Printer Friendly

Antibacterial activity of different types of snake venom from the Viperidae family against Staphylococcus aureus/Atividade antibacteriana de diferentes tipos de veneno de serpentes da familia Viperidae contra Staphylococcus aureus.

Introduction

Since the late 1940s, bacterial resistance to antibiotics has drastically increased worldwide. It negatively affects the treatment of all infectious diseases, and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity, significantly increasing the cost of health care (Martinez et al., 2009). S. aureus can be responsible for both local and generalized infections, and is naturally susceptible to nearly all antibiotics that have been developed (Chambers & DeLeo, 2009). The emergence of strains of S. aureus resistant to penicillin, methicillin, vancomycin and linezolid was reported soon after their clinical use (North & Christie, 1946; Labischinski, Ehlert, & Berger-Bachi, 1998; Tsiodras, et al., 2001). Multiple drug resistant S. aureus is one the most common nosocomial pathogens worldwide and is of great concern to the global health community. The NorA efflux pump is one of the major contributors to the resistance of S. aureus, promoting extrusion of chemically unrelated compounds, such as ethidium bromide, quaternary amine compounds, chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones from the cell (Costa, Viveiros, Amaral, & Couto, 2013). Moreover, S. aureus has the ability to form biofilm, which prevents antibiotics from accessing bacterial cells, thereby contributing to its success as a human pathogen (McCarthy et al., 2015).

As multidrug resistance is an increasing problem, it highlights the urgent need for new antibiotics and treatment strategies. The discovery of chemically diverse and relatively non-toxic antimicrobials from different natural sources shows the promise that natural products have as a source of new antimicrobial drugs (Lima et al., 2005; Abreu, McBain, & Simoes, 2012). A promising strategy to restore antibiotic effectiveness against pathogens has been the use of a combination of two or more antibiotics or of antibiotics and natural products, and the identification of efflux pump and biofilm inhibitors (Braga et al., 2005; Credito, Lin, & Appelbaum, 2007; Nascimento, Brandao, Oliveira, Fortes, & Chartone-Souza, 2007).

Snake venom, a complex mixture of proteins and peptides with potential biological activity, could lead to the development of new drugs with therapeutic significance (Ferreira et al., 2011; Vyas, Brahmbhatt, Bhatt, & Parmar, 2013). Snake venoms of the family Viperidae in particular are an important source of peptides, but they remain underexplored (Ferreira et al. 2011). Studies have already demonstrated that snake venoms of Bothrops jararaca (Ciscotto et al., 2009), B. leucurus (Nunes et al. 2011) B. marajoensis (Costa-Torres et al., 2010), Bothrops alternatus (Bustillo et al., 2008) Crotalus adamanteus (Samy, et al., 2014), C. durissuscumanensis (Vargas et al., 2012) and Porthidium nasutum (Vargas et al., 2013) have antibacterial activity.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antibacterial activity of crude snake venom from snake species of the genera Bothrops, Bothropoides and Rhinocerophis of the family Viperidae on S. aureus isolates. We also investigated the antibacterial activity of Bothrops moojeni venom, its interaction with antibiotics, as well as its inhibitory effect on biofilm formation and the NorA efflux pump.

Material and methods

Bacterial strains

Antibacterial activity and synergistic effects were evaluated against 22 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (Braga et al., 2005), and S. aureus strain RN 7044 carrying the plasmid pWBG32 which encodes the NorA efflux pump (Pillai, Pillai, Shankel, & Mitscher, 2001). In addition, S. aureus ATCC 25923 was included as a negative control. The bacteria were cultured in Muller-Hinton (MHB; Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Michigan) or Luria-Bertani (LB; Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Michigan) broths at 37[degrees] C for 24 hours.

Venoms and antibiotics

Venoms from Bothropoides erythromelas, Bothropoides jararaca, Bothropoides neuwiedi, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni and Rhinocerophis alternatus were kindly donated by the Serpentarium of Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, which is a recipient of the authorization no. 117521 from the brazilian institute of environment and renewable natural resources (IBAMA) to work with the wild fauna under the category 20.45 (scientific animal husbandry of the wild fauna for research purposes). Initially, crude venom was dissolved in ammonium acetate buffer (0.2 M, pH 8) in order to make stock solutions of 20 mg [mL.sup.-1] that were centrifuged at 10,000 x g for 10 minuntes at 4[degrees] C. The supernatant was aliquoted and then stored at -20[degrees] C until use.

The following antibiotics were used in this study: amoxicillin/clavulanate (Glaxo Smith Kline, Brentford, Middlesex, UK), and ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin (Sigma Chemical Co. St. Louis, MO, USA). Beta-lactams were chosen for having an effect on a wide range of infectious agents, whereas fluoroquinolones are widely used against multi-resistant cocci infections.

Fractionation of Bothrops moojeni venom

Crude venom of B. moojeni was dissolved in 0.2 M ammonium acetate pH 8 at a concentration of 50 mg [mL.sup.-1] and centrifuged for 10 min at 10,000 g at 4[degrees] C. The supernatant was removed and subjected to gel filtration. Fractionation was performed on an Akta Purifier System using the chromatographic column Sephacryl S-100 XK 16/60, both from GE Healthcare (Uppsala, Sweden), with 0.2 M ammonium acetate pH 8 as elution buffer in a 1 mL [min.sup.-1] flow. Aliquots of 2 mL were collected, pooled into six major fractions according to their elution time, lyophilized and resuspended in ultrapure water. The fraction with antibacterial activity was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography, using a |iRPC C2/C18 ST 4.6/100 reverse phase column (GE Healthcare, Uppsala, Sweden), previously equilibrated with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Elution of the unbound sample was carried out for 2 column volumes with 0.1 % TFA (buffer A). The bound sample was eluted under a linear gradient from 0 to 80% acetonitrile (buffer B) added to buffer A at a flow rate of 0.7 ml [min.sup.-1].

