

Gt. Group 2 Duricryods

Gt. Group 3 Humicryods

Gt. Group 4 Haplocryods

Suborder 3 Humods

Gt. Group 1 Placohumods

Gt. Group 2 Durihumods

Gt. Group 3 Fragihumods

Gt. Group 4 Haplohumods

Suborder 4 Orthods

Gt. Group 1 Placorthods

Gt. Group 2 Durorthods

Gt. Group 3 Fragiorthods

Gt. Group 4 Alorthods

Gt. Group 5 Haplorthods

Order 11. Ultisols

Suborder 1 Aquults

Gt. Group 1 Plinthaquults

Gt. Group 2 Fragiaquults

Gt. Group 3 Albaquults

Gt. Group 4 Kandiaquults

Gt. Group 5 Kanhaplaquults

Gt. Group 6 Paleaquults

Gt. Group 7 Umbraquults

Gt. Group 8 Epiaquults

Gt. Group 9 Endoaquults

Suborder 2 Humults

Gt. Group 1 Sombrihumults

Gt. Group 2 Plinthohumults

Gt. Group 3 Kandihumults

Gt. Group 4 Kanhaplohumults

Gt. Group 5 Palehumults

Gt. Group 6 Haplohumults

Suborder 3 Udults

Gt. Group 1 Plinthudults

Gt. Group 2 Fragiudults

Gt. Group 3 Kandiudults

Gt. Group 4 Kanhapludults

Gt. Group 5 Paleudults

Gt. Group 6 Rhodudults

Gt. Group 7 Hapludults

Suborder 4 Ustults

Gt. Group 1 Plinthustults

Gt. Group 2 Kandiustults

Gt. Group 3 Kanhaplustults

Gt. Group 4 Paleustults

Gt. Group 5 Rhodustults

Gt. Group 6 Haplustults

Suborder 5 Xerults

Gt. Group 1 Palexerults

Gt. Group 2 Haploxerults

Order 12. Vertisols

Suborder 1 Aquerts

Gt. Group 1 Salaquerts

Gt. Group 2 Duraquerts

Gt. Group 3 Natraquerts

Gt. Group 4 Calciaquerts

Gt. Group 5 Dystraquerts

Gt. Group 6 Epiaquerts

Gt. Group 7 Endoaquerts

Suborder 2 Cryerts

Gt. Group 1 Humicryerts

Gt. Group 2 Haplocryerts

Suborder 3 Xererts

Gt. Group 1 Duroxererts

Gt. Group 2 Calcixererts

Gt. Group 3 Haploxererts

Suborder 4 Torrerts

Gt. Group 1 Salitorrerts

Gt. Group 2 Gypsitorrerts

Gt. Group 3 Calcitorrerts

Gt. Group 4 Haplotorrerts

Suborder 5 Usterts

Gt. Group 1 Dystrusterts

Gt. Group 2 Salusterts

Gt. Group 3 Gypsiusterts

Gt. Group 4 Calciusterts

Gt. Group 5 Haplusterts

Suborder 6 Uderts

Gt. Group 1 Dystruderts

Gt. Group 2 Hapluderts

BIOLOGICAL TAXONOMY

A. Superkingdom Prokarya (Prokaryotes)

Kingdom 1 Bacteria (Prokaryotae, Procaryotae, Monera)

Subkingdom 1 Archaea

Division 1 Mendosicutes (Deficient Walls)

Phylum 1 Euryarchaeota [Methanogenic (Methane-Producing) and Halophilic (Salt-Loving) Bacteria]

Phylum 2 Crenarchaeota [Thermoacidophilic (Hot-Acid-Loving) Bacteria)]

Subkingdom 2 Eubacteria

Division 1 Gracilicutes (Gram-Negative Walls)

Phylum 1 Proteobacteria (Purple Bacteria)

Phylum 2 Spirochaetae (Spirochetes, Corkscrew Bacteria with Internal Flagella)

Phylum 3 Cyanobacteria [Blue-Green Bacteria and Chloroxybacteria (Grass Green Bacteria), Oxygenic Photosynthesizers]

Class 1 Coccogoneae [Coccoid (Spherical) Cyanobacteria]

Class 2 Hormogoneae (Filamentous Cyanobacteria)

