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Antibacterial activity of cupule and peel extracts from oak (Quercus persica).

INTRODUCTION

In recent years, multiple drug/chemical resistance in both human and plant pathogenic microorganisms have been developed due to indiscriminate use of commercial antimicrobial drugs/chemicals commonly used in the treatment of infectious diseases [1, 2], On the other hand, foodborne diseases are still a major problem in the World, even in well-developed countries [3],

Escherichia coli cause over 90% of all cases of food poisoning [4, 5], Moreover, Staphylococcus aureus that is responsible for the most frequent foodborne intoxication is acquiring a new epidemiological dimension through the putative role of some foods, in particular chicken and pork, as a vehicle of livestock-associated methicillin resistant (MRSA) strains [6], As well as this, The extensive use of antimicrobials has driven increasing resistances among several bacterial species and, as a matter of fact, the efficacy of these inhibition compounds is seriously decreased [7, 8], Several compounds found in plants, which have long been used as agents for food preservation, represent natural alternatives to chemicals for the maintenance or shelf-life extension of food products [9],

Zagros broadleaf deciduous forest, consisting mainly of oak forest, covers 5.5 million ha in Western Iran. Also, in some researchers the antibacterial activities of different parts of oak have been studied [10, 11], According to this fact, the present study aimed to screen antibacterial properties of the extracts of cupule and peel from oak against two positive and two negative bacteria.

Methods:

The cupule and peel of oak were harvested from natural habitats in Dinarvand village in Lorestan provenance from Iran. While collection the sample in the place, its location was recorded using a Global Positioning System (GPS, Vista Garmin) receiver (Latitude 3696161, Longitude 252646 and Altitude 1452).

After sampling, samples dried in shadow for 20 days. In order to extract, first the samples were crashed hefty to decrease the volume rather than the level. Then 10 gr of each sample was put in a 1-litre jar and about 100 ml 96% methanol was added to it. Afterward, the samples were in the room temperature and away from sunlight, for 72 hours. During the time, samples were shaking and mixing for several times. Then in order to thicker the extract, Rotary set was used, and this action (thickening) was done in half an hour. Finally the mere extract was poured in Petri dish, and was tightly covered, then in 0-4[degrees]C till the time of antimicrobial activity determinate [12],

The antibacterial activities of extracts were determined with the disc diffusion method [13] against Staphylococcus aureus (PTCC 1112) and Escherichia coli (PTCC 1270) bacteria. Briefly, bacterial suspensions were adjusted to 1x [10.sup.7] CFU [mL.sup.-1] and spread in TSA or PCA using sterile cotton swabs. Subsequently, filter paper discs (6 mm [empty set]; Whatman #1) were placed on the surface of Petri dishes and impregnated with 20 pL of extract at different concentrations (diluted in DMSO). Positive controls were prepared with oxytetracycline and solphamecine, but negative controls were prepared only with DMSO. After staying at 4[degrees]C (2 h), all Petri dishes were incubated at 30[degrees]C (24 h). All determinations were performed in triplicate. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by measuring the radius of the inhibition zones to the nearest millimeter [14],

Finally, data were analyzed with three replications using the SAS ver. 9.1 statistical software. The significance of differences among treatment means was tested using Duncan's multiple range test at p [less than or equal to] 0.05 level.

Results:

The results of current study provide the antibacterial activity of the peel and cupule extracts of the oak. The least inhibition zone belongs to negative control of DMSO. Nevertheless, plant extracts didn't have a significant effect on Escherichia coli. The most inhibition zone of E. coli was in solphamecine. The most inhibition zone belonged to Staphylococcus aureus. Also the results showed that the most inhibition zone belonged to solphamecine on both of the bacteria. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the cupule extract was more significant than peel extract.