Amino acid sequencing

Intact protein (20 xg) was solubilized in acetonitrile/water solution (1:1) and submitted to Edman degradation using a Shimadzu PPSQ-21A automated protein sequencer. The resulting sequence was compared with the sequences of other related proteins in the SWISS-PROT/TREMBL data bases using the programs FASTA 3 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/services/web/toolresult. ebi?jobId=fasta) and BLAST (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast). Later, sequences were aligned using the program Mafft (http://mafft.cbrc.jp/alignment/software/).

Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC)

Determination of MIC was performed by the broth dilution method in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2016) and using MHB with an inoculum of approximately [10.sup.5] colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU [mL.sup.-1]). The MHB was supplemented with serial antibiotic concentrations ranging from 0.0612 to 1,024 [micro]g [mL.sup.-1] and venoms at concentrations from 2 to 1,024. To evaluate the effect of venoms in combination with antibiotics, increasing concentrations (with a 2-fold step, i.e., 0.0612, 0.125, ..., 1024 [micro]g [mL.sup.-1]) of these antibiotics were added to MHB containing venom at 1/2 X MIC. MICs were interpreted as the lowest concentration of antibiotics or venoms that inhibited visible growth after 24 hours of incubation at 37[degrees] C.

To evaluate the effect of B. moojeni venom as a resistance-modifying agent, crude venom in combination with antibiotics in different concentrations (1/2, 1/4, 1/8 x MIC) were used. Cultures that contained neither venom nor antibiotics were included as controls; all tests were carried out in duplicate. The MIC was defined as the lowest concentration that completely suppressed visible growth after 24 hours of incubation at 37[degrees] C. The bactericidal concentration was the lowest concentration at which bacteria failed to grow in MHB and after plating onto Muller-Hinton agar (Smith-Palmer, Stewart, & Fyfe, 1998).

Survival curves

Growth curves for S. aureus RN 7044 were determined by the use of the dilution tube method with 1 X [10.sup.5] CFU [mL.sup.-1] as standard inoculum in the presence of B. moojeni venom at concentrations of 1/2 and 1 x MIC, in MBH and in combination with 1/2 x MIC of ciprofloxacin. A tube containing only MHB was inoculated and included as a control. Tubes were incubated at 37[degrees] C for 24 hours. At different times (3, 6, 9 12, 24, 36 hours), the optical density (OD) of each culture was read at 600 nm using a NanoDrop Spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies) for CFU [mL.sup.-1] determination. Bacterial density (CFU [mL.sup.-1]) was then determined.

Monitoring of ethidium bromide efflux

S. aureus RN 7044 was cultured with aeration in MHB at 37[degrees] C up to OD600 = 1.8. The culture was further incubated for 30 min at 37[degrees] C in the absence or presence of B. moojeni venom after which 20 [micro]g [mL.sup.-1] ethidium bromide were added and the cells were again incubated for 30 min at 37[degrees] C. The cells were then collected by centrifugation (5,000g) and washed twice with 20 mmol [L.sup.-1] HEPES-NaOH (pH 7) buffer, followed by resuspension in the same buffer at a final OD269 = 0.1. Fluorescence of ethidium bromide was measured using a Varian fluorescence reader (Cary Eclipse Fluorescence Spectrophotometer, Palo Alto, CA, USA) with excitation at 269 nm and emission at 600 nm for 1 hour. Readings were taken with the fluorescence reader set at high sensitivity every minute for the first 5 min, then every 5 min until the end of 90 min.

Biofilm inhibition assays

The effect of B. moojeni venom on the biofilm formed by S. aureus RN7044 was tested according to Pimenta, Martino, Bouder, Hulen, & Bligh (2003) with modifications. Briefly, S. aureus was grown in LB medium at 37[degrees] C for 24 hours. Afterwards, 0.1 mL of culture containing approximately [10.sup.5] CFU [mL.sup.-1] were transferred to a polystyrene 96-well microplate containing either LB medium or LB medium supplemented with the B. moojeni venom at the concentrations of 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 x MIC, and then incubated at 37[degrees] C for 24 hours. Following the incubation period, the suspension cultures were discarded, the plate was washed three times with distilled water and the biofilms were stained with 0.1% crystal violet for 30 minutes at room temperature. Extra dye was then removed by five washes with distilled water. The dye retained by the cells of the biofilm was dissolved with 120 [micro]L of 1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate. The results were recorded as absorbance at 595 nm to quantify total biofilm mass.

Detection of mutants resistant to Bothrops moojeni venom

Spontaneous mutants of S. aureus RN 7044 resistant to B. moojeni venom were obtained as described previously (Szybalsky & Bryson 1952). Twenty milliliters of culture in MBH was grown for 24 hours at 37[degrees] C, centrifuged at 3,000 x g for 20 min at 4[degrees] C and resuspended in [10.sup.-1] of the initial volume in saline (0.9% NaCl). After this, 0.1 mL was spread onto a gradient plate supplemented with venom at concentrations of 2, 5, and 10 x MIC and incubated at 37[degrees] C. The results were read at 24, 36, 72 and 96 hours. Mutant colonies were considered those that had grown beyond the edge of confluent growth.