Phylum 4 Saprospirae (Fermenting Gliders)

Phylum 5 Chloroflexa (Green Nonsulfur Phototrophs)

Phylum 6 Chlorobia (Anoxygenic Phototrophic Green Sulfur Bacteria)

Division 2 Tenericutes (No Walls)

Phylum 1 Aphragmabacteria (Mycoplasmas, Wall-Less Bacteria)

Division 3 Firmicutes (Gram-Positive Walls)

Phylum 1 Endospora (Endospore-Forming and Related Low-G+C Gram-Positive Bacteria)

Phylum 2 Pirellulae (Stalked Protein-Walled Bacteria and Their Relatives)

Phylum 3 Actinobacteria [Actinomycetes and Related High-G+C Gram-Positive Bacteria, Mycelial (Fungus-Like) Bacteria]

Phylum 4 Deinococci (Radiation-Resistant or Heat-Resistant Gram-Positive Micrococci, Tiny Spheroidal Bacteria)

Phylum 5 Thermotogae (Thermophilic Fermenters)

B. Superkingdom Eukarya (Eucaryota, Eukaryotes)

Kingdom 2 Protoctista

Subkingdom 1 Cells Lack Mitochondria

Division 1 Superphylum Amitochondriata

Phylum 1 Archaeprotista (Amitochondriates, Amebas and Mastigotes without Mitochondria)

Class 1 Archamoebae (Caryoblastea, Mastigamoebae)

Class 2 Metamonada (Diplomonads, Pyrsonymphids)

Class 3 Parabasalia (Trichomonads, Devescovinids, Calonyphids, Hypermastigotes)

Phylum 2 Microspora (Microsporida, Microsporans)

Class 1 Rudimicrosporea

Class 2 Microsporea

Subkingdom 2 Mitochondriates (Amoeboids)

Division 1 Amoeboids

Phylum 1 Rhizopoda (Amastigote Amebas and Cellular Slime Molds)

Class 1 Lobosea (Naked and Testate Amebas)

Class 2 Filosea (Naked and Testate Amebas with Filose Pseudopodia)

Class 3 Acrasiomycota (Cellular Slime Molds)

Class 4 Acarpomyxea (Amebas with Branched Cells)

Phylum 2 Chlorarachnida ("Green Amebas")

Phylum 3 Granuloreticulosa [Foraminifera (Marine Ameboid Protists with Granular Pseudopodial Network) and Relatives]

Class 1 Reticulomyxia (Reticulomyxids, "Naked Forams")

Class 2 Foraminifera (Reticulopodate with Shell, Foraminiferans, Forams) Phylum 4 Xenophyophora (Large Deep-Sea Benthic Protoctists)

Class 1 Psamminida

Class 2 Stannomida

Phylum 5 Myxomycota (Myxogastria, Plasmodial Slime Molds)

Class 1 Cercomonadida

Class 2 Protostelia

Class 3 Eumycetozoa

Division 2 Superphylum Alveolata (Alveolar Sacs at Cell Surface)

Phylum 1 Dinomastigota (Dinoflagellata, Dinophyta, Whirling Biundulipodiated Cells)

Class 1 Dinophyceae

Class 2 Syndiniophyceae

Phylum 2 Ciliophora (Ciliates, Micronucleated Unicells)

Sbphy. 1 Postciliodesmatophora

Class 1 Karyorelicta

Class 2 Spirotrichea

Sbphy. 2 Rhabdophora

Class 1 Prostomatea

Class 2 Litostomatea

Sbphy. 3 Cyrtophora

Class 1 Phyllopharyngea

Class 2 Nassophorea

Class 3 Oligohymeno-phorea

Class 4 Colpodea

Phylum 3 Apicomplexa (Sporozoa, Telosporidea, Symbiotrophs with Apical Complex)

Class 1 Gregarinia (Gregarines)

Class 2 Coccidia (Coccidians)

Class 3 Hematozoa (Hemosporans and Piroplasmids)

Division 3 Swimming Mastigotes

Phylum 1 Haptomonada (Prymnesiophyta, Haptophyta, Prymnesiophytes, Coccolithophorids and Other YellowBrown Planktic Unicells with Haptoneme Filaments)

