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Aphids' diversity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and lentil (Lens culinaris) cultures within Tala Amara region (Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria).

INTRODUCTION

Aphids constitute an extremely spread group of insects; almost 4700 species were censused in the world [26]. Aphids multiply extremely rapidly, scatter easily on long distances, weaken the host plants and transmit them a big number of viruses, what explains the important damages that they can cause to truck farming cultures [12].

The studies led to date on the inventory and the fluctuations of the aphids' populations in many regions of Algeria, on different cultures [5, 6, 7, 19, 20, 22] show that the situation is grave and necessitates an urgent intervention. However, no study was led on chickpea and lentil aphids. It's in this sense that our study registers, and its objective is the realization of an inventory and the evaluation of the aphids' diversity on these two cultures in Tala Amara region (Tizi-Ouzou).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Sampling area:

The farm where this work is led, is located in Tala Amara region (36[degrees] 40' N.; 4[degrees] 11' E.), of 200 m altitude. This region belongs to the sub-humid Mediterranean bioclimatic floor with a mild winter. The average annual temperature is of 19[degrees]C and the rainfall exceeds 700 mm water per year. The soil is silty clayey. It's an agricultural environment where there are orchards of fig trees, of apple trees, olive trees and citrus fruits and some truck gardening cultures.

Visual enumeration method of the aphids:

The inventory of the aphids' species is established on the basis of weekly visual controls on two varieties of chickpea (Flip90/13C and Flip 93/93) and two varieties of lentil (Syrie and Mefropule). The outings are performed from the 5th April 2015 to the 16th June 2015 for the chickpea and to the 4th July 2015 for the lentil, corresponding to the period of vegetation and fructification of these cultures. To carry out observations and entomological notations, the aphids present on the leaves, the stalks, the floral buttons and the cloves are collected. On 20 stalks taken at random, the aphids are delicately sampled with the help of a brush then conserved in tubes full of 70[degrees] ethyl alcohol.

Method of trapping winged aphids:

In order to follow the activity periods of the winged aphids, sampling of the aerial and terrestrial space is preceded with the help of colored traps and of Barber pots. The trapping method consists of placing on stakes of 30 cm from the ground circular yellow plastic recipients, of 20 cm diameter and 15 cm height. The Barber pots which consist of circular colorless plastic recipients, of 20 cm diameter and 10 cm height, are buried in the soil. These traps are full of water to which is added a little of detergent which plays the role of wetting, allowing to reduce the water superficial tension and to prevent the trapped insects from escaping, once taken. The samplings and the retrieving of the aphids are regularly fulfilled in the course of the weekly outings; the solutions of the whole traps are renewed at each outing, during the entire period of study. The collected aphids are conserved in 70[degrees] alcohol, counted, and then posteriorly identified in the laboratory, until the taxonomical rank of the species.

Data analysis:

The trapping data are analyzed by means of ecological indices of composition. The richness of the aphids' settlement is analyzed by calculating the relative abundances of the different species as estimated by [10] according to the following formula :

F(%) = ni x 100/N

ni is the number of individuals of the species taken into consideration.

N is the total number of individuals all species combined.

The frequencies of occurrences are calculated according to the formula:

F.O.% = P x 100 / P'

P is the number of statements containing the studied species.

P' is the total number of the performed statements.

To determine the number of constancy classes (N.c.), there was an appeal to the Sturge equation [28] :

N. c. = 1 + (3, 3 log10 n)

N. c. is the number of classes.

n is the total number of inventoried species in the region of study .

The interval I of each class of constancy is calculated as follows:

I = 100% /N.c.

Results:

Inventory of the aphids within the parcels of chickpea and lentil:

The analysis of the composition of the Aphididae's settlement in the four parcels of study reveals the existence of 55 species, 39 of them are in the parcel of chickpea, variety Flip 90/13C, 36 in the parcel of chickpea variety Flip 93/93, 31 in the parcel of lentil variety Mefropule and 21 in the parcel of lentil variety Syrie. These species are spread in 31 sorts, 5 tribes and 4 sub-families, namely Aphidinae, Chaitophorinae, Myzocallidinae and the Pemphiginae (Table 1).

The Aphidinae sub-family is predominant with two tribes, the Aphidini and the Macrosiphini. This latter is the richest with 23 sorts censused, which are : Acyrthosiphon, Amphorophora, Aulacorthum, Brachycaudus, Brevicoryne, Cavariella, Cryptomyzus, Diuraphis, Dysaphis, Eucarazzia, Hyadaphis, Hyperomyzus, Lipaphis, Macrosiphoniella, Macrosiphum, Megoura, Myzus, Nasonovia, Neotoxoptera, Pentalonia, Phaedon, Phorodon and Sitobion.

The sub-families of Chaitophorinae, of Myzocallidinae and of Pemphiginae are represented by only one tribe each one, they are respectively the Atheroidini, with one species : Sipha maydis, the Myzocallidini represented by two species : Myzocallis castanicola and Takecallis taiwanus and the Pemphigini with the species Pemphigus sp.

Centesimal frequency or relative abundance (%):

During the 13 weeks trapping, 887 individuals representing 55 species were collected in the whole four parcels of study. The relative abundance of these species varies depending on the cultures. Sure enough, at the level of the chickpea parcel with variety Flip 90/13C, Rhopalosiphumpadi is the most represented species with a frequency of 19,15%, while this species represents only 5,37% of the total species captured at the level of the parcel of lentil Syrie. At the level of the parcel of chickpea Flip 93/93, Aphis craccivora is the most represented species with a frequency of 17,79%. In the parcel of lentil variety Syrie, Sitobion avenae is the most frequent species with a relative abundance of 18,79%, followed by Aphis gossypii with a frequency of 16,11%. In the parcel of lentil variety Mefropule, Acyrthosiphon pisum is the most represented species with a frequency of 25,38% (Table 2).