Determination of the fractional inhibitory concentration

The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index is frequently used to assess the drug interactions (Mackay et al. 2000). The indices were calculated as follows: FIC of drug A = MIC drug A + venom/ MIC drug A alone. The interpretation was made as follows: synergy ([less than or equal to] 0.5), indifference (>0.5 to 4), and antagonism (>4).

Statistical analysis

Mann-Whitney U test at R platform was used to determine significant differences between venom's MIC, with 5% of significance.

Results and discussion

In this study, the susceptibility of S. aureus to seven snake venoms from the family Viperidae (Bothropoides erythromelas, B. jararaca, B. neuwiedi, B. atrox, B. jararacussu, B. moojeni and Rhinocerophis alternatus) was determined. MICs of the crude snake venoms are shown in Table 1. Although all the venoms came from snakes of the same family, great variation in MIC (from 2 to >1,024 [micro]g [mL.sup.-1]) was observed against S. aureus. Moreover, no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed among the MICs of different venoms, except for the Bothropoides erythromelas and B. jararaca venoms. However, the mean MIC of B. moojeni venom was the lowest, being chosen for further studies.

For all venoms tested, MICs were greater than 1,024 [micro]g [mL.sup.-1] for ten out of the 22 S. aureus isolates, whereas the remaining isolates had MICs > 1,024 [micro]g [mL.sup.-1] against at least one of the venoms. B. jararaca showed weak antibacterial activity against all clinical isolates and the reference strain (ATCC 25923) with MIC > 1,024 [micro]g [mL.sup.-1]. Similar results were obtained with B. erythromelas venom. In contrast, S. aureus RN 7044 was more sensitive to venoms of B. atrox and B. neuwiedi. Moreover, our data revealed that the type ATCC strain was less sensitive than the S. aureus isolates. Interestingly, minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) correlated with the MICs for all venoms tested.

There are several reports in the literature on the antibacterial activity of snake venom against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (Lu et al., 2002; Stabeli et al., 2004; Klein et al., 2015), including Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina spp., Escherichia coli and S. aureus. A previous study with B. marajoensis venom (also of the family Viperidae), revealed that it was able to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and Candida albicans, thereby demonstrating an antifungal effect is also present in some venoms (Costa-Torres et al., 2010).

The MICs of six antibiotics belonging to two classes are shown in Table 2. Overall, the isolates were resistant to three of the six antibiotics tested. The isolates exhibited resistance to [beta]-lactams, with the highest frequency of resistance to ampicillin (100%) and amoxicillin/clavulanate (63.6%). The increase in the frequency of isolates of S. aureus resistant to (3-lactam antibiotics has been reported in the literature since the beginning of its clinical use in 1940 (Livermore, 2000). Alzolibani et al. (2012) found 96.7% ampicillin resistance in clinical isolates of S. aureus, which agrees with the data obtained in our study.

Among the quinolones of clinical use, the isolates were resistant to only of loxacin (45.4%). It should be noted that all the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and norfloxacin. Similarly, Kowalski et al. (2003) suggest that S. aureus had increased susceptibility to fourth generation fluoroquinolones. In contrast, other studies revealed high frequency of resistance to ciprofloxacin (Alzolibani et al., 2012; Flamm et al., 2012; Kwak et al., 2013). A possible explanation for this discrepancy could be that the isolates tested in this study were collected in the late 70s and early 80s prior to the introduction of fluoroquinolones to clinical use.

The capacity of B. moojeni venom to enhance the activity of the tested antibiotics was also investigated. The MICs of antibiotics and B. moojeni venom individually and in combination are shown in Table 2. A synergic effect (FIC index of 0.5) was observed between B. moojeni venom and all antibiotics investigated. The combinations of the B. moojeni venom with, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacinin and ofloxacin achieved synergy of 50%, 22.7%, 45.5%, 18.2%, 86.4% and 31.8%, respectively, in the S. aureus clinical isolates. Moreover, no antagonistic action was found. These results suggest that B. moojeni venom increased the antibacterial activity of these antibiotics against S. aureus. It should be noted that five of the six [beta]-lactamase positive isolates were inhibited by the combination of ampicillin and B. moojeni venom. Additionally, the reduction of the MIC of ofloxacin, when in combination with B. moojeni venom, for the isolate 40 ([beta]-lactamase positive, methicillin-resistant S. aureus-MRSA), and the isolate 54 ([beta]-lactamase positive) led to the reversal of ofloxacin resistance in these isolates.

Previous studies have reported antimicrobial peptides in various animal venoms, which are traditionally associated with defense mechanisms, such as antibacterial activity (Jenssen, Hamill, & Hancock, 2006; Wang, Li, & Wang, 2009). Moreover, other studies have shown that the fluoroquinolones, erythromycin and rifampicin had their effects enhanced by antimicrobial peptides, demonstrating synergistic action (Ulvatne, Karoliussen, Stiberg, Rekdal, & Svendsen, 2001; Fehri, Wroblewski, & Blanchard, 2007).

Among the fractions of B. moojeni venom obtained by gel filtration chromatography, the fraction BmooIV (Figure 1A) was the only one that exhibited antibacterial activity when tested against S. aureus RN 7044 (Figure 2A). The antibacterial activity of BmooIV was detected in the amount of 1.14 mg [mL.sup.-1] of protein. To investigate whether BmooIV also had the ability to enhance the susceptibility of S. aureus RN 7044 to ciprofloxacin it was tested in combination with this antibiotic, both in 1/2 x MIC concentration. The result indicated the reversal of phenotypic resistance to ciprofloxacin of S. aureus RN 7044

The fraction BmooIV was lyophilized and subjected to a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on the [micro]iRPC C2/C18 reverse phase column (Figure 1B). The fraction obtained from reverse phase named Bmoo-SII presented antibacterial activity when tested against S. aureus RN 7044. It also enhanced the susceptibility of S. aureus RN 7044 to ciprofloxacin, when tested in combination, both at 1/2 x MIC concentration (Figure 2B).