Class 1 Prymnesiophyceae

Phylum 2 Cryptomonada (Cryptophyta, Cryptophytes, Flattened Asymmetric Unicells, Usually Photosynthetic and Motile)

Class 1 Cryptophyceae

Phylum 3 Discomitochondria (Mastigotes, Zoomastigotes, "Zooflagellates," Unicells with Discoid Cristae, Euglenoids, Kinetoplastids, Mastigote Amebas)

Class 1 Amoebomastigota (Schizopyrenida)

Class 2 Kinetoplastida

Class 3 Euglenoidia

Class 4 Pseudociliata

Class 5 Hemimastigophora

Division 4 Heterokonts (Stramenopiles, Bearers of Mastigonemes)

Phylum 1 Chrysomonada (Chrysophyta, Chrysophytes, Golden-Brown Algae)

Class 1 Chrysophyceae (Chrysophytes)

Class 2 Pedinellophyceae (Pedinellophytes)

Class 3 Dictyochophyceae (Dictyochophytes, Silicomastigotes)

Class 4 Synurophyceae incertae sedis (Sarcinochrysidales and Parmales)

Class 5 Raphidophyta

Phylum 2 Xanthophyta (Yellow-Green Algae, Tribophyta)

Class 1 Xanthophyceae

Phylum 3 Eustigmatophyta (Green Eyespot Mastigote Algae)

Class 1 Eustigmatophyceae

Phylum 4 Bacillariophyta (Diatoms, Bacillariophytes)

Class 1 Coscinopisco-phyceae (Centrales, Centric Diatoms)

Class 2 Bacillariophyceae (Pennales, Pennate Diatoms)

Phylum 5 Phaeophyta (Brown Algae)

Class 1 Phaeophyceae

Phylum 6 Labyrinthulata (Slime Nets and Thraustochytrids)

Class 1 Labyrinthulea (Slime Nets)

Class 2 Thraustochytridea

Phylum 7 Plasmodiophora (Symbiotrophs with Multinucleate Cytoplasm, Plasmodia)

Class 1 Plasmodiophoro-mycetes

Phylum 8 Oomycota (Oomycetes, Oomycotes, Egg Molds, Zoosporic Conjugators)

Class 1 Peronosporo-mycetes

Class 2 Saprolegnio-mycetes

Phylum 9 Hyphochytrio-mycota (Zoosporic Fresh Water Osmotrophs with Single Anteriorly Directed Undulipodium)

Class 1 Anisolpidia

Class 2 Rhizidiomycetae

Class 3 Hyphochytria

Division 5 Propagule-Forming Symbiotrophs

Phylum 1 Haplosporidia (Haplospora, with Haplosporosomes, Unicells in Tissues of Marine Animals)

Class 1 Haplosporea

Phylum 2 Paramyxa (Paramyxea, Nesting Cells Formed by Endogenous Budding in Tissues of Marine Animals)

Class 1 Paramyxidea

Class 2 Marteiliidea

Phylum 3 Myxospora (Myxozoa, Myxosporidians, Multicellular

Polar Filament-Formers in Tissues of Fish, Sipunculans, and Annelids)

Class 1 Myxosporea

Class 2 Actinosporea (Actinomyxids)

Division 6 Conjugating Algae

Phylum 1 Rhodophyta (Red Algae)

Class 1 Bangiophycids

Class 2 Florideophycids

Phylum 2 Gamophyta (Conjugaphyta, Conjugating Green Algae)

Class 1 Conjugatophyceae

Division 7 Glaucocystophytes

Phylum 1 Glaucocystophyta

Class 1 Glaucocystophyceae

Division 8 Radiolariates

Phylum 1 Actinopoda ("Sun Animalcules," Marine Planktic AxopodFormers)

Class 1 Heliozoa

Class 2 Phaeodaria

Class 3 Polycystina

Class 4 Acantharia

Division 9 Protoctists Ancestral to Plants

Phylum 1 Chlorophyta (Green Algae, Plant Ancestors)

Class 1 Prasinophyceae

Class 2 Chlorophyceae

Class 3 Ulvophyceae

Class 4 Charophyceae incertae sedis (Pedinomonadales, Microthamniales, Prasiolales, and Trentepohliales)