Occurrence frequency or constancy (%):

The study of the occurrence frequency of the aphids' species shows that they have very variable constancy values. They are constant, incidental and accidental. The obtained results show the presence of 2 constant species (Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi), 10 incidental species and 25 accidental species at the level of the parcel of chickpea variety Flip 90/13C. Within the parcel of chickpea variety Flip 93/93, 2 species are constant (Aphis craccivora and Rhopalosiphum padi), 8 incidental species and 26 accidental species. At the level of the lentil parcel variety Syrie, 5 species are incidental; the other species are accidental species. Within the parcel of the lentil variety Mefropule, one species is constant (Aphis craccivora), 2 are incidental and 28 species are accidental (Table 3). The species Aphis fabae, Aphis craccivora and Rhopalosiphum padi can be considered constant devastators of chickpea and lentil.

Inventory of the wingless aphids harvested on the leaves of chickpea lentil:

The inventory by visual observations of aphids allowed to census 6 species on the sampled legumes' leaves. 5 species have settled on the leaves of chickpea Flip 90/13C (Aphis fabae, Aphis craccivora, Aphis gossypii, Rhopalosiphum padi and Acyrthosiphon pisum) and of lentil Mefropule (Aphis fabae, Aphis craccivora, Aphis gossypii, Rhopalosiphum padi and Acyrthosiphon pisum) 4 species on the leaves of chickpea Flip 93/93 (Aphis fabae, Aphis craccivora, Rhopalosiphum padi and Acyrthosiphon pisum) and on the leaves of lentil Syrie (Aphis craccivora, Aphis gossypii, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Sitobion avenae) (Table 4).

Importance of aphids ' species censused on the legumes ' seedlings:

The visual enumeration method allowed to quantify the presence of the different aphids' species and to calculate their relative abundances. Thus, in the parcel of chickpea Flip 90/13C, the species Rhopalosiphum padi, Aphis craccivora, Aphis gossypii, Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum are found with abundances of respectively 40%, 31%, 15%, 10% and 4% (Fig. 1). Within the variety 93/93, Rhopalosiphum padi, Acyrthosiphon pisum, Aphis craccivora and Aphis fabae have frequencies of respectively 58%, 27%, 12% and 3% (Fig. 2). At the level of the parcel of the lentil Syrie, Sitobion avenae is censused with a frequency of 54%, Aphis gossypii with 36%, Aphis craccivora with 6% and Acyrthosiphon pisum with 4% (Fig. 3). At the level of the variety Mefropule, the calculated abundances are 29%, 28%, 26%, 14% and 3% for respectively the species Rhopalosiphum padi, Aphis craccivora, Acyrthosiphon pisum, Aphis gossypii and Aphis fabae (Fig. 4).

Discussion:

The best way to study a settlement is to enumerate the list of species which constitute it [3]. The study of the diversity of the aphids collected in the four cultures of legumes allowed observing a non negligible number of species.

The Aphidinae dominate largely the other sub-families, with two tribes, the tribe of Aphidini and the tribe of Macrosiphini. This latter is predominant with 37 identified species. Our results corroborate those of [2, 4, 5], who signal that the majority of the aphids' species censused in their inventories belong to the sub-family of Aphidinae, with respectively 24, 17 and 25 species censused in this sub-family. These authors add that the tribe of Macrosiphini is richer in species than the tribe of Aphidini. [18] identified in a parcel of Vicia faba 16 species of aphids spread between the Aphidinae and the Myzocallidinae. in Draa Ben Khedda region, [7] censused within a parcel of broad bean 19 species of aphids belonging to the sub-family of Aphidinae which is represented by two tribes; the tribe of the Aphidini and the tribe of Macrosiphini with the predominance of this latter with 10 species. Likewise, [22] working on the aphids of the broad bean in Tizi-Rached region, censused 16 species of aphids. In the same region, [15] in their inventory of the aphids trapped in the yellow plates placed in a culture of horse bean, signal a total wealth of 14 species. [17] census during about twenty years, 24 species of aphids within a culture of broad bean in Mosonmagyarovar region (Hungary). These aphids spread between 3 sub-families, the Aphidinae, the Myzocallidinae and the Chaitophorinae.

[9] signals that the family of the Aphididae comprises more than 2000 species and that it is especially well represented in the temperate regions. Sure enough, according to the different works previously cited, it appears that the species belonging to this family are found numerous within the regions with a sub-humid climate like Tizi-Ouzou regions.

The richness in aphids' species characterizing the parcels of studies, can be justified on the one hand by the climate conditions favorable to the aphids' flight, and on the other hand, by the abundance and the diversity of the cultivated and adventitious host plants susceptible to attract the aphids. Sure enough, 22 herbaceous plants' species are inventoried within the parcel of chickpea variety Flip 90/13C, 19 in the parcel of Flip 93/93, 20 in the parcel of lentil variety Syrie and 21 in the parcel of Mefropule. The floristic wealth has always as a direct consequence the richness of the phytophagous fauna. [30] signal that the increase of the vegetal diversity engenders an increase of the diversity of the phytophagous. Likewise, [6] affirm that the richness in aphids' species characterizing a given environment proves the abundance and the diversity of the appropriate host plants susceptible to attract these insects. These host plants are mostly adventitious plants which are present in the places. The works of [23] show that the aphids A. fabae, M. persicae and B. brassicae are attracted by the odors of their host plants while they are repelled by the odors of the non-host plants.

The analysis of the statements shows that R. padi is the most frequent species (19,15%) at the level of the parcel of chickpea variety Flip 90/13C. Within a broad bean culture, [7] noted the presence of R. padi with a frequency of 13,3%. This species is signaled by [14] on the gramineous such as Hordeum vulgare, Lycium arabicum and Zea mays. At the level of the variety Flip 93/93, it's A. craccivora which is the most abundant (17,79%). This aphid is signaled on 17 vegetal species belonging to 8 families, among them the Solanaceae, the Cucurbitaceae, the Fabaceae and the Asteracea [14]. These two latter families are represented at the level of the parcels of study by four species each, it's about Vicia sicula, Lathyrus ochrus, Melilotus officinalis and Trifolium spp. for the first family and about Chrysanthemum myconis, Galactites tomentosa, Scolymus hispanicus and Sonchus spp. for the second family.

