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Aphids and their parasitoids (Hym., Braconidae: Aphidiinae) associated with medicinal plants in Iran.

Introduction

Importance of herbs as health beneficial and as a source material for the development of new drugs, has led to great furtherance in the study of herbal medicines during recent years. Plant extracts are being utilized to treat a wide variety of diseases (Liu et al., 2004; Njoku et al., 2004). The antifeedant and toxic effects of some medicinal plants initiating one aspects of non-chemical pest control (Kubo and Matsumoto, 1984; Singh et al., 2005). Wide varieties of medicinal plants are grown in different region of Iran and are probably a great deal more with properties as yet undiscovered. Some plants grow wild and are troublesome as a weed. Like the other crops, medicinal plants are also subject to attack by the insect pests (Tironi et al., 2004; Dekha and Kalita, 2003; Tripathi, 2002; Spiridonova and Nosyrev, 1981) especially aphids (Becquer and Ferrandiz, 1983; Kalra et al., 2004). Aphids feed by piercing roots, stems, leaves or flowers and sucking plant fluids. Feeding causes abnormal growth, wilting or flower drop. The chemical control of insect pests on medicinal plant inducing the risk of pesticide residues within the extracted products (Debelyi and Troshko, 1972; Zhang et al., 2000). Using chemical pesticides reduce the vitality (Chen et al., 1989) and foraging efficiency (Gu and Waage, 1990) of biocontrol agents. Some efforts had been made for biocontrol of insect pest on medicinal plants (Yin and Chang, 1985; Bogarada, 1975; Trioni et al., 2004). Aphid parasitoids have a critical impact on reducing the population of pest aphids (Stary, 2006; Hagvar and Hofsang 1991). Aphidiinae are solitary obligatory endoparasitoids of aphids (Stary, 1970) of which many species have assume as potential biocontrol agent (Hagvar and Hofsvang, 1991; Hughes, 1989; Stary, 2006). Aphid parasitoids on medicinal plant have never been treated separately, because it is including a wide range of host plant, which distributed in different areas. Several associations have been treated in general papers (Tomanovic et al. 2003; Kavallieratos et al., 2004; Kavallieratos and Tomanovic, 2003; Stary, 1990, 2006; Kulkarni and Patel, 2001). Discrete assemblage of data contributed with species diversity and host range of the aphid parasitoids on medicinal plants in Iran (Rakhshani et al., 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008; Stary et al., 2000) has initiated the need for more detailed studies. Here, aphids and their parasitoid associations on various plants with medicinal importance known from Iran are presented.

Material and Methods

During 2001-2006, a survey was carried out to identify the aphid parasitoids as the most important natural enemies of the respective pest aphids in different regions of Iran, where the medicinal plant are conventionally or commercially managed. Samples from the host plants bearing aphid colonies consisting of both live and mummified aphids were collected in the field and reared in transparent plastic boxes covered by mesh. The rearing boxes were held at room temperature for 2-3 weeks until the adult parasitoids were emerged. The emerged wasps were clipped daily using an aspirator and dropped into 96% ethanol. Specimens were dissected and slide mounted in Hoyer medium. The aphids were preserved in 75% ethanol for identification. Terminology follows Kavallieratos et al. (2001), Pennacchio (1990) and Sharkey and Wharton (1997). External morphology was illustrated using an Olympus TM BH2 phase contrast microscope with a drawing tube. Measurements were taken using an ocular micrometer. The ratio measurements were based on slide-mounted specimens. The collected specimens were deposited primarily in the Insect Collection Museum of Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran and in the collection of the second author at the University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.

Results and Discussion

65 species of aphids and 34 species of parasitoids, in total collected and identified from 140 associations.

Key to the species of aphid parasitoids
1 Forewing venation complete, with seven closed cell; vein 1/Rs
reaching the margin of wing, vein 3/Rs shorter than 2/Rs, 2R1 cell
closed (Figs. 13, 14, 15)                                      (2)

--Forewing venation incomplete, with four closed cells or fewer;
vein 1/Rs not reaching the margin of wing, 2R1 cell open (Figs.
16-46)                                                         (4)

2 Forewing 3/Rs length distinctly shorter than 2/Rs (Fig. 15);
metasomal tergum I length less than 1.5X as long as its width (Fig.
71) E. persicae Froggatt