The comparison of 50 amino acids residues from Bmoo-SII placed it in the phospholipase [A.sub.2] superfamily with high identity to Myotoxin II from B. moojeni and basic phospholipase [A.sub.2] from B. moojeni and B. asper (Figure 3). Silveira et al. (2013) characterized the phospholipase [A.sub.2] ([PLA.sub.2]) from B. moojeni. [PLA.sub.2] was first purified and characterized from cobra venom and later from rattlesnake venom. They are small, secreted proteins of 14-18 kDa that usually contain 6 to 8 disulfide bonds. Queiroz et al. (2011) compared their results with other studies (Soares et al. 1998; Soares et al., 2000; Borja-Oliveira et al., 2007; Calgarotto, et al., 2008; Santos-Filho et al., 2008), which reported isoforms of [PLA.sub.2] myotoxin of B. moojeni with molecular weight ranging between 13,400 Da to 16,500 Da. Thus, we were able to infer from the amino acids residues obtained in our analysis that Bmoo-SII has a molecular weight within this range.

[PLA.sub.2] plays important roles in cellular signaling and metabolism. It also participates in the first line of antimicrobial defense (Nevalainen, Graham, & Scott, 2008; Dennis, Cao, Hsu, Magrioti, & Kokotos, 2011). The bactericidal action of [PLA.sub.2] depends on whether the bacteria are gram-positive or gram-negative. In general, [PLA.sub.2] hydrolyses the phospholipid membrane of the bacteria cell causing death to both gram-positive as gram-negative bacteria (Nevalainen et al., 2008). In vitro studies by Gronroos, Laine, Janssen, Egmond, & Nevalainen, 2001, showed that [PLA.sub.2]s from groups IIA and V were found to kill both methicillin-resistant staphylococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Snake venom from the family Viperidae possesses [PLA.sub.2] from group IIA (Dennis et al., 2011). The efficiency of [PLA.sub.2] against antibiotic-resistant bacteria is an important property that holds promise for biotechnological applications.

Survival kinetics were evaluated for S. aureus RN7044, for which synergistic activity had been observed (Figure 4). A bactericidal profile was observed at sub-inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin (1/2 x MIC) and B. moojeni venom (1/2 x MIC) and of B. moojeni crude venom alone (1 x MIC). It should be noted that B. moojeni venom or ciprofloxacin, when tested individually in sub-MIC concentrations, allowed bacterial growth similar to that of the control, although there was a longer lag phase in these concentrations.

The possible inhibitory action to the efflux pump of S. aureus RN 7044 by B. moojeni venom was evaluated by the loss of fluorescence (Figure 5). In the control culture, a greater reduction in the fluorescence between 10 and 20 minutes due to the higher extrusion of ethidium bromide by the NorA efflux pump was observed. Cultures exposed to B. moojeni venom (1/2 x MIC) presented similar results to the control. However, when B. moojeni venom was used in combination with ciprofloxacin (both 1/2 x MIC) a slower descent in fluorescence was noticed, indicating a reduction in pump activity. Although the crude venom and ciprofloxacin (both 1/2 x MIC) by themselves were not effective antibacterials, they can reverse the resistance by blocking the NorA efflux pump. Previous studies have identified products from natural sources as inhibitors of the S. aureus NorA efflux pump, which co-administered with fluoroquinolone can potentiate its antibacterial activity (Marquez et al., 2005).

To date, most studies of the activity of snake venom on bacteria have focused on their bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects. In this study, we evaluated the influence of B. moojeni venom as a therapeutic agent for biofilm formation by S. aureus RN 7044. When tested with 1/2 x MIC, B. moojeni venom was able to inhibit 90% of biofilm formation, without affecting bacterial growth. Recently, Klein et al. (2015) demonstrated for the first time that a lectin purified from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu disrupts staphylococcal biofilms. These findings are of interest because nosocomial infections involving the formation of biofilm caused by S. aureus are often difficult to treat with antibiotics.

Considering the relevance of resistant mutants in the search for potential antimicrobial agents against S. aureus, we investigated the occurrence of mutants in a gradient plate. At concentrations of 2, 5 and 10 x MIC of B. moojeni venom, a small number of mutant colonies was detected after 48 hours of incubation (Figure. 6). The relatively low frequency of the spontaneous emergence of mutants resistant to B. moojeni in the population of S. aureus RN 7044, as well as their inability to grow after consecutive subcultures on non-selective medium, is relevant since the loss of viability of the mutant S. aureus and the inhibitory power of B. moojeni venom can be explored further with the aim of possible biotechnological application.

The results show that B. moojeni venom and its bioactive constituent (phospholipase [A.sub.2]) possess strong antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and its biofilm formation. The fact that B. moojeni venom displayed greater potency than other venoms was not investigated, but may be due to the presence of the enzyme [PLA.sub.2]. B. moojeni venom enhanced antibiotic susceptibility, mostly in combination with norfloxacin. The effects of B. moojeni venom on the biofilm formation, efflux pump, and occurrence of mutants of S. aureus all promise to be useful in the search for antibacterial agents against drug resistant S. aureus.

Doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v39i3.33826

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge financial support from Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq) and Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES). We thank Mr. Romulo Righi de Toledo from the Serpentarium for providing the venoms.

References

Abreu, A. C., McBain, A. J., & Simoes, M. (2012). Plants as sources of new antimicrobials and resistance-modifying agents. Natural Product Reports, 29(9), 1007-1021.

Alzolibani, A. A., Al Robaee, A. A., Al Shobaili, H. A., Bilal, J. A., Ahmad, M. I., & Saif, G. B. (2012). Documentation of vancomicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) among children with atopic dermatitis in the Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Acta Dermatovenereologica, 21, 51-53. doi: 10.2478/v10162012-0015-2

Borja-Oliveira C. R., Kassab B. H., Soares A. M., Toyama M. H., Giglio J. R., Marangoni S., ... Rodrigues-Simioni L. (2007). Purification and n-terminal sequencing of two presynaptic neurotoxic PLA2, neuwieditoxin-i and neuwieditoxin-ii, from Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis (Jararaca pintada) venom. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, 13, 103-121.

Braga, L. C, Leite, A. A., Xavier, K. G., Takahashi, J. A., Bemquerer, M. P., Chartone-Souza, E., & Nascimento A. M. (2005). Synergic interaction between pomegranate extract and antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 51(7), 541-547.

Bustillo, S., Leiva, L. C., Merino, L., Acosta, O., Joffe, E. B. K., & Gorodner, J. O. (2008). Antimicrobial activity of Bothrops alternatus venom from the Northeast of Argentine. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiologia, 50(34), 79-82.

Calgarotto, A. K., Damico, D. C., Ponce-Soto, L. A., Baldasso, P. A., Da Silva, S. L., Souza, G. H., ... Marangon, S. (2008). Biological and biochemical characterization of new basic phospholipase A2BmTX-I isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. Toxicon, 51(8), 1509-1519.

Chambers, H. F., & DeLeo, F. R. (2009) Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the antibiotic era. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 7(9), 629-641.

Ciscotto. P., Avila, R. A. M., Coelho, E. A. F., Oliveira, J., Diniz, C. G., Farias, L. M., ... Chavez-Olortegui, C. (2009). Antigenic, microbicidal and antiparasitic properties of an L-aminoacid oxidase isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom. Toxicon, 53(3), 330-341.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). (2016). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Six Informational Supplement M100-S26. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Costa, S. S., Viveiros, M., Amaral, L., & Couto, I. (2013). Multidrug efflux pumps in Staphylococcus aureus: an Update. The Open Microbiology Journal, 7(Suppl 1-M5), 59-71.

Costa-Torres, A. F., Dantas, R. T., Toyama, M. H., Diz Filho, E., Zara, F. J., Queiroz, M. G. R., ... Martins, A. M. (2010). Antibacterial and antiparasitic effects of Bothrops marajoensis venom and its fractions: Phospholipase A2 and L-a minoacid oxidase. Toxicon, 55(4), 795-804.

Credito, K., Lin, G, & Appelbaum, P. C. (2007). Activity of daptomycin alone and in combination with rifampin and gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus assessed by time-kill methodology. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 51(4), 1504-1507.

Dennis, E. A., Cao, J., Hsu, Y. H., Magrioti, V., & Kokotos, G. (2011). Phospholipase [A.sub.2] enzymes: physical structure, biological function, disease implication, chemical inhibition, and therapeutic intervention. Chemical Reviews, 111(10), 6130-6185.

Fehri, L. F., Wroblewski, H., & Blanchard, A. (2007). Activities of antimicrobial peptides and synergy with enrofloxacin against Mycoplasma pulmonis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 51(2), 468-474.

Ferreira, B. L., Santos, D. O, Santos, A. L., Rodrigues, C. R., Freitas, C. C., Cabral, L. M., & Castro, H. C. (2011). Comparative analysis of viperidae venoms antibacterial profile: a short communication for proteomics. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ID 960267. doi:10.1093/ecam/nen052

Flamm, R. K., Farrell, D. J., Mendes, R. E., Ross, J. E., Sader, H. S., & Jones, R. N. (2012). LEADER surveillance program results for 2010: an activity and spectrum analysis of linezolid using 6801 clinical isolates from the United States (61 medical centers). Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 74(1), 54-61.

Gronroos, J. O., Laine, V. J. O., Janssen, M. J. W., Egmond, M. R., & Nevalainen, T. J. (2001). Bactericidal properties of group IIA and group V phospholipases A2. The Journal of Immunology, 166(6), 4029-4034.

Jenssen, H., Hamill, P., & Hancock, R. E. W. (2006). Peptide antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 19(3), 491-511.

Klein, R. C., Fabres-Klein, M. H., de Oliveira, L. L., Feio, R. N., Malouin, F., & Ribon, A. O. B. (2015) A C-Type lectin from Bothrops jararacussu venom disrupts staphylococcal biofilms. PLoS ONE, 10(3), e0120514. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120514

Kowalski, R. P., Dhaliwal, D. K., Karenchak, L. M., Romanowski, E. G., Mah, F. S., Ritterband, D. C., & Gordon, Y. J. (2003). Gatifloxacin and norfloxacin: an in vitro susceptibility comparison to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin using bacterial keratitis isolates. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 136(3), 500-505.

Kwak, Y. G., Truong-Balduc, Q. C., Kim, H. B., Song, K., Kim, E. S., & Hooper, D. C. (2013). Association of NorB overexpression and fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from Korea. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 68(12), 2766-2772.