In the parcel of lentil variety Syrie, two species show very frequent, namely S. avenae (18,79%) and A. gossypii (16,11%). In Manouba region (Tunisia), [12] note the presence with high density of S. avenae on cereals. [7] signal the presence of A. gossypii in a parcel of V. faba with a frequency of 16,1%. On the same culture, [22] register the presence of A. gossypii with an abundance of 20,31%. [14] note the presence of this aphid on 30 vegetal species belonging to 15 families. A. gossypii is censused by [31] on Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae and Asteraceae. At the level of the variety Mefropule, A. pisum appears the most abundant species (25,38%). According to [20], the green aphid of pea (A. pisum) is registered among the very polyphagous species and possesses about ten host vegetal species. This species is mostly signaled on the broad been (Vicia faba), the garden pea (Pisum sativum) [14], but also on the green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the lablab (Lablabpurpureus) [31].

The results of the occurrence frequency of the aphids' species show that the species qualified constant and which can so be considered as real enemies of the two cultures of legumes are A. fabae, A. craccivora and R. padi (Tab. 3). [22] note that the species A. fabae (83,3%) and A. gossypii (83,3%) belong to the class of constancy qualified as constant within a broad bean culture. [31] note that A. craccivora is bound to the legumes. [13] signal the presence of colonies of A. craccivora on Hibiscus rosa sinensis and Bougainvillea spectabilis. According to [8], the black aphid of the alfalfa is very dangerous and can transmit about 30 phytoviruses on different cultures. [14] signals A. fabae on 25 vegetal species belonging to 17 families, among them the Fabaceae with the species V. faba and P. sativum.

The results obtained by [5] within a parcel of V. faba, show that in 2008 A. fabae (79%) and A. craccivora (79%) are species belonging to the class of constancy qualified as constant. In 2013, only A. gossypii (79%) is classified in this category. According to the same author, A. gossypii belongs to the class of regular constancy in 2008 (70%), on the same basis as R. padi (63,2% in 2008 and 68,4% in 2013) which is found regular during the two years of study. The high occurrence frequency of these species could be explained by the presence of their secondary hosts represented by the Asteraceae, the Brassicaceae, the Fabaceae and the Poaceae. According to [15], the floristic wealth of the zone of study affects directly the frequency of occurrence of the aphids' species.

The observations on plant allow to have a more specific approach and consequently to determine the insects which are really bound to the culture [21]. Sure enough, according to [24], the visual control is better indicated for a better appreciation of the devastators. The visual observations allowed identifying 6 species of aphids which can settle in the form of colonies on the seedlings of chickpea Flip 90/13C and of the lentil Mefropule and 4 species on seedlings of chickpea Flip 93/93 and of the lentil Syrie. According to [25], the Selection of the plant by the aphids is done in response to many types of stimuli. The aphids can use visual landmarks, such as the color, the shape or the structure of the plant to detect. [16] signals that the winged are attracted toward a plant according to its color or the volatile substances which it emits. The works of [32, 33] showed that the black aphid of the broad bean A. fabae could use 16 molecules emitted by the broad bean Vicia faba var Sutton dwarf to detect the presence of this latter. [29] note that the high numbers of M. persicae on pimento can be explained by the liberation of volatile substances and by the color of this plant compared with tomato. The choice of the host will be determinant for the rates of larval growth, the size of adults and their fecundity [1].

As the results prove it, this study allowed highlighting the abundance of the species depending on the host plants. [22] note the presence of A. fabae, of A. gossypii and of A. craccivora within Tizi-Rached region on a culture of broad bean and affirm that A. fabae is the dominant species in the parcel of broad bean with an abundance of 93,4% and underline the presence of A. gossypii in second position with a frequency of 5,3%. [15] census 3 aphids' species on the culture of horse bean which are in order of importance : A. fabae with 67,7%, A. gossypii with 21,6% and A. craccivora with 21,2%.

The difference between the numbers of the different wigless species settled on the foliage observed in the present work, could be due to a phenomenon of competition. Sure enough, according to [34], the increase in number of consumers in a given place of the plant, after their reproduction, increases intra-specific competition. This difference can equally be explained by the characteristic capacity of adaptation and multiplication of each species. Plants react to sap punctures by obstructing the phloem canals exploited by the aphids [11], what obliges them to move or to reduce their swarming. [27] mention that the biotic potential of aphids depends equally on the difference in the specific symbiotic bacteria's capacity to produce amino acids which are absent or found in small quantities in the plant and which are necessary to the aphids.

Conclusion:

The study of the aphids' diversity achieved in cultures of chickpea and lentil in Tala Amara region (Tiziouzou) shows a great wealth in aphids' species which can be explained by the floristic diversity. These plants constitute a good refuge for these devastators. They offer a favorable and relatively stable environment for the preservation and the swarming of these insects. These environments act as a tank which assures each time supply of the winged. The visual control allows bringing out 6 species which can settle on the leaves of the studied legumes, they are A. fabae, A. craccivora, A. gossypii, R. padi, A. pisum and S. avenae. The difference between the numbers of the wingless species installed on the foliage can be due to a phenomenon of competition.

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Karima BENOUFELLA-KITOUS and Ferroudja MEDJDOUB-BENSAAD

(1) Faculty of Biological and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Mouloud Mammeri Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria.

Address For Correspondence:

Karima BENOUFELLA-KITOUS, Faculty of Biological and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Mouloud Mammeri Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria.