--Forewing 3/Rs length equal (Fig. 14) or distinctly longer (Fig.
13) than 2/Rs; metasomal tergum I length more than 1.8X as long as
its width (Figs, 69, 70)                                       (3)

3 Antennae thickened at apex; forewing 3/Rs length distinctly
longer than 2/Rs (Fig. 13); ovipositor sheath short and wide at
base (Fig. 87) Ephedrus helleni Mackuer

--Antennae filiform; forewing 3/Rs length equal to 2/Rs (Fig. 14);
ovipositor sheath long and slender, slightly depressed before tip
(Fig. 88) Ephedrus niger Gautier, Bonnamour and Gaumont

4 Rs+M vein present (Figs. 16-20); notaulices complete (Figs.
47-50)                                                        (5)

--Rs+M vein absent (Figs. 21-46); notaulices incomplete (Figs.
51-54)9

5 Forewing m-cu and Rs+M complete, but colorless throughout (Figs.
16, 20); lateral lobes of mesoscutum with large hairless areas
(Figs. 47, 48)                                                 6

--Forewing m-cu throughout colored and Rs+M colorless in anterior
margin (Figs. 17, 18, 19); lateral lobes of mesoscutum pubescent or
with few hairless areas (Figs, 49, 50)                        (7)

6 Flagellomere I entirely yellow, median vein long (Fig. 20);
propodeum densely pubescence (Fig. 56); ovipositor sheath slightly
concave as tip (Fig. 92) Praon yomenae Takada

--Flagellomere I dark, yellowish at base, median vein short (Fig.
16); propodeum sparsely pubescence (Fig. 55); ovipositor sheath
with convergent dorso-ventral lines (Fig. 89) Praon absinthii
Bignell

7 Forewing Rs vein effaced, point like (Fig. 17); antennae 16-17
segmented Praon orpheusi Kavallieratos, Athanassiou & Tomanovic

--Forewing Rs never point like and normally developed (Figs. 18,
19); antennae 17-18-segmented8

8 Forewing stigma 2.1-2.35 time as long as R1 (Fig. 18); metasomal
tergum I with few sparse hairs (Fig. 67); dorsal outline of the
ovipositor sheath almost straight; ovipositor sheath rounded at
apex (Fig. 90); antennae (15)16-17 segmented Praon rosaecola Stary

--Forewing stigma 1.4-1.65 time as long as R1 (Fig. 19); metasomal
tergum I with short dense dorsal hairs (Fig. 68); dorsal outline of
the ovipositor sheath concave, ovipositor sheath lanceolate (Fig.
91); antennae 17-18-segmented Praon volucre (Haliday)

9 Forewing M+m-cu vein complete or incomplete (Figs. 21-36)    (10)

--Forewing M+m-cu vein absent (Figs. 37-46)                    (23)

10 Propodeum with complete or incomplete areola (Figs. 57-63)  (11)

--Propodeum smooth or with two divergent carina in lower part
(Figs. 64-66)                                                  (32)

11 Pterostigma at forewing widely triangular (Fig. 21); propodeum
with wide pentagonal areola (Fig. 57); antenna 21-22-segmented
Pauesia antennata (Mukerji)

--Pterostigma at forewing triangular (Figs. 22-32); propodeum with
narrow complete or incomplete pentagonal areola (Figs. 58-63);
antennae with less number of segments                          (12)

12 Propodeum with incomplete areola (Figs. 59, 60); labial palpi,
1-segmented (Figs. 1, 2)                                       (13)

--Propodeum with complete areola (Fig. 58, 61, 62); labial palpi
2-3 segmented (Figs. 3-6)                                      (14)

13 Forewing M+m-cu vein incomplete (Fig. 33); dorsal aspect of
metasomal tergum I with longitudinal carinae (Fig. 73) Aphidius
(Lysaphidus) arvensis Stary

--Forewing M+m-cu vein incomplete (Fig. 27); dorsal aspect of
metasomal tergum I smooth or rugose (Fig. 72) Aphidius iranicus
Rakhshani & Stary

14 Tentorial index 0.6-0.8, face densely pubescent (Fig. 3);
antennae 19-20-segmented Euaphidius cingulatus Ruthe

--Tentorial index less than 0.6; face sparsely pubescent (Figs. 4,
5, 6); antennae with less number of segments.                  (15)

15 Anterolateral area of petiole rugose (Fig. 84) Aphidius ervi
Haliday

--Anterolateral area of petiole costate (Fig. 85) or costulate
(Fig. 86)                                                      (16)