Division 10 Protoctists Ancestral to Fungi

Phylum 1 Chytridiomycota (Chytrid Water Molds, Fungal Ancestors)

Class 1 Chytridiales

Class 2 Spizellomycetales

Class 3 Monoblepharidales

Class 4 Blastocladiales

Division 11 Protoctists Ancestral to Animals

Phylum 1 Zoomastigota [Zoomastigotes (Zooflagellates), Opalinids, Choanomonads (Animal Ancestors)]

Class 1 Jakoba

Class 2 Bicoeca (Bicoecids)

Class 3 Proteromonada

Class 4 Opalinata

Class 5 Choanomastigota (Choanomastigotes, "Choanoflagellates")

Kingdom 3 Animalia

Superphylum 1 Parazoa

Phylum 1 Porifera (Sponges, Poriferans)

Class 1 Calcarea (Calcareous Sponges)

Class 2 Demospongia (Horny Sponges)

Class 3 Sclerospongiae (Coralline Sponges)

Phylum 2 Symplasma (Glass Sponges)

Class 1 Hexactinellida

Superphylum 2 Phagocytellozoa

Phylum 1 Placozoa (Trichoplaxes)

Superphylum 3 Radiata

Phylum 1 Cnidaria [Cnidarians, Hydroids (Hydras), Medusas (Jellyfish)]

Sbphy. 1 Medusozoa

Class 1 Hydrozoa (Hydras)

Class 2 Scyphozoa (True Jellyfish)

Class 3 Cubozoa (Sea Wasps)

Sbphy. 2 Anthozoa (Corals and Sea Anemones)

Class 1 Alcyonaria

Class 2 Zoantharia

Phylum 2 Ctenophora (Comb Jellies)

Class 1 Tentaculata

Class 2 Nuda

Superphylum 4 Mesozoa

Phylum 1 Rhombozoa (Rhombozoans, Dicyemids and Heterocyemids)

Class 1 Dicyemida

Class 2 Heterocyemida

Superphylum 5 Acoelomata

Phylum 1 Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)

Class 1 Turbellaria

Class 2 Trematoda (Flukes)

Class 3 Monogenea

Class 4 Cestoda (Tapeworms)

Phylum 2 Orthonecta (Orthonectids)

Phylum 3 Gnathostomula (Gnathostomulids, Jaw Worms)

Phylum 4 Gastrotricha (Gastrotrichs) incertae sedis (Xenoturbellids, Buddenbrockids, and Lobatocerebrids)

Superphylum 6 Aschelminthes

Phylum 1 Priapula (Priapulida, Priapulids)

Class 1 Seticoronaria

Class 2 Priapulida

Phylum 2 Kinorhyncha (Kinorhynchs)

Class 1 Homalorhagida

Class 2 Cyclorhagida

Phylum 3 Loricifera (Loriciferans)

Phylum 4 Nematomorpha (Nematomorphs, Gordian Worms, Horsehair Worms)

Phylum 5 Nematoda (Nematodes, Thread Worms, Roundworms)

Class 1 Adenophorea (Aphasmida)

Class 2 Secernentea (Phasmida)

Phylum 6 Rotifera (Rotifers)

Class 1 Seisonidea

Class 2 Bdelloidea

Class 3 Monogonata

Phylum 7 Acanthocephala (Thorny-Headed Worms)

Superphylum 7 Panarthropoda

Phylum 1 Onychophora (Onychophorans, Velvet Worms, Peripatuses)

Phylum 2 Tardigrada (Tardigrades, Water Bears)

Class 1 Heterotardigrada

Class 2 Eutardigrada

Class 3 Mesotardigrada

Phylum 3 Crustacea (Crustaceans and Pentastomes)

Class 1 Remipedia

Class 2 Malacostraca (Amphipods, Isopods, and Decapods)

Class 3 Cephalocarida

Class 4 Branchiopoda

Class 5 Mystacocarida

Class 6 Branchiura

Class 7 Copepoda

Class 8 Tantulocarida

Class 9 Cirripedia (Barnacles)

Class 10 Ostracoda

Phylum 4 Pentastoma (Pentastomida, Linguatulida, Tongue Worms)

Phylum 5 Chelicerata (Chelicerates, Chelicerate Arthropods, Horseshoe Crabs, Arachnids, and Sea Spiders)

Class 1 Merostomata (Horseshoe Crabs)

Class 2 Arachnida (Spiders, Harvestmen, Scorpions, Mites, Ticks, etc.)