E-mail: ben.kitous@yahoo.fr. Tel: +213 770 96 00 47_

Received 22 June 2016; Accepted 28 August 2016; Available online 31 August 2016
Table 1: List of the aphids' species inventoried in four parcels of
study (two parcels of chickpea : Flip 90-13C and Flip 93-93 and two
parcels of lentil : Syrie and Mefropule) situated in Tala Amara
region (Tizi-Ouzou)

Sub-Families     Tribes          Kinds           Species           P1

Aphidinae        Aphidini        Aphis           A. citricola      +
                                                 Van der Goot,
                                                 1912

                                                 A. craccivora     +
                                                 Koch, 1854

                                                 A. fabae          +
                                                 Scopoli, 1763

                                                 A. gossypii       +
                                                 Glover, 1877

                                                 A. idaei van      +
                                                 der Goot, 1912

                                                 A. nerii Boyer
                                                 de Fonscolombe,
                                                 1841

                                                 A. verbasci       -
                                                 Schrank, 1801

                                                 Aphis sp.         +

                                 Hyalopterus     H. pruni          +
                                                 Geoffroy, 1762

                                 Rhopalosiphum   R. insertum       -
                                                 Walker, 1849

                                                 R. maidis         +
                                                 Fitch, 1856

                                                 R. padi           +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                                 R.                -
                                                 rufiabdominalis
                                                 Koch, 1854

                                 Schizaphis      S.                +
                                                 rotundiventris
                                                 Signoret, 1860

                 Macrosiphini    Acyrthosiphon   A. bidentis       -
                                                 Eastop, 1953

                                                 A. pisum          +
                                                 Harris, 1776

                                 Amphorophora    A. rubi           -
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                 Aulacorthum     A. solani         +
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                 Brachycaudus    B. cardui         +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                                 B. helichrysi     +
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                                 B. rumexicolens   +
                                                 Patch, 1917

                                 Brevicoryne     B. brassicae      -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Cavariella      C. aegopodii      +
                                                 Scopoli, 1763

                                                 C. pastinacae     -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Cryptomyzus     C. ribis          -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Diuraphis       D. foeniculus     +
                                                 Theobald, 1923

                                                 D. noxia          +
                                                 Kurdjumov, 1913

                                 Dysaphis        D. apiifolia      +
                                                 Theobald, 1923

                                                 D. plantaginea    -
                                                 Passerini, 1860

                                                 D. tulipae        +
                                                 Boyer de
                                                 Fonscolombe,
                                                 1841

                                 Eucarazzia      E. elegans        -
                                                 Ferrari, 1872

                                 Hyadaphis       H. coriandri      -
                                                 B.Das, 1918

                                                 H. foeniculi      +
                                                 Passerini, 1860

                                 Hyperomyzus     H. lactucae       +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                                 H. picridis       +
                                                 Borner, 1916

                                 Lipaphis        L. erysimi        +
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                 Macrosi         M. helichrysi     +
                                   phoniella     Remaudiere,
                                                 1952

                                 Macrosiphum     M. euphorbiae     +
                                                 Thomas, 1878

                                                 M. rosae          +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Megoura         M. vicia          +
                                                 Buckton, 1876

                                 Myzus           M. cerasi         +
                                                 Fabricius, 1775

                                                 M. langei         +
                                                 Borner, 1933

                                                 M. ornatus        +
                                                 Laing, 1932

                                                 M. persicae       +
                                                 Sulzer, 1776

                                 Nasonovia       N. ribisnigri     +
                                                 Mosley, 1841

                                 Neotoxoptera    N. oliveri        +
                                                 Essig, 1935

                                 Pentalonia      P. nigronervosa   -
                                                 Coquerel, 1859

                                 Phaedon         P. armoraciae     +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Phorodon        P. humuli         -
                                                 Schrank

                                 Sitobion        S. avenae         -
                                                 Fabricius, 1775

                                                 S. graminis       -
                                                 Takahashi, 1950

Chaitophorinae   Atheroidini     Sipha           S. maydis         +
                                                 Passerini, 1860

Myzocallidinae   Myzocallidini   Myzocallis      M. castanicola    +
                                                 Baker, 1917

                                 Takecallis      T. taiwanus       -
                                                 Takahashi,1926

Pemphiginae      Pemphigini      Pemphigus       Pemphigus sp.     +

Sub-Families     Tribes          Kinds           Species           P2

Aphidinae        Aphidini        Aphis           A. citricola      +
                                                 Van der Goot,
                                                 1912

                                                 A. craccivora     +
                                                 Koch, 1854

                                                 A. fabae          +
                                                 Scopoli, 1763

                                                 A. gossypii       +
                                                 Glover, 1877

                                                 A. idaei van      +
                                                 der Goot, 1912

                                                 A. nerii Boyer
                                                 de Fonscolombe,
                                                 1841

                                                 A. verbasci       -
                                                 Schrank, 1801

                                                 Aphis sp.         +

                                 Hyalopterus     H. pruni          -
                                                 Geoffroy, 1762

                                 Rhopalosiphum   R. insertum       +
                                                 Walker, 1849

                                                 R. maidis         +
                                                 Fitch, 1856

                                                 R. padi           +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                                 R.                -
                                                 rufiabdominalis
                                                 Koch, 1854

                                 Schizaphis      S.                +
                                                 rotundiventris
                                                 Signoret, 1860

                 Macrosiphini    Acyrthosiphon   A. bidentis       -
                                                 Eastop, 1953

                                                 A. pisum          +
                                                 Harris, 1776

                                 Amphorophora    A. rubi           -
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                 Aulacorthum     A. solani         +
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                 Brachycaudus    B. cardui         +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                                 B. helichrysi     +
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                                 B. rumexicolens   +
                                                 Patch, 1917

                                 Brevicoryne     B. brassicae      +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Cavariella      C. aegopodii      -
                                                 Scopoli, 1763