16 Anterolateral area of petiole costate (Fig. 85) Aphidius
colemani Viereck

--Anterolateral area of petiole costulate (Fig. 86)            (17)

17 Labial palpus with two palpomeres (c. f. Figs. 4, 5)        (18)

--Labial palpus with three palpomeres (c.f. Fig. 6)            (20)

18 Maxillary palpus with three palpomeres; when one palpus has four
palpomeres, other palpus bears trace of two palpomeres (Fig. 4)
Aphidius matricariae Haliday

--Maxillary palpus with four palpomeres (Figs. 5)              (19)

19 Metacarpus short, 0.5-0.7X as long as pterostigma length (Fig.
23); flagellomere 1 3.5-3.8X as long as its width; ovipositor
sheath elongate, convex at base, with parallel dorso-ventral lines
(Fig. 93) Aphidius absinthii Marshall

--Metacarpus very short, 0.15-0.2X as long as pterostigma length
(Fig. 29); flagellomere 1 3.8-4.1X as long as its width; ovipositor
sheath short with convergent dorso-ventral lines (Fig. 95) Aphidius
popovi Stary

20 Antennae 13-14-segmented Aphidius salicis Haliday

--Antennae with more than 14 segments                         (21)

21 Ovipositor sheath elongate and strongly prominent (Fig. 94)
Aphidius funebris Mackauer

--Ovipositor sheath broad (cf. Fig. 96)                       (22)

22 Metacarpus short, 0.48-0.56X as long as pterostigma length (Fig.
30) Aphidius rosae Haliday

--Metacarpus equal to or slightly longer than pterostigma (Fig. 32)
... Aphidius urticae Haliday

23 Terminal metasomal sternum without prongs (Figs, 97, 98)    (24)

--Terminal metasomal sternum bears two prongs (Figs. 99-104)   (25)

24 Propodeum smooth or with two divergent carinae at lower part
(Fig. 64); antennae 13-segmented; labial papli 1-segmented (Fig.
7); ovipositor sheath apically pointed (Fig. 98) Adialytus
salicaphis (Fitch)

--Propodeum with narrow pentagonal areola (Fig. 63); antennae 14-15
segmented; labial palpi 2-segmented (Fig. 8); ovipositor sheath
apically truncated (Fig. 97) Diaeretialle rapae (M'Intoch)

25 Metasomal tergum I with primary and secondary tubercles (Figs.
75-77)                                                          (26)

--Metasomal tergum I with only primary tubercles (Figs. 78-91)  (29)

26 Prongs almost straight, slightly curved at apex (Figs. 99, 100)
                                                                (27)

--Prongs strongly curved (Figs. 101, 102)                       (28)

27 Distance between primary and secondary tubercles less than width
at spiracles (Fig. 74); ovipositor sheath sub-quadrate at base
(Fig. 99); metasoma dark brown Binodoxys acalephae (Marshall)

--Distance between primary and secondary tubercles more than width
at spiracles (Fig. 75); ovipositor sheath rounded at base (Fig.
100); first and last metasomal segments yellowish brown Binodoxys
angelicae (Haliday)

28 Antennae 10-segmented; distance between primary and secondary
tubercles on petiole shorter than width at spiracles (Fig. 76);
prongs with 3 long setae on dorsal surface (Fig. 101) Binodoxys
brevicornis (Haliday)

--Antennae 11-segmented; distance between primary and secondary
tubercles on petiole shorter than width at spiracles (Fig. 77);
prongs with more than 5 long setae on dorsal surface (Fig. 102)
Binodoxys heraclei (Haliday)

29 Metacarpus shorter than half of pterostigma length (Figs. 43,
45)                                                           (30)

--Metacarpus equal to or longer than the half of pterostigma (Figs.
44, 46) (31)

30 Antennae 11-segmented; metasomal tergum I length less 1.8X as
long as its width (Fig. 80) Trioxys pannonicus Stary

--Antennae 12-segmented; metasomal tergum I length more than 2.2X
as long as its width (Fig. 78) Trioxys asiaticus Telenga

31 Prongs short and stout, bearing 2 ovoid shaped bristles at apex;
ovipositor sheath sub-quadrate at base (Fig. 104); maxillary palpi
3-segmented (Fig. 10) Trioxys tanaceticola Stary