Discussion and conclusion:

In conclusion, Staphylococcus aureus showed a range of activity against the tested bacteria. The antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus in solphamecine was more than the other treatments. By the use of the results of this research we can come to this conclusion that the extract of peel and cupule of oak leaf has antibacterial characteristics and considering this characteristic we can make medicine with natural resources. More information on this issue is in need of more researches.

REFERENCES

[1] Davis, J., 1994. Inactivation of antibiotics and the dissemination of resistance genes. Science, 264: 375382.

[2] Service, R.F., 1995. Antibiotics that resist resistance. Science, 270: 724-727.

[3] Mead, P.S., L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L.F. McCaig, J.S. Breeseand C. Shapiro., 1999. Food related illness and dead in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5: 607-625.

[4] Friedman, M" R.P. Henika and E.R. Mandrell., 2002. Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. Journal of Food Protection, 65: 1545-1560.

[5] Wilson. C.L. and G.G. Droby., 2000. Microbial food contamination. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.

[6] Harrison. E.M., G.K. Paterson, M.T. Holden, J. Larsen, M. Stegger and A.R. Larsen., 2013. Whole genome sequencing identifies zoonotic transmission of MRSA isolates with the novel mecA homologue mecC. EMBO Molecular Medicine, 5: 509-515.

[7] Lai, S., Tremblay and E. Deziel., 2009. Swarming motility: a multicellular behavior conferring antimicrobial resistance. Environmental Microbiology, 11: 126-136.

[8] SCENIHR (Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks)., 2010. Research strategy to address the knowledge gaps on the antimicrobial resistance effects of biocides.

[9] Nychas, G.J.E., C.C. Tassou and P. Skandamis., 2003. Antimicrobials from herbs and spices. In S. M. Roller (Ed.), Natural antimicrobials for the minimal processing of foods (pp: 176-200). New York: Woodhead Publishers, CRC Press.

[10 Khosravi, A.D. and A. Behzadi., 2006. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of the Seed Hull of Quercus Branti on some Gram Negative Bacteria. Pakistanian Journal of Medicine Science, 22: 429-32.

[11] Basri, D.F. and S.H. Fan., 2004. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 73: 26-29.

[12] Nourafcan, H., M. Nasrollahpour and I. Bajalan., 2013. Antibacterial Activity of Leaves Extract from Oak (Quercus persica) Against Some Positive and Negative Bacteria. International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences, 2(24): 1153-1155.

[13] NCCLS., 2002. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In: Twelfth International Supplement, M100-S12. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA.

[14] Teixeira, B., A. Marques, C. Ramos, N.R. Neng, J.M.F. Nogueira, J.A. Saraiva and M.L. Nunes., 2013. Chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant properties of commercial essential oils. Industrial Crops and Products, 43: 587- 595.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 15 April 2014

Received in revised form 22 May 014

Accepted 25 May 2014

Available online 15 June 2014

(1) Khosro Estaki Oregani, (2,3) Iman Bajalan, (2,3) Mahdi Javadian and (3) Hadis Dalvand

(1) Department of Agriculture, College of Soil Science, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Acad University, Borujerd, Iran

(2) Young Researchers and Elite Club, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Acad University, Borujerd, Iran

(3) Department of Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Acad University, Borujerd, Iran

Corresponding Author: Iman Bajalan, Young researchers and elite club, Bomjerd Branch, Islamic Azad university, Borujerd, Iran.

E-mail: bajalan_iman@yahoo.com
Fig. 1: Antibacterial activity of peel and cupule extract, and
controls.

extracts and   Inhabition zone (mm)
controls

               S. aureus   E coli

cupule         18.6 (b)    7 (d)
Peel           13.3 (c)    6 (d)
Tetracycline   23.3 (a)    6 (d)
Solphamecine   25.3 (a)    24.6 (6)
DMSO           6 (d)       6 (d)

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Article Details
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Author:Oregani, Khosro Estaki; Bajalan, Iman; Javadian, Mahdi; Dalvand, Hadis
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jul 23, 2014
Words:1308
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