                                                 C. pastinacae     -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Cryptomyzus     C. ribis          +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Diuraphis       D. foeniculus     +
                                                 Theobald, 1923

                                                 D. noxia          +
                                                 Kurdjumov, 1913

                                 Dysaphis        D. apiifolia      +
                                                 Theobald, 1923

                                                 D. plantaginea    +
                                                 Passerini, 1860

                                                 D. tulipae        +
                                                 Boyer de
                                                 Fonscolombe,
                                                 1841

                                 Eucarazzia      E. elegans        +
                                                 Ferrari, 1872

                                 Hyadaphis       H. coriandri      +
                                                 B.Das, 1918

                                                 H. foeniculi      -
                                                 Passerini, 1860

                                 Hyperomyzus     H. lactucae       +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                                 H. picridis       +
                                                 Borner, 1916

                                 Lipaphis        L. erysimi        +
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                 Macrosi         M. helichrysi     -
                                   phoniella     Remaudiere,
                                                 1952

                                 Macrosiphum     M. euphorbiae     +
                                                 Thomas, 1878

                                                 M. rosae          +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Megoura         M. vicia          +
                                                 Buckton, 1876

                                 Myzus           M. cerasi         -
                                                 Fabricius, 1775

                                                 M. langei         -
                                                 Borner, 1933

                                                 M. ornatus        -
                                                 Laing, 1932

                                                 M. persicae       +
                                                 Sulzer, 1776

                                 Nasonovia       N. ribisnigri     -
                                                 Mosley, 1841

                                 Neotoxoptera    N. oliveri        -
                                                 Essig, 1935

                                 Pentalonia      P. nigronervosa   -
                                                 Coquerel, 1859

                                 Phaedon         P. armoraciae     -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Phorodon        P. humuli         +
                                                 Schrank

                                 Sitobion        S. avenae         -
                                                 Fabricius, 1775

                                                 S. graminis       -
                                                 Takahashi, 1950

Chaitophorinae   Atheroidini     Sipha           S. maydis         +
                                                 Passerini, 1860

Myzocallidinae   Myzocallidini   Myzocallis      M. castanicola    +
                                                 Baker, 1917

                                 Takecallis      T. taiwanus       +
                                                 Takahashi,1926

Pemphiginae      Pemphigini      Pemphigus       Pemphigus sp.     -

Sub-Families     Tribes          Kinds           Species           L1

Aphidinae        Aphidini        Aphis           A. citricola      +
                                                 Van der Goot,
                                                 1912

                                                 A. craccivora     +
                                                 Koch, 1854

                                                 A. fabae          +
                                                 Scopoli, 1763

                                                 A. gossypii       +
                                                 Glover, 1877

                                                 A. idaei van      -
                                                 der Goot, 1912

                                                 A. nerii Boyer
                                                 de Fonscolombe,
                                                 1841

                                                 A. verbasci       -
                                                 Schrank, 1801

                                                 Aphis sp.         +

                                 Hyalopterus     H. pruni          -
                                                 Geoffroy, 1762

                                 Rhopalosiphum   R. insertum       -
                                                 Walker, 1849

                                                 R. maidis         +
                                                 Fitch, 1856

                                                 R. padi           +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                                 R.                -
                                                 rufiabdominalis
                                                 Koch, 1854

                                 Schizaphis      S.                -
                                                 rotundiventris
                                                 Signoret, 1860

                 Macrosiphini    Acyrthosiphon   A. bidentis       -
                                                 Eastop, 1953

                                                 A. pisum          +
                                                 Harris, 1776

                                 Amphorophora    A. rubi           -
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                 Aulacorthum     A. solani         +
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                 Brachycaudus    B. cardui         -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                                 B. helichrysi     -
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                                 B. rumexicolens   -
                                                 Patch, 1917

                                 Brevicoryne     B. brassicae      -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Cavariella      C. aegopodii      +
                                                 Scopoli, 1763

                                                 C. pastinacae     -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Cryptomyzus     C. ribis          -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Diuraphis       D. foeniculus     -
                                                 Theobald, 1923

                                                 D. noxia          +
                                                 Kurdjumov, 1913

                                 Dysaphis        D. apiifolia      -
                                                 Theobald, 1923

                                                 D. plantaginea    -
                                                 Passerini, 1860

                                                 D. tulipae
                                                 Boyer de
                                                 Fonscolombe,
                                                 1841

                                 Eucarazzia      E. elegans        -
                                                 Ferrari, 1872

                                 Hyadaphis       H. coriandri      -
                                                 B.Das, 1918

                                                 H. foeniculi      +
                                                 Passerini, 1860

                                 Hyperomyzus     H. lactucae       +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                                 H. picridis       -
                                                 Borner, 1916

                                 Lipaphis        L. erysimi        +
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                 Macrosi         M. helichrysi     -
                                   phoniella     Remaudiere,
                                                 1952

                                 Macrosiphum     M. euphorbiae     +
                                                 Thomas, 1878

                                                 M. rosae          +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Megoura         M. vicia          +
                                                 Buckton, 1876

                                 Myzus           M. cerasi         -
                                                 Fabricius, 1775

                                                 M. langei         -
                                                 Borner, 1933

                                                 M. ornatus        -
                                                 Laing, 1932

                                                 M. persicae       -
                                                 Sulzer, 1776

                                 Nasonovia       N. ribisnigri     -
                                                 Mosley, 1841

                                 Neotoxoptera    N. oliveri        -
                                                 Essig, 1935

                                 Pentalonia      P. nigronervosa   +
                                                 Coquerel, 1859

                                 Phaedon         P. armoraciae     -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Phorodon        P. humuli         -
                                                 Schrank

                                 Sitobion        S. avenae         +
                                                 Fabricius, 1775

                                                 S. graminis       +
                                                 Takahashi, 1950

Chaitophorinae   Atheroidini     Sipha           S. maydis         -
                                                 Passerini, 1860