Class 3 Pycnogona (Pycnogonida, Sea Spiders)

Phylum 6 Uniramia (Mandibulata, Mandibulates, Mandibulate Arthropods)

Sbphy. 1 Myriapoda (Centipedes and Millipedes)

Class 1 Chilopoda

Class 2 Symphyla (Garden Centipedes)

Class 3 Diplopoda

Class 4 Pauropoda

Sbphy. 2 Hexapoda (Insecta, Insects)

Class 1 Apterogota

Class 2 Pterogota

Superphylum 8 Eutrochozoa

Phylum 1 Nemertea (Nemertines, Rhynchocoela, Nemertinea, Ribbon Worms)

Class 1 Anopla

Class 2 Enopla

Phylum 2 Mollusca (Mollusks)

Class 1 Chaetodermomorpha

Class 2 Neomeniomorpha

Class 3 Polyplacophora (Chitons)

Class 4 Monoplacophora

Class 5 Gastropoda (Snails and Slugs)

Class 6 Bivalvia (Pelecypoda, Clams and Their Allies)

Class 7 Scaphopoda (Tooth Shells)

Class 8 Cephalopoda (Octopods, Cuttlefish, Squids, and Nautiloids)

Phylum 3 Sipuncula (Sipunculans, Sipunculids, Peanut Worms)

Class 1 Sipunculidea

Class 2 Phascolosomatidea

Phylum 4 Echiura (Echiurans, Echiurids, Spoon-Worms)

Phylum 5 Annelida (Annelid Worms)

Class 1 Polychaeta (Marine Paddle-Footed Bristle Worms)

Class 2 Myzostomaria

Class 3 Aphanoneura

Class 4 Clitellata (Freshwater and Terrestrial Bristle Worms, Leeches)

Phylum 6 Pogonophora (Pogonophorans, Beard Worms, Tube Worms)

Class 1 Perviata (Perviates)

Class 2 Vestimentifera (Obturata, Vestimentiferans)

Phylum 7 Entoprocta (Entoprocts)

Phylum 8 Cycliophora

Superphylum 9 Lophophorata

Phylum 1 Phorona (Phoronida, Phoronids)

Phylum 2 Brachiopoda (Brachiopods, Lampshells)

Class 1 Inarticulata

Class 2 Articulata

Phylum 3 Bryozoa (Ectoprocta, Ectoprocts, Bryozoans, Moss Animals)

Class 1 Phylactolaemata

Class 2 Stenolaemata

Class 3 Gymnolaemata

Superphylum 10 Deuterostomia

Phylum 1 Hemichordata (Enteropneusts (Acorn Worms), Pterobranchs, Tongue Worms)

Class 1 Pterobranchia

Class 2 Enteropneusta (Acorn Worms)

Class 3 Planctosphaeroidea

Phylum 2 Echinodermata [Echinoderms (Sea Urchins, Sea Stars or Starfish, and Sea Cucumbers)]

Sbphy. 1 Crinozoa (Pelmatozoa)

Class 1 Crinoidea (Sea Lillies and Feather Stars)

Sbphy. 2 Asterozoa (Eleutherozoa)

Class 1 Asteroidea (Sea Stars)

Class 2 Ophiuroidea (Brittle and Basket Stars)

Class 3 Concentri-cycloidea (Sea Daisies)

Class 4 Echinoidea (Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars)

Class 5 Holothuroidea (Sea Cucumbers)

Phylum 3 Chordata

Sbphy. 1 Urochordata [Ascidians (Tunicates or Sea Squirts), Larvaceans (Appendicularians), Thaliaceans (Salps, Doliolids, and Chain Tunicates)]

Class 1 Ascidiacesa (Ascidians, Sea Squirts, Tunicates)

Class 2 Thaliacea (Salps or Chain Tunicates)

Class 3 Larvacea (Appendicularia)

Sbphy. 2 Cephalochordata (Amphioxus, Lancelets, Acrania)

Sbphy. 3 Vertebrata

Class 1 Agnatha (Cyclostomata, Lampreys and Hagfish)