Labischinski, H., Ehlert, K., & Berger-Bachi, B. (1998). The targeting of factors necessary for the expression of methicillin resistance in staphylococci. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 41(6), 581-584.

Lima, D. C., Abreu, P. A., Freitas, C. C., Santos, D. O., Borges, R. O., dos Santos, T. C., ... Castro, H. C. (2005) Snake venom: any clue for antibiotics and CAM? Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2(1), 39-47.

Livermore, D. M. (2000). Antibiotic resistance in staphylococci. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 16(Suppl. 1), S03-S10.

Lu, Q. M., Wei, Q., Jin, Y., Wei, J. F., Wang, W. Y., & Xiong, Y. L. (2002). L-Amino acid oxidase from Trimeresurus jerdonii snake venom: purification, characterization, platelet aggregation-inducing and antibacterial effects. Journal of Natural Toxins, 11(4), 345-352.

Mackay, M. L., Milne, K., & Gould, I. M. 2000. Comparison of methods for assessing synergic antibiotic interactions. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 15(2), 125-129.

Marquez, B., Neuville, L., Moreau, N. J., Genet, J. P., Santos, A. F., de Andrade, M. C. C., & Sant'Ana, A. E.G. (2005). Multidrug resistance reversal agent from Jatropha elliptica. Phytochemistry, 66(15), 1804-1811.

Martinez, J. L., Fajardo, A., Garmendia, L., Hernandez, A., Linares, J. F., Martinez-Solano, L., & Sanchez, M. B. (2009). A global view of antibiotic resistance. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 33(1), 44-65.

McCarthy, H., Rudkin, J. K., Black, N. S., Gallagher, L., O'Neill, E., & O'Gara, J. P. (2015). Methicillin resistance and the biofilm phenotype in Staphylococcus aureus. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 5, 1-9. doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2015.00001.

Nascimento, A. M.A, Brandao, M. G. L, Oliveira, G. B., Fortes, I. C. P., & Chartone-Souza, E. (2007). Synergistic bactericidal activity of Eremanthus erythropappus oil or P-bisabolene with ampicillin against Staphylococcus aureus. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 92(1), 95-100.

Nevalainen, T. J., Graham, G. G., & Scott, K. F. (2008). Antibacterial actions of secreted phospholipases A2. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1781(1-2), 1-9.

North, E. A., & Christie, R. (1946). Acquired resistance of staphylococci to the action of penicillin. Medical Journal of Australia, 1, 176-179.

Nunes, E. S., de Souza, M. A. A., Vaz, A. F. M., Santana, G. M. S., Gomes, F. S., Coelho, L.... Correia, M. T. S. (2011). Purification of a lectin with antibacterial activity from Bothrops leucurus snake venom. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 159(1), 57-63.

Pillai, S. P., Pillai, C. A., Shankel, D. M., & Mitscher, L. A. (2001). The ability of certain antimutagenic agents to prevent development of antibiotic resistance. Mutation Research, 496(1-2), 61-73.

Pimenta, A. L., Martino, P. D., Bouder, E. L., Hulen, C., & Bligh, M. A. (2003). In vitro identification of two adherence factors required for in vivo virulence of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Microbes and Infection, 5(3), 1177-1187.

Queiroz, M. R., Mamede, C. C., Fonseca, K. C., Canabrava, L. C. M. N., Franca, L. V., Silva, M. C., ... Oliveira, F. (2011). Biological characterization of a myotoxin phosphoplipase [A.sub.2] homologue purified from the venom of the snake Bothrops moojeni. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, 17(1), 49-58.

Samy, R. P., Kandasamy, M., Gopalakrishnakone, P., Stiles, B. G., Rowan, E. G., Becker, D.,. Chow, V. T. K. (2014). Wound healing activity and mechanisms of action of an antibacterial protein from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). PLoS ONE, 9(2), e80199. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080199

Santos-Filho, N. A., Silveira, L. B., Oliveira, C. Z., Bernardes, C. P., Menaldo, D.L, Fuly, A. L., ... Soares, A. M. (2008). A new acidic myotoxic, anti-platelet and prostaglandin I2 inductor phospholipase A2 isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. Toxicon, 52(8), 908-917.

Silveira, L. B., Marchi-Salvador, D. P., Santos-Filho, N. A., Silva Jr, F. P., Marcussi, S., Fuly A. L., ... Soares, A. M. (2013). Isolation and expression of a hypotensive and anti-platelet acidic phospholipase [A.sub.2] from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 73, 35-43. doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2012.04.008

Smith-Palmer, A., Stewart, J., & Fyfe, L. (1998). Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils and essences against five important food-borne pathogens. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 26(2), 118-122.

Soares, A. M., Andriao-Escarso, S. H., Angulo, Y., Lomonte, B., Gutierrez, J. M., Marangoni, S., ... Giglio, J. R. (2000). Structural and functional characterization of myotoxin I, a Lys49 phospholipase [A.sub.2] homologue from Bothrops moojeni (Caissaca) snake venom. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 373(1), 715.

Soares, A. M., Rodrigues, V. M., Homsi-Brandeburgo, M. I., Toyama, M. H., Lombardi, F. R., Arni, R. K., & Giglio, J. R. (1998). A rapid procedure for the isolation of the Lys-49 myotoxin II from Bothrops moojeni (caissaca) venom: biochemical characterization, crystallization, myotoxic and edematogenic activity. Toxicon, 36(3), 503-514.

Stabeli, R. G., Marcussi, S., Carlos, G. B., Pietro, R. C. L. R., Selistre-de-Araujo, H. S., Giglio, J. R., ... Soares, A. M. (2004). Platelet aggregation and antibacterial effects of an L-amino acid oxidase purified from Bothrops alternates snake venom. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 12(11), 2881-2886.