--Prongs normally slender, bearing one ovoid shaped bristle at
apex; ovipositor sheath rounded at base (Fig. 103); maxillary papli
4-segmented (Fig. 9) Trioxys pallidus (Haliday)

32 Forewing metacarpus shorter than pterostigma length (34);
metasomal tergum I almost elongately triangular (83); labial palpi
2-segmented (11); Ovipositor sheath strongly convex dorsally (Fig.
105) Lysiphlebus dessertorum Stary

--Forewing metacarpus longer than pterostigma length (Figs. 35,
36); metasomal tergum I widely triangular (Fig. 82); labial papli
one-segmented (12); ovipositor sheath weakly convex dorsally (Fig.
106)                                                           (33)

33 Forewing marginal setae longer than those on the surface (35)
Lysiphlebus fabarun (Marshall)

--Forewing marginal setae as long as those on the surface (36)
Lysiphlebus confusus Tremblay and Eady


Parasitoid-aphid-plant associations

Adialytus salicaphis (Fitch)

Chaitophorus euphraticus Hodjat on Populus euphratica, Zahedan, 24 March 2003; Chaitophorus remaudierei Pintera, on Salix nubica, Tehran, 22 April 2002; on Salix alba, Marivan, 8 October 2004; Chaitophorus salijaponicus Mordvilko on Salix sp., Abiek, Quazvin, 23 May 2002; Peykanshahr, 17 November 2004; Rasht, 25 May 2002; Chaitophorus vitellinae (Schrank) on Salix alba, Mahallat, 22 April 2005; Chaitophorus truncatus (Hausmann) on Salix purpurea, Peykanshahr, 5 October 2003.

Aphidius absinthii Marshall

Macrosiphoniella abrotani (Walker) on Artemisia annua, Rasht-Lashtelesha, 11 May 2005; Rezvanshahr, 7 July 2005; Macrosiphoniella artemisiae (Boyer de Fonscolombe) on Artemisia absinthium, Rasht, 3 May 2004; Rostamabad, 3 May 2004; Macrosiphoniella oblonga (Mordvilko) on Artemisia annua, Tutkabon, 2 October 2004; Rasht-Shalman, 7 June 2005.

Aphidius (Lysaphidus) arvensis Stary

Coloradoa achillea Hille Ris Lambers on Achillea melliefolium, Hamadan, 22 June 2004; Sanandaj, 16 May 2005.

[FIGURES 1-12 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 13-24 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 25-36 OMITTED]

Aphidius colemani Viereck

Aphis craccivora Koch on Hibiscus esculentus, Nikshahr-Lashar, 30 April 2003; Aphis fabae Scopoli on Callendula officinalis, Isfahan, 30 October 2004; on Solanum nigrum, Karaj, 5 December 2004; Aphis gossypii Glover on Catalpa bignonioides, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 18 May 2003; on Hibiscus esculentus, Nikshahr-Lashar, 30 April 2003; on Malva neglecta, Zahedan, 6 April 2005; Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe on Nerium oleander, Iranshahr, 11 March 2003; Tehran, 23 November 2003; Zahedan, 24 March 2003; Aphis umbrella (Borner) on Malva neglecta, Ahvaz, 6 March 2005; Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach) on Callendula officinalis, Tehran, 26 April 2003; Tehran-Peykanshahr, 22 April 2004; Zahedan, 1 April 2003; 19 April 2003; Brachycaudus cardui (L.) on Cirsium arvense, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 28 April 2002; Capitophorus eleagni (Del Guercio) on Eleagnus angustifolia, Zahedan, 14 April 2003; Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on Malva neglecta, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 26 April 2002; on Spergula arvensis, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 18 May 2003; on Datura stramonium, Zahedan, 18 April 2003.

Aphidius ervi Haliday

Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) on Sophora alopecuroides, Shahriar, 2 May 2002; Microlophium carnosum (Buckton) on Urtica dioica, Rasht-Lashtelesha, 11 May 2005.

Aphidius funebris Mackauer

Uroleucon compositae (Theobald) on Carthamus tinctorius, Isfahan, 2 December 2003; Uroleucon erigeronensis (Thomas) on Conyza canadensis, Rasht, 15 September 2005; Uroleucon jaceae (L.) on Acroptilon repens, Isfahan, 17 April 2003; 27 December 2004; on Centaurea depressa, Isfahan-Lavarg, 27 December 2004.