Myzocallidinae   Myzocallidini   Myzocallis      M. castanicola    -
                                                 Baker, 1917

                                 Takecallis      T. taiwanus       -
                                                 Takahashi,1926

Pemphiginae      Pemphigini      Pemphigus       Pemphigus sp.     +

Sub-Families     Tribes          Kinds           Species           L2

Aphidinae        Aphidini        Aphis           A. citricola      +
                                                 Van der Goot,
                                                 1912

                                                 A. craccivora     +
                                                 Koch, 1854

                                                 A. fabae          +
                                                 Scopoli, 1763

                                                 A. gossypii       +
                                                 Glover, 1877

                                                 A. idaei van      +
                                                 der Goot, 1912

                                                 A. nerii Boyer
                                                 de Fonscolombe,
                                                 1841

                                                 A. verbasci       +
                                                 Schrank, 1801

                                                 Aphis sp.         +

                                 Hyalopterus     H. pruni          -
                                                 Geoffroy, 1762

                                 Rhopalosiphum   R. insertum       -
                                                 Walker, 1849

                                                 R. maidis         +
                                                 Fitch, 1856

                                                 R. padi           +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                                 R.                +
                                                 rufiabdominalis
                                                 Koch, 1854

                                 Schizaphis      S.                -
                                                 rotundiventris
                                                 Signoret, 1860

                 Macrosiphini    Acyrthosiphon   A. bidentis       +
                                                 Eastop, 1953

                                                 A. pisum          +
                                                 Harris, 1776

                                 Amphorophora    A. rubi           +
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                 Aulacorthum     A. solani         +
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                 Brachycaudus    B. cardui         +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                                 B. helichrysi     +
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                                 B. rumexicolens   +
                                                 Patch, 1917

                                 Brevicoryne     B. brassicae      -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Cavariella      C. aegopodii      +
                                                 Scopoli, 1763

                                                 C. pastinacae     +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Cryptomyzus     C. ribis          -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Diuraphis       D. foeniculus     +
                                                 Theobald, 1923

                                                 D. noxia          +
                                                 Kurdjumov, 1913

                                 Dysaphis        D. apiifolia      -
                                                 Theobald, 1923

                                                 D. plantaginea    -
                                                 Passerini, 1860

                                                 D. tulipae
                                                 Boyer de
                                                 Fonscolombe,
                                                 1841

                                 Eucarazzia      E. elegans        -
                                                 Ferrari, 1872

                                 Hyadaphis       H. coriandri      -
                                                 B.Das, 1918

                                                 H. foeniculi      +
                                                 Passerini, 1860

                                 Hyperomyzus     H. lactucae       +
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                                 H. picridis       +
                                                 Borner, 1916

                                 Lipaphis        L. erysimi        +
                                                 Kaltenbach,
                                                 1843

                                 Macrosi         M. helichrysi     -
                                   phoniella     Remaudiere,
                                                 1952

                                 Macrosiphum     M. euphorbiae     +
                                                 Thomas, 1878

                                                 M. rosae          -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Megoura         M. vicia          +
                                                 Buckton, 1876

                                 Myzus           M. cerasi         -
                                                 Fabricius, 1775

                                                 M. langei         -
                                                 Borner, 1933

                                                 M. ornatus        -
                                                 Laing, 1932

                                                 M. persicae       +
                                                 Sulzer, 1776

                                 Nasonovia       N. ribisnigri     -
                                                 Mosley, 1841

                                 Neotoxoptera    N. oliveri        -
                                                 Essig, 1935

                                 Pentalonia      P. nigronervosa   -
                                                 Coquerel, 1859

                                 Phaedon         P. armoraciae     -
                                                 Linnaeus, 1758

                                 Phorodon        P. humuli         +
                                                 Schrank

                                 Sitobion        S. avenae         +
                                                 Fabricius, 1775

                                                 S. graminis       -
                                                 Takahashi, 1950

Chaitophorinae   Atheroidini     Sipha           S. maydis         -
                                                 Passerini, 1860

Myzocallidinae   Myzocallidini   Myzocallis      M. castanicola    -
                                                 Baker, 1917

                                 Takecallis      T. taiwanus       -
                                                 Takahashi,1926

Pemphiginae      Pemphigini      Pemphigus       Pemphigus sp.     -

P1 : Chickpea variety Flip 90/13C

P2 : Chickpea variety Flip 93/93

L1 : Lentil variety Syrie

L2 : Lentil variety Mefropule

Table 2: Values of the centesimal frequency (%) applied to different
species of Aphids in the different parcels of study

Parcels Species      Chickpea

                     Flip 90/13C   Flip 93/93

                     Ni    F (%)   Ni    F (%)