Class 2 Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous Fishes)

Class 3 Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)

Class 4 Amphibia (Amphibians)

Class 5 Reptilia (Reptiles)

Class 6 Aves (Birds)

Class 7 Mammalia (Mammals)

Phylum 4 Chaetognatha (Arrow Worms)

Kingdom 4 Fungi

Phylum 1 Zygomycota (Zygomycotes, Zygomycetes, Molds)

Class 1 Zygomycetes

Class 2 Trichomycetes

Phylum 2 Basidiomycota [Basidiomycotes or Basidiomycetes (Mushrooms, Puffballs, Rusts, Smuts, Jelly Fungi, and some Fungi Imperfecti)]

Class 1 Phragmobasidiomycetes (Jelly and Ear Fungi)

Class 2 Holobasidiomycetes (Mushrooms, Shelf or Bracket Fungi, Puffballs, and Stinkhorns)

Class 3 Teliomycetes (Rusts)

Class 4 Ustomycetes (Smuts)

Phylum 3 Ascomycota [Ascomycotes or Ascomycetes (Molds, Yeasts, Lichens and some Fungi Imperfecti)]

Class 1 Euascomycetes

Class 2 Hemiascomycetes

Class 3 Taphrinomycetes

Kingdom 5 Plantae

Phylum 1 Bryophyta (Muscopsida, Mosses)

Class 1 Marchantiopsida (Hepaticae, Hepatophyta, Hepaticopsida, Liverworts)

Class 2 Anthocerotopsida (Anthocerophyta, Hornworts, Horned Liverworts)

Class 3 Bryopsida (Mosses)

Phylum 2 Tracheophyta

Sbphy. 1 Pteridophytina

Class 1 Lycopodiopsida (Lycophyta, Lycopsida, Lycophytes, Lycopods, Club Mosses, Spike Mosses, Quillworts)

Class 2 Equisetopsida (Sphenophyta, Sphenophytes, Equisetophyta, Arthrophyta, Horsetails, Scouring Rushes)

Class 3 Polypodiopsida (Filicinophyta, Pterophyta, Pterodatina, Pteridophyta, Psilophytes, Psilopsids, Ferns, Whisk Fern)

Sbphy. 2 Coniferophytina (Gymnosperms)

Class 1 Pinopsida (Conifers)

Class 2 Ginkgopsida (Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree)

Class 3 Cycadopsida (Cycads)

Class 4 Gnetopsida [Ephedra (Joint Fir), Gnetum, Welwitschia]

Sbphy. 3 Magnoliophytina (Angiosperms, Flowering Plants)

Class 1 Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledones, Dicots)

Class 2 Liliopsida (Monocotyledones, Monocots)

VIRUS TAXONOMY

Viruses, composed of only one kind of nucleic acid (single stranded DNA, double stranded DNA, single stranded RNA, double stranded RNA) and a limited number of proteins are not live organisms. Although, like DNA molecules in solution, they are capable of replication, they lack any metabolism and only replicate inside living cells. Virtually all organisms potentially harbor viruses. When the rate of replication of the virus is the same as that of the cell in which it resides the virus is harmless. When the rate of virus replication exceeds that of the cell many viruses per cell may be produced. Excessive virus production may lead to cell death and viruses released to the surroundings. The official international committee that names and classifies viruses, the Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, has published a 1995 edition. Here we briefly list of the groups of viruses (called genera, organized into families) according to the taxonomy of the live organisms they infect. The abbreviations ssDNA, dsDNA, ssRNA after each virus name refer to the genetic organization of the mature virus protein-coated particle. Mature viruses, like stable crystalline chemicals, are resistant to environmental fluctuations of temperature, salt concentration, desiccation and the like. The are packages of protected genes that, in principle, may disperse their genetic information to susceptible organisms throughout the biosphere.