[FIGURES 37-46 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 47-54 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 55-66 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 67-86 OMITTED]

Aphidius iranicus Rakhshani & Stary

Titanosiphon bellicosum Nevsky on Artemisia absinthium, Guilan-Ros tamabad, 3 May 2004.

[FIGURES 87-98 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 99-106 OMITTED]

Aphidius matricariae Haliday

Aphis craccivora Koch on Capsella bursa-pastoris, Aghasht, 9 May 2002; Aphis fabae Scopoli on Rumex crispus, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 4 May 2002; Qom, 4 May 2003; on Rumex acetosa, Karaj 14 May 2003; on Plantago lanceolata, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 18 May 2003; Aphis gossypii Glover on Catalpa bignonioides, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 18 May 2003; Aphis euphorbiae Kaltenbach on Euphorbia sequierana, Shiraz, 18 April 2004; Aphis umbrella (Borner) on Malva neglecta, Ahvaz, 6 March 2005; Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach) on Callendula officinalis, Tehran, 26 April 2003; 18 May 2004; Zahedan, 19 April 2003; Capitophorus similis van der Goot on Eleagnus angustifolia, Tabriz, 25 November 2004 Eucarazzia elegans (Ferrari) on Salvia officinalis, Isfahan, 16 December 2003; Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on Malva neglecta, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 26 April 2002.

Aphidius popovi Stary

Amphorophora catharinae (Nevsky) on Rosa hybrida, Karaj, 10 April 2004; Tehran-Peykanshahr, 26 April 2002; Karaj-Shahrestanak, 21 July 2003.

Aphidius rosae Haliday

Macrosiphum rosae (L.) on Rosa hybrida, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 27 November 2001; 19 November 2002; on Rosa damascena, Hamadan, 6 June 2006; Tehran, 26 April 2003; Isfahan, 5 May 2004.

Aphidius salicis Haliday

Cavariella aegopodii (Scopoli) on Salix australior, Rodehen, 27 June 2002; Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) on Ammi majus, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 9 June 2005.

Aphidius urticae Haliday

Microlophium carnosum (Buckton) on Urtica dioica, Rasht-Lashtelesha, 11 May 2005.

Binodoxys acalephae (Marshall)

Aphis craccivora Koch on Glycerrhiza glabra, Quazvin-Abiek, 23 May 2002; on Alhagi maurorum, Tehran, 29 May 2003; on Partulaca oleracea, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 28 May 2003; on Matricaria chamomilla, Hamadan, 9 October 2004; Aphis fabae Scopoli on Solanum nigrum L. 1 2 October 2004; Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe on Nerium oleander, Tehran, 6 November 2004; Aphis euphorbiae Kaltenbach on Euphorbia sp., Sanandaj, 16 May 2005; Aphis umbrella Borner on Malva sylvestris, Shus htar, 7 March 2004; Aphis affinis del Guercio on Mentha logifolium, 28 September 2004; Aphis gossypii Glover on Hibiscus syriacus, Quazvin, 8 October 2004; Aphis urticata Fabricius on Urtica dioicea L., Rasht, 12 June 2005.

Binodoxys angelicae (Haliday)

Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe on Nerium oleander, Tehran, 2 November 2004; Aphis fabae Scopoli on Solanum nigrum, Shiraz, 17 October 2003; Aphis rumicis L. on Rumex crispus, Tehran, 23 October 2004; Aphis umbrella Borner on Malva sylvestris, Ahwaz, 7 March 2004; Lipaphis lepidii Nevsky on Cardaria draba, Karaj, 3 May 2003.

Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday)

Cavariella aegopodii (Scopoli) on Salix alba, Mahallat, 22 April 2005.

Binodoxys heraclei (Haliday)

Cavariella aspidaphoides Hille Ris Lambers on Salix fragilis, Mashhad, 11 October 2004.

Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh)

Bravicoryne brassicae (L.) on Brassica napus, Saravan, 19 April 2001; Karaj, 5 April 2001; Isfahan, 28 September 2002; Descurainia sophia, Karaj, 13 April 2002; Rodehen, 27 June 2002; on Sisymbrium irio, Shahrestanak, 12 November 2004; Lipaphis lepidii Nevsky on Cardaria draba, Karaj-Mardabad, 25 March 2002.