A. fabae             15    5,32    39    11,96
A. craccivora        33    11,70   58    17,79
A. gossypii          38    13,48   37    11,35
A. citricola         2     0,71    1     0,31
A. nerii             1     0,35    1     0,31
A. idaei             5     1,77    2     0,61
A. verbasci          0     0,00    0     0,00
Aphis sp.            1     0,35    3     0,92
R. padi              54    19,15   36    11,04
R. maidis            14    4,96    17    5,21
R. insertum          0     0,00    1     0,31
R. rufiabdominalis   0     0,00    0     0,00
M. viciae            0     0,00    0     0,00
H. pruni             1     0,35    0     0,00
M. euphorbiae        45    15,96   29    8,90
M. rosae             7     2,48    1     0,31
M. helichrysi        2     0,71    0     0,00
T. taiwanus          0     0,00    1     0,31
E. elegans           0     0,00    1     0,31
A. rubi              0     0,00    0     0,00
A. pisum             5     1,77    26    7,98
A. bidentis          0     0,00    0     0,00
A. solani            2     0,71    0     0,00
H. lactucae          2     0,71    17    5,21
H. picridis          0     0,00    2     0,61
C. aegopodii         2     0,71    0     0,00
C. pastinacae        0     0,00    0     0,00
C. rib is            0     0,00    1     0,31
M. cerasi            1     0,35    2     0,61
M. persicae          11    3,90    30    9,20
M. ornatus           2     0,71    0     0,00
M. langei            1     0,35    0     0,00
B. cardui            1     0,35    2     0,61
B. rumexicolens      4     1,42    0     0,00
B. helichrysi        4     1,42    4     1,23
B. brassicae         0     0,00    1     0,31
L. erysimi           6     2,13    0     0,00
H. foeniculi         2     0,71    0     0,00
H. coriandri         0     0,00    2     0,61
N. oliveri           1     0,35    0     0,00
N. ribisnigri        3     1,06    0     0,00
P. armoraciae        1     0,35    0     0,00
P. nigronervosa      0     0,00    0     0,00
P. humuli            0     0,00    1     0,31
S. rotundiventris    2     0,71    1     0,31
S. avenae            0     0,00    0     0,00
S. graminis          0     0,00    0     0,00
D. plantaginea       0     0,00    2     0,61
D. apiifolia         2     0,71    2     0,61
D. tulipae           4     1,42    3     0,92
D. noxia             1     0,35    1     0,31
D. foeniculus        0     0,00    0     0,00
S. maydis            1     0,35    2     0,61
Pemphigus sp.        1     0,35    0     0,00
M. castanicola       5     1,77    0     0,00
Total                282   100     326   100

Parcels Species      Lentil

                     Syrie         Mefropule

                     Ni    F (%)   Ni    F (%)

A. fabae             13    8,72    11    8,46
A. craccivora        15    10,07   20    15,38
A. gossypii          24    16,11   6     4,62
A. citricola         3     2,01    2     1,54
A. nerii             8     5,37    5     3,85
A. idaei             1     0,67    3     2,31
A. verbasci          2     1,34    5     3,85
Aphis sp.            0     0,00    2     1,54
R. padi              8     5,37    11    8,46
R. maidis            6     4,03    4     3,08
R. insertum          0     0,00    0     0,00
R. rufiabdominalis   0     0,00    1     0,77
M. viciae            1     0,67    0     0,00
H. pruni             0     0,00    0     0,00
M. euphorbiae        9     6,04    2     1,54
M. rosae             2     1,34    0     0,00
M. helichrysi        0     0,00    0     0,00
T. taiwanus          0     0,00    0     0,00
E. elegans           0     0,00    0     0,00
A. rubi              0     0,00    1     0,77
A. pisum             3     2,01    33    25,38
A. bidentis          0     0,00    1     0,77
A. solani            4     2,68    1     0,77
H. lactucae          3     2,01    1     0,77
H. picridis          0     0,00    0     0,00
C. aegopodii         2     1,34    1     0,77
C. pastinacae        0     0,00    1     0,77
C. rib is            0     0,00    0     0,00
M. cerasi            0     0,00    0     0,00
M. persicae          0     0,00    4     3,08
M. ornatus           0     0,00    0     0,00
M. langei            0     0,00    0     0,00
B. cardui            1     0,67    2     1,54
B. rumexicolens      0     0,00    1     0,77
B. helichrysi        7     4,70    3     2,31
B. brassicae         0     0,00    0     0,00
L. erysimi           1     0,67    2     1,54
H. foeniculi         1     0,67    1     0,77
H. coriandri         1     0,67    0     0,00
N. oliveri           0     0,00    0     0,00
N. ribisnigri        0     0,00    0     0,00
P. armoraciae        0     0,00    0     0,00
P. nigronervosa      2     1,34    0     0,00
P. humuli            0     0,00    1     0,77
S. rotundiventris    0     0,00    0     0,00
S. avenae            28    18,79   0     0,00
S. graminis          1     0,67    0     0,00
D. plantaginea       0     0,00    0     0,00
D. apiifolia         1     0,67    0     0,00
D. tulipae           1     0,67    1     0,77
D. noxia             0     0,00    1     0,77
D. foeniculus        1     0,67    3     2,31
S. maydis            0     0,00    0     0,00
Pemphigus sp.        0     0,00    0     0,00
M. castanicola       0     0,00    0     0,00
Total                149   100     130   100

Ni = The Number of individuals ; F (%) = centesimal frequency

Table 3: Constancy of aphids captured by trapping at the level of the
four parcels of study

Parcels              chickpea
Species
                     Flip 90/13C       Flip 93/93