Dr. Ricard Guerrero

Doctor of Biology

Professor of the Microbiology Department of the Universitat de Barcelona

A. Viruses of More than One Host

Family 1 Iridoviridae

Genus 1 Iridovirus

Genus 2 Chloriridovirus

Genus 3 Ranavirus

Genus 4 Lymphocystivirus "Goldfish Virus 1-like"

Family 2 Poxviridae

Sbfam. 1 Entomopoxvirinae

Sbfam. 2 Chordopoxvirinae

Family 3 Parvoviridae

Sbfam. 1 Entomoparvovirinae

Sbfam. 2 Chordoparvovirinae

Family 4 Reoviridae

Genus 1 Phytoreovirus

Genus 2 Fijivirus

Genus 3 Oryzavirus

Genus 4 Cypovirus

Genus 5 Orthoreovirus

Genus 6 Orbivirus

Genus 7 Coltivirus

Genus 8 Rotavirus

Genus 9 Aquareovirus

Family 5 Bunyaviridae

Genus 1 Tospovirus

Genus 2 Tenuivirus

Genus 3 Bunyavirus

Genus 4 Hantavirus

Genus 5 Nairovirus

Genus 6 Phlebovirus

Family 6 Picornaviridae

Family 7 Rhabdoviridae

Genus 1 Cytorhabdovirus

Genus 2 Nucleorhabdovirus

Genus 3 Lyssavirus

Genus 4 Vesiculovirus

Genus 5 Ephemerovirus

Family 8 Togaviridae

Family 9 Flaviviridae

Family 10 Birnaviridae

Genus 1 Entomobirnavirus

Genus 2 Aquabirnavirus

Genus 3 Avibirnavirus

Family 11 Partitiviridae

Genus 1 Partitivirus

Genus 2 Chrysovirus

Genus 3 Alphacryptovirus

Genus 4 Betacryptovirus

B. Viruses of Bacteria

Family 1 Lipothrixviridae

Family 2 Myoviridae

Family 3 Siphoviridae

Family 4 Podoviridae

Family 5 Plasmaviridae

Family 6 Corticoviridae

Family 7 Fuselloviridae

Family 8 Tectiviridae

Family 9 Microviridae

Family 10 Inoviridae

Genus 1 Plectrovirus

Genus 2 Inovirus

Family 11 Cystoviridae

Family 12 Leviviridae

C. Viruses of Animals Except Vertebrates

Family 1 Baculoviridae

Family 2 Polydnaviridae

Genus 1 Ichnovirus

Genus 2 Bracovirus

Family 3 Tetraviridae

Family 4 Nodaviridae

D. Viruses of Vertebrates

Family 1 Herpesviridae

Family 2 Papovaviridae

Family 3 Adenoviridae

Family 4 Hepadnaviridae

Family 5 Circoviridae

Family 6 Orthomyxoviridae

Family 7 Paramyxoviridae

Family 8 Arenaviridae

Family 9 Filoviridae

Family 10 Retroviridae

Family 11 Caliciviridae

Family 12 Astroviridae

Family 13 Coronaviridae

* "African Swine Fever-Like

* Viruses"

Genus Arterivirus

E. Viruses of Protoctists and Fungi

Family 1 Phycodnaviridae Genus Rhizidiovirus

Family 2 Totiviridae

Family 3 Hypoviridae

Family 4 Barnaviridae

F. Viruses of Plants

Genus Caulimovirus

Genus Badnavirus

Family 1 Geminiviridae

"Subgroup I, II Geminivirus"

"Subgroup III Geminivirus"

Family 2 Sequiviridae

Family 3 Tombusviridae

Family 4 Bromoviridae

Genus 1 Cucumovirus

Genus 2 Bromovirus

Genus 3 Ilarvirus

Genus 4 Alfamorvirus

Family 5 Comoviridae

Family 6 Potyviridae

Genus Dianthovirus

Genus Luteovirus

Genus Machlomovirus

Genus Marafivirus

Genus Necrovirus

Genus Sobemovirus

Genus Tymovirus

Genus Enamovirus

Genus Idaeovirus

Genus Tobamovirus

Genus Tobravirus

Genus Hordeivirus

Genus Furovirus

Genus Potexvirus

Genus Capillovirus

Genus Trichovirus

Genus Carlavirus

Genus Closterovirus

Genus Tenuivirus

Genus Umbravirus

Abbreviations

Gt. = great

Sbphy. = subphylum

Sbfam. = subfamily
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Publication:Encyclopedia of the Biosphere
Article Type:Appendix
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Nov 1, 2000
Words:3983
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