Euaphidius cingulatus (Ruthe)

Pterocomma pilosum Buckton on Salix australior, Rezvanshahr, 25 May 2004

Ephedrus helleni Mackauer

Cavariella aquatica (Gillette and Bragg) on Salix alba, Shahrestanak, 12 June 2005

Ephedrus niger Gautier, Bonnamour and Gaumont

Uroleucon jaceae on Acroptilon repens, Isfahan, 27 December 2004; Uroleucon sonchi (Geoffroy) on Sonchus asper, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 18 May 2004; Uroleucon erigronensis (Thomas) on Conyza canadensis, Rasht, 16 October 2005.

Ephedrus persicae Froggatt

Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe on Nerium oleander, Zabol, 5 April 2003; Tehran, 24 October 2003; Aphis affinis del Guercio on Mentha aquatica, Iranshahr, 6 March 2003; Brachycaudus amygdalinus (Schouteden) on Amygdalus arabica, Taftan, 2 July 2004; Dysaphis foeniculus Theobald on Foeniculum vulgare, Zabol, 4 April 2003; Hyadaphis coriandri Das on Coriandrum sativum, Zabol, 4 April 2003; Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on Malva neglecta, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 27 April 2002; on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Zabol, 4 April 2003.

Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall)-group

Aphis affinis del Guercio on Mentha longifolia, Karaj-Mohamadshahr, 16 May 2002; Karaj-Fardis Road, 18 May 2005; on Mentha aquatica, Isfahan, 18 May 2004; Aphis anthemidis (Borner) on Anthemis nobilis, Sanandaj, 16 May 2005; Aphis craccivora Koch on Alhagi maurorum, Zahedan, 2 April 2003; Tehran-Peykanshahr, 20 May 2002; Zahak, 9 April 2004; Mahallat, 25 April 2005; Khash, 23 April 2004; on Alcea rosea, Zabol 15 April 2003; on Glycerrhiza glabra, Hamadan, 15 May 2005, 18 May 2006; Quazvin-Abiek, 23 June 2002; on Glycerrhiza asprima, Shiraz, 28 June 2005; Taftan, 1 July 2004; on Sophora alopecuroides, Taftan, 2 July 2004; on Astragalus., Tehran, 28 April 2003; Aphis eunymi Fabricius on Arctium lappa, Shahrestanak, 26 October 2004; Aphis fabae Scopoli on Rumex crispus, Tehran, 8 April 2004; Rezvanshahr, 25 May 2004; Quazvin-Abiek, 23 June 2002; on Rumex acetosa, Hamadan, 20 May 2006; on Solanum nigrum, Tehran, 19 October 2004; on Hibiscus trionum, Tehran, 18 May 2003; on Lawsonia inermis., Iranshahr, 11 March 2003; Aphis gossypii Glover on Rosa damascena, Hamadan, 24 April 2006 and 1 June 2006; Aphis idaei Boyer de Fonscolombe on Rubus idaeus, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 21 April 2001; Aphis intybi Koch on Cichorium intybus, Hamadan, 31 May 2006; Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe on Nerium oleander, Iranshahr, 11 March 2003; Tehran, 6 November 2004; Aphis punicae Passerini on Punica grannatum, Tehran, 17 June 2001; Zabol, 3 April 2001; Zahedan, 16 May 2001; Aphis rumicis L. on Rumex crispus, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 18 May 2003; Aphis umbrella Borner on Malva neglecta, Tehran, 26 April 2002; Ahvaz, 7 March 2004; on Malva sylvestris, Hamadan, 6 June 2006; Brachycaudus cardui (L.) on Borago officinalis, Mahallat, 22 April 2005; Brachyunguis harmalae Das on Peganum harmala, Zabol, 16 April 2003; Khash-Taftan, 3 April 2003; Brachyunguis sp. on Cynanchum acutum, Shahinshahr, 30 October 2004; Dysaphis radicola (Mordvilko) on Rheum palmatum, Taftan, 29 April 2004; Hyadaphis coriandri (Passerini) on Coriandrum sativum, Zabol, 4 April 2003; Lipaphis (Lipaphidiella) lepidii (Nevsky) on Cardaria draba, Zahedan, 3 March 2003; Karaj-Mardabad, 25 April 2002; Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) on Capsella bursa pasturis, Shahriar, 2 May 2002; Lipaphis fritzmullerei Borner on Sisymbrium irio, Tehran, 27 May 2004; Myzus beybienkoi (Narzikulov) on Fraxinus oxycarpa, 28 October 2004; Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on Malva neglecta, Isfahan, 11 April 2004; Shiraz, 25 April 2004; Zahedan, 14 April 2004; on Triogonella foenum-graesum, Noorabad, 11 March 2002; Protaphis elongata (Nevsky) on Artemisia absinthium, Rasht, 7 May 2005.