                     Cons (%)   Cate   Cons (%)   Cate

A. fabae             54,54      Cons   36,36      Acc
A. craccivora        45,45      Acc    72,73      Cons
A. gossypii          45,45      Acc    36,36      Acc
A. citricola         18,18      Acd    09,09      Acd
A. nerii             09,09      Acd    18,18      Acd
A. idaei             27,27      Acd    09,09      Acd
A. verbasci          /          /      /          /
Aphis sp.            18,18      Acd    09,09      Acd
R. padi              63,64      Cons   63,64      Cons
R. maidis            45,45      Acc    18,18      Acd
R. insertum          /          /      09,09      Acd
R. rufiabdominalis   /          /      /          /
M. viciae            09,09      Acd    09,09      Acd
H. pruni             09,09      Acd    /          /
M. euphorbiae        36,36      Acc    18,18      Acd
M. rosae             18,18      Acd    09,09      Acd
M. helichrysi        09,09      Acd    /          /
T. taiwanus          /          /      09,09      Acd
E. elegans           /          /      09,09      Acd
A. rubi              /          /      /          /
A. pisum             09,09      Acd    18,18      Acd
A.bidentis           /          /      /          /
A. solani            27,27      Acd    27,27      Acc
H. lactucae          27,27      Acd    36,36      Acc
H. picridis          09,09      Acd    18,18      Acd
C. aegopodii         09,09      Acd    /          /
C. pastinacae        /          /      /          /
C. rib is            /          /      09,09      Acd
M. cerasi            09,09      Acd    /          /
M. persicae          36,36      Acc    27,27      Acc
M. ornatus           09,09      Acd    /          Acd
M. langei            09,09      Acd    /          Acd
B. cardui            09,09      Acd    27,27      Acd
B. rumexicolens      18,18      Acd    18,18      Acd
B. helichrysi        36,36      Acc    18,18      Acd
B. brassicae         /          /      09,09      Acd
L. erysimi           18,18      Acd    09,09      Acd
H. foeniculi                           /          /
H. coriandri         /          /      09,09      Acd
N. oliveri           09,09      Acd    /          /
N. ribisnigri        09,09      Acd    /          /
P. armoraciae                          /          /
P. nigronervosa      /          /      /          /
P. humuli            /          /      09,09      Acd
S. rotundiventris    18,18      Acd    09,09      Acd
S. avenae            /          /      /          /
S. graminis          /          /      /          /
D. plantaginea       /          /      18,18      Acd
D. apiifolia         27,27      Acc    18,18      Acd
D. tulipae           27,27      Acc    27,27      Acc
D. noxia             09,09      Acd    18,18      Acd
D. foeniculus        27,27      Acc    18,18      Acd
S. maydis            09,09      Acd    09,09      Acd
Pemphigus sp.        18,18      Acd    /          /
M. cactanicola       27,27      Acc    36,36      Acc

Parcels              Lentil
Species
                     Syrie             Mefropule

                     Cons (%)   Cate   Cons (%)   Cate

A. fabae             30,77      Acc    38,46      Acc
A. craccivora        46,15      Acc    76,92      Cons
A. gossypii          15,38      Acd    23,08      Acd
A. citricola         7,69       Acd    15,38      Acd
A. nerii             7,69       Acd    15,38      Acd
A. idaei             7,69       Acd    15,38      Acd
A. verbasci          /          /      23,08      Acd
Aphis sp.            15,38      Acd    15,38      Acd
R. padi              38,46      Acc    23,08      Acd
R. maidis            15,38      Acd    7,69       Acd
R. insertum          /          /      /          /
R. rufiabdominalis   /          /      15,38      Acd
M. viciae            7,69       Acd    7,69       Acd
H. pruni             /          /      /          /
M. euphorbiae        38,46      Acc    38,46      Acc
M. rosae             7,69       Acd    /          /
M. helichrysi        /          /      /          /
T. taiwanus          /          /      /          /
E. elegans           /          /      /          /
A. rubi              /          /      23,08      Acd
A. pisum             38,46      Acc    23,08      Acd
A.bidentis           /          /      15,38      Acd
A. solani            23,08      Acd    23,08      Acd
H. lactucae          15,38      Acd    23,08      Acd
H. picridis          /          Acd    15,38      Acd
C. aegopodii         15,38      Acd    7,69       Acd
C. pastinacae        /          /      7,69       Acd
C. rib is            /          /      /          /
M. cerasi            /          /      /          /
M. persicae          /          /      7,69       Acd
M. ornatus           /          Acd    /          Acd
M. langei            /          Acd    /          Acd
B. cardui            /          Acd    7,69       Acd
B. rumexicolens      /          Acd    15,38      Acd
B. helichrysi        /          Acd    23,08      Acd
B. brassicae         /          Acd    /          Acd
L. erysimi           7,69       Acd    15,38      Acd
H. foeniculi         7,69       Acd    7,69       Acd
H. coriandri         /          /      /          /
N. oliveri           /          /      /          /
N. ribisnigri        /          /      /          /
P. armoraciae        /          /      /          /
P. nigronervosa      7,69       Acd    /          /
P. humuli            /          /      7,69       Acd
S. rotundiventris    /          /      /          /
S. avenae            7,69       Acd    7,69       Acd
S. graminis          7,69       Acd    /          /
D. plantaginea       /          /      /          /
D. apiifolia         /          /      /          /
D. tulipae           /          /      /          /
D. noxia             /          Acd    7,69       Acd
D. foeniculus        15,38      Acd    15,38      Acd
S. maydis            /          /      /          /
Pemphigus sp.        15,38      Acd    /          /
M. cactanicola       /          /      /          /

Cons (%) : constancy.

Cate : category.

Cons : constant species.

Acc : incidental species.

Acd : accidental species.

Table 4: Aphids' species inventoried on the leaves of chickpea
(varieties Flip 90/13C and Flip 93/93) and of lentil (varieties Syrie
and Mefropule)

Species               Chickpea                   Lentil

                      Flip 90/13C   Flip 93/93   Syrie   Mefropule

Aphis fabae           +             +            -       +
Aphis craccivora      +             +            +       +
Aphis gossypii        +             -            +       +
Rhopalosiphum padi    +             +            -       +
Acyrthosiphon pisum   +             +            +       +
Sitobion avenae       -             -            +       -
Total                 5             4            4       5

Fig. 1 Relative abundances of aphids species settled
on chickpea leaves variety Flip 90/13C

A. gossypii     15%
A. craccivora   31%
A. fabae        10%
A. pisum         4%
R. padi         40%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Fig. 2: Relative abundances of aphids' species settled
on chickpea leaves variety Flip 93/93

A. craccivora   12%
A. fabae         3%
R. padi         58%
A. pisum        27%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Fig. 3: Relative abundances of aphids' species settled
on lentil leaves variety Syrie

A. craccivora    6%
A. gossypii     36%
A. pisum         4%
S. avenae       54%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Fig. 4: Relative abundances of aphids' species settled
on lentil leaves variety Mefropule

A. gossypii    14%
A. fabae        3%
A.craccivora   28%
A. pisum       26%
R. padi        29%

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Author:Benoufella-Kitous, Karima; Medjdoub-Bensaad, Ferroudja
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6ALGE
Date:Aug 1, 2016
Words:7208
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