Szybalsky, W., & Bryson, V. (1952). Genetics studies on microbial cross resistance to toxic agents. Journal of Bacteriology, 64(4), 489-499.

Tsiodras, S., Gold, H. S., Sakoulas, G., Eliopoulos, G. M., Wennersten, C., Venkataraman, L., & Ferraro, M. J. (2001). Linezolid resistance in a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. The Lancet, 358(9277), 207-208.

Ulvatne, H., Karoliussen, S., Stiberg, T., Rekdal, 0., & Svendsen, J. S. (2001). Short antibacterial peptides and erythromycin act synergically against Escherichia coli. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 48(2), 203-208.

Vargas, J. H., Quintana, J. C., Pereanez, J. A., Nunez, V., Sanz, L., & Calvete, J. (2013). Cloning and characterization of an antibacterial L-amino acid oxidase from Crotalus durissuscumanensis venom. Toxicon, 64, 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.11.027

Vargas, L. J., Londono, M., Quintana, J. C., Rua, C., Segura, C., Lomonte, B., & Nunez, V. (2012). An acidic phospholipase [A.sub.2] with antibacterial activity from Porthidium nasutum snake venom. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 161(4), 341-347.

Vyas, V. K., Brahmbhatt, K., Bhatt, H., & Parmar, U. (2013). Therapeutic potential of snake venom in cancer therapy: current perspectives. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 3(2), 156-162.

Wang, G., Li, X., & Wang, Z. (2009). APD2: the updated antimicrobial peptide database and its application in peptide design. Nucleic Acids Research, 37(Suppl. 1), 933-937.

Received on September 3, 2016.

Accepted on June 12, 2017.

Isabela Nascimento Canhas (1), Luiz Guilherme Dias Heneine (2), Thais Fraga (1), Debora Cristina Sampaio de Assis (3), Marcia Helena Borges (2), Edmar Chartone-Souza (1) and Andrea Maria Amaral Nascimento (1) *

(1) Departamento de Biologia Geral, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. (2) Departamento de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. (3) Departamento de Tecnologia e Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal, Escola de Veterinaria, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. *Author for correspondence. E-mail: amaral@ufmg.br

Caption: Figure 1. A. Chromatographic profile of Bothrops moojeni venom separation in gel filtration Sephacryl-S100 XK 16/60 column. The pointer indicates the fraction named BmooIV. B Chromatographic profile of BmooIV in [micro]RPC C2-C18 the reverse phase column. The highest peak is Bmoo-SII.

Caption: Figure 2. A. Activity of BmooIV against Staphylococcus aureus RN 7044. 1- BmooIV (1.14 mg [mL.sup.-1] - 1 x MIC); 2- Bothrops moojeni crude venom (1 x MIC); 3- BmooIV (0.57 mg [mL.sup.-1] - 1/2 x MIC); 4- BmooIV (0.57 mg [mL.sup.-1] - 1/2 x MIC) in combination with ciprofloxacin (64 [micro]g [mL.sup.-1] - 1/2 x MIC); 5- Ciprofloxacin (64 [micro]g [mL.sup.-1] - 1/2 x MIC); and 6- Elution buffer 0.2 M ammonium acetate pH 8. B. Antibacterial activity of Bmoo-SII against S. aureus RN 7044. 1- Elution buffer 0.2 M ammonium acetate pH 8; 2- Bmoo-SII (50 [micro]L - 1/2 x MIC) in combination with ciprofloxacin (64 [micro]g [mL.sup.-1] - 1/2 x MIC); and 3- Bmoo-SII (100 [micro]L - 1 x MIC).

Caption: Figure 3. Alignment of Bmoo-SII with other phospholipase [A.sub.2]-like sequences.

Caption: Figure 4. Survival curves of Staphylococcus aureus RN 7044 alone (control), in the presence of ciprofloxacin (1/2 MIC) alone, in the presence of Bothrops moojeni venom (1/2 and 1 x MIC) alone, and in the presence of the combination of the two (1/2 MIC).

Caption: Figure 5. Measurement of active efflux of ethidium bromide in Staphylococcus aureus RN 7044 with excitation at 269 nm and emission at 600 nm.

Caption: Figure 6. Mutants on Muller-Hinton agar gradient plate with Bothrops moojeni venom (10 x MIC) after 48 hours of incubation at 37[degrees] C.
Table 1. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of snake venom from
the Viperidae family against clinical isolates and strains of
Staphylococcus aureus

                             MIC ([micro]g [mL.sup.-1])

Isolate/     Bothropoides   Bothropoides   Bothropoides   Bothrops
Strain       erythromelas     jararaca       neuwiedi      atrox

RN 7044           32            512             2            2
ATCC 25923      >1,024         >1,024           64           64
7               >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
8               >1,024         >1,024           64           64
10              >1,024         >1,024           64           64
12              >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
17               512           >1,024           64           64
22              >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
23              >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
25              >1,024         >1,024           64           64
29              >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
30              >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
31              >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
34              >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
37              >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
40              >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
41              >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
42              >1,024         >1,024           64           64
44              >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
48              >1,024         >1,024         >1,024       >1,024
49              >1,024         >1,024           64           64
50              >1,024         >1,024           64           64
52               512           >1,024           64           64
54              >1,024         >1,024           64           64

                 MIC ([micro]g [mL.sup.-1])

Isolate/      Bothrops     Bothrops   Rhinocerophis
Strain       jararacussu   moojeni     alternatus