Lysiphlebus confusus Tremblay and Eady-group

Aphis craccivora Koch on Alhagi maurorum, Tehran-Peykanshahr, 20 May 2002; Aphis fabae Scopoli on Rumex crispus, Rasht, 25 May 2004; Aphis farinosa Gmelin on Salix alba, Hamadan (Medical Plant Garden), 9 October 2004; Aphis verbasci Shrank on Verbascum thapsus, Ardebil, 9 May 2005.

Lysiphlebus dessertorum Stary

Protaphis sp. on Achillea millefolium, Sanandaj, 16 May 2005.

Pauesia antennata (Mukerji)

Pterochloroides persicae (Chol.) on Amygdalus arabica, Taftan, 29 April 2004.

Praon absinthii Bignell

Macrosiphoniella oblonga (Mordvilko) on Artemisia annua, Zanjan-Kiashahr, 11 May 2005.

Praon orpheusi Kavallieratos, Athanassiou and Tomanovic

Hyperomyzus lactucae (L.) on Lactuca oleracea, Tehran-Evin, 31 June 2004.

Praon rosaecola Stary

Macrosiphom rosae (L.), on Rosa damascena, Shahrestanak, 26 October 2004, Aghasht, 27 October 2004.

Praon volucre (Haliday)

Aphis fabae solenella Theobald on Solanum nigrum, Sahneh, 7 September 2004, Brachycaudus amygdalinus (Schouteden), on Amygdalus arabica, Khash-Taftan, 23 April 2003, Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach), Calendula officinalis, Isfahan, 29 October 2004, Hyperomyzus lactucae (L.) on Lactuca oleracea, Meshkindasht, 25 April 2002, Macrosiphom rosae (L) on Rosa hybrida, Peykanshahr, 19 November 2002, Uroleucon sonchi (L.) on Sonchus arvensis, Karaj, 25 April 2002.

Praon yomenae Takada

Uroleucon sonchi (L.) on Sonchus asper, Karaj, 20 May 2005, Uroleucon jaceae (L.) on Centaurea depressa, Isfahan, 8 May 2004, on Acroptilon repens, Isfahan, 17 April 2004.

Trioxys asiaticus Telenga

Acyrthosiphon gossypii Mordvilko on Sophora alopecuroides, Shahriar, 5 May 2002; Kerman 11 May 2006.

Trioxys pallidus (Haliday)

Chromaphis juglandicola (Kaltenbach) on Juglans regia, Tehran, 28 April 2003; Peykanshahr, 25 September 2002; Isfahan 18 April 2004; Meime, 18 May 2005; Gorgan, 9 June 2005; Karaj, 15 May 2005.

Trioxys panonnicus Stary

Macrosiphoniella sp. on Artemisia absinthium, Rezvanshahr, 6 June 2005.

Trioxys tanaceticola Stary

Titanosiphon bellicosum Nevsky on Artemisia absinthium, Rasht, 6 June 2005; Coloradoa absinthii (Lichtenstein) on Artemisia absinthium, Rostamabad, 3 May 2004.

Discussion

A diverse range of aphids were occurred on medicinal plants that comprising a heterogeneous group from small herbs to giant trees, growing in different types of habitats in agricultural landscapes, including orchards, cultivated crops, ornamentals, forests and urban areas. The complexity of parasitoid is deeply affecting by habitat and host preference of the aphids, from which the generalists were the most abundant. The medicinal plant are cultivating mostly in limited area or in experimental garden. Like other crops, the cultivation patterns in large scales, affect the activity and efficiency of parasitoids (Jarosik and Lapchin, 2001). Host plant characteristics have also significant effect on parasitism rate and community structure (Bukovinszky et al., 2003). Medicinal plants of different families are associating with specific pest aphid, many of which are found on other field crops of the same group. The parasitoid complex associated with medicinal plants is well-defined, but not typical of a uniform assemblage. In most cases the aphids were attacked by the specialized complex of primary parasitoids restricted to the genus and/or some closely related genera. The occasional member of the medicinal aphid parasitoid guilds, including Binodoxys spp., Praon spp. and Ephedrus spp. were found to be locally specific. A. funebris and E. niger were the dominant and specialized parasitoid of Uroleucon aphids, as well known complex all over the world (Rakhshani et al., 2006), excluding Binodoxys centaureae (Haliday) in Iran. Two species of Binodoxys including B. heraclei and B. brevicornis have strict affinities on the aphids associating with medicinal plants, both on primary and secondary host (Rakhshani et al., 2007; Stary, 1990). The first species was one of the most frequently sampled parasitoid species on willows in southeastern Europe (Tomanovic et al., 2006), which occurred rarely in Iran. Chaitophorus spp. associating with Salix spp. were always found to attacked by Adialytus salicaphis, as an specific and efficient biocontrol agent. This species attacks those aphids on poplars too (Rakhshani et al., 2007). Genus Aphidius was the most diverse genus of the aphid parasitoids on medicinal plants consisting eleven species, which were found mostly in specific associations. The generalist species, like Aphidius colemani and Aphidius matricariae are the dominant parasitoids of the pest aphids on other crops (Rakhshani et al., 2008; Stary et al., 2000). Lysiphlebus fabarum was identified as a dominant and a keystone aphid parasitoid on medicinal plants. It has already reported as dominant parasitoid of other aphids (Rakhshani et al., 2005a,b). An overall analysis of the data showing the habitat preferences for that species along with its specific activity on generalist aphids, belong to genera Aphis and Brachycaudus as well as some other aphids co-existing or living on the neighboring host plants. Lipaphis spp. on Brasicaceae host plant are the primary and specific hosts for Diaeretiella rapae also attacking by L. fabarum is some cases, showing the ability of the mentioned species to extend the opportunistic host range. L. fabarum has never found on trees, in contrast to the closely related congener L. confusus, that assumed to be specific parasitoid of Aphis farinosa on Salix spp. (Stary, 2006; Kavallieratos et al., 2004; Tomanovic et al., 2006). Species of the genus Trioxys had the most strict speciality on the aphid pests of the medicinal plants including ones on trees and shrubs, among them Trioxys pallidus were found the most frequent species attacking Chromaphis juglandicola, a serious pest of walnut (Rakhshani et al., 2004). Occurrence of some wild medicinal plants within or close to field crops favors the activity of parasitoids (Freuler et al., 2003). Further investigations on aphidiines associating with medicinal plants as major target or even as a potential reservoir of parasitoids is needed. As the application of insecticides for aphid control is restricted on medicinal plants, the use of natural enemies becomes increasingly important in order to control aphid populations. Several new associations were recorded here, are useful to establish the biocontrol programs. The increasing number of plants with medicinal properties and pharmacological activity, initiating the need for future researches on their pest complex, including aphids and their natural enemies. The activity of hyperparasitoids seems to impair the efficacy of parasitoid, which destroying all colony of the mummified aphids. These were including Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Mayr), Pachyneuron aphidis (Bouche), Asaphes vulgaris Walker and Alloxysta spp. The seasonal parasitism and efficacy of the aphid parasitoid in biocontrol of the aphid pests on medicinal plants are the matters of further researches.

Acknowledgements

The financial support of the project was provided by the Department of Entomology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran and the "Research funding program" Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran and also grant No.86-19, University of Zabol. The research was also partially supported by Grant 143006 (The Serbian Ministry of Science). The contribution by P. Stary was partially supported by Grant S5007102 (Grant Agency, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic). The host aphids were identified by Dr. Ali Rezwani (Plant Pest and Diseases Research Institute, Tehran, Iran).

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(1) Ali Asghar Talebi, (2) Ehsan Rakhshani, (1) Yaghoub Fathipour, (3) Petr Stary, (4) Zeljko Tomanovic and (5) Noorali Rajabi-Mazhar

(1) Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 14115 on 335, I. R. Iran; email: talebia@modares.ac.ir

(2) Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Zabol, 98615 on 538, I. R. Iran; email: rakhshani@uoz.ac.ir

(3) Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovskd 31, 37005 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic; e-mail: Stary@entu.cas.cz

(4) Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia; e-mail: ztoman@bf.bio.bg.ac.yu

(5) Hamadan Agricultural Research and Natural Resource Institute, Iran; e-mail: rajabi1351@yahoo.com

Corresponding Author: Dr. Ali Asghar Talebi, Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 14115 on 335, I. R. Iran, E-mail: talebia@modares.ac.ir
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Talebi, Ali Asghar; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Stary, Petr; Tomanovic, Zeljko; Rajabi-Maz
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:May 1, 2009
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