RN 7044           8           4             4
ATCC 25923       64          128           64
7              >1,024       >1,024       >1,024
8                64           8            64
10               64         >1,024         64
12             >1,024       >1,024       >1,024
17               64           2            64
22             >1,024       >1,024       >1,024
23             >1,024       >1,024       >1,024
25               64         >1,024         64
29             >1,024         2          >1,024
30             >1,024         4          >1,024
31             >1,024       >1,024       >1,024
34             >1,024       >1,024       >1,024
37             >1,024       >1,024       >1,024
40             >1,024       >1,024       >1,024
41             >1,024       >1,024       >1,024
42               64           8            64
44             >1,024        128         >1,024
48             >1,024       >1,024       >1,024
49             >1,024        256           64
50               64          128           64
52               64           16           64
54             >1,024         8            64

Table 2. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics alone,
and in combination with 1/2 x MIC of Bothrops moojeni.

Isolate/        Amoxicillin/       Ampicillin
Strain          Clavulanate

              MIC     MIC (a)    MIC     MIC (a)

RN 7044        4         2       0.5      0.25
ATCC 25923   0.0612   0.0612     0.5      0.25
7 *           128       128      256       128
8             0.5       0.5      0.5      0.25
10            128       128      128       128
12            128       128      128       128
17            128       128       16        8
22            128       128      256       128
23 * (+)     1,024     1,024     512       256
25            0.5       0.5      0,5      0.25
29             64       64       128       128
30            0.5       0.5       2         2
31            128       128       64       64
34            256       256      128       128
37 * (+)      256       256       64       64
40 * (+)      256       128      256       128
41            512       512      256       256
42            0.5      0.25      0.5      0.25
44 *          256       256      256       128
48            128       128      256       256
49            0.5      0.25     0.0612   0.0612
50            0.5      0.25      0.5      0.25
52            0.5       0.5     0.125     0.125
54 *          0.5      0.25       1        0.5

Isolate/       Ciprofloxacin        Levofloxacin
Strain
              MIC     MIC (a)    MIC     MIC (a)

RN 7044       128       64        16       16
ATCC 25923     1        0.5      0.5      0.25
7 *          0.0612   0.0612    0.125     0.125
8              2         1        1        0.5
10            0.25     0.25     0.125     0.125
12           0.0612   0.0612    0.0612   0.0612
17             1        0.5      0.5       0.5
22           0.0612   0.0612     0.5       0.5
23 * (+)     0.125    0.0612    0.125     0.125
25             2         1       0.5       0.5
29            0.25     0.25     0.0612   0.0612
30            0.5      0.25      0.5      0.25
31           0.125     0.125    0.125     0.125
34           0.0612   0.0612    0.0612   0.0612
37 * (+)      0,5      0,25     0.0612   0.0612
40 * (+)     0.125     0.125    0.125     0.125
41           0.0612   0.0612    0.0612   0.0612
42             1         1       0.25     0.25
44 *         0.0612   0.0612    0.0612   0.0612
48           0.0612   0.0612    0.0612   0.0612
49             1        0.5     0.125     0.125
50             1        0.5      0.5      0.25
52             2         1      0.125     0.125
54 *           2         1        1        0.5

Isolate/      Norfloxacin       Ofloxacin
Strain
             MIC   MIC (a)    MIC     MIC (a)

RN 7044      256     128       64       64
ATCC 25923   0.5    0.25      0.5      0.25
7 *          0.5    0.25     0.125     0.125
8             1      0.5      0.5       0.5
10           0.5     0.5     0.125     0.125
12           0.5    0.25     0.125     0.125
17           0.5    0.25      0.25     0.25
22           0.5    0.25      0.25     0.25
23 * (+)     0.5    0.25      0.25     0.25
25            2       1        8         4
29           0.5    0.25     0.0612   0.0612
30            2       1       0.5       0.5
31           0.5    0.25     0.125     0.125
34           0.5    0.25       8         4
37 * (+)      1      0.5       16        8
40 * (+)      4       2        4         2
41            1      0.5       8         4
42            4       2        4         4
44 *          1      0.5       16       16
48            1       1        8         8
49            2       1        8         4
50            4       2       0.25     0.25
52            4       2       0.25     0.25
54 *          4       2        4         2

Critical point for determination of drugs resistance in [micro]g/mL for S.
aureus according to CLSI (2016): Amoxicillin-Clavulanate [greater
than or equal to] 8; Ampicillin [greater than or equal to] 0.25;
Ciprofloxacin [greater than or equal to] 4; Levofloxacin [greater
than or equal to] 4; Norfloxacin [greater than or equal to] 16;
Ofloxacin [greater than or equal to] 4.

* [beta]-lactamase positivos; (+) Methicillin-resistant S. aureus
(MRSA).

(a) Antibiotic concentration in combination with B. moojeni venom
that prevented the development of turbidity (i.e., growth). Results
highlighted in bold refers to reversal of resistance.
COPYRIGHT 2017 Universidade Estadual de Maringa
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Canhas, Isabela Nascimento; Heneine, Luiz Guilherme Dias; Fraga, Thais; de Assis, Debora Cristina Sa
Publication:Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences (UEM)
Article Type:Informe
Date:Jul 1, 2017
Words:7089
Previous Article:Biological parameters of three Trichogramma pretiosum strains (Riley, 1879) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on eggs Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner,...
Next Article:Aerobic bacteria in oral cavity of Lancehead snakes (Bothrops atrox) with stomatitis/Bacterias aerobicas da cavidade oral de jararaca-do-norte...
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters