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12FR336 in Southeastern Indiana: A Pocket of Late Woodland Subsistence in the Fort Ancient Region. Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Alma College; Leslie E. Branch-Raymer and Judith Wettstaed, New South Associates, Inc.

Fort Ancient peoples in the Middle Ohio River valley relied heavily on maize for a significant proportion of their dietary needs, and also cultivated beans, squash/gourd, sunflower, goosefoot, and tobacco. Nuts and fruit-producing plants were collected, hut there is a decreased emphasis on the harvesting of nut crops relative to the Late Woodland period.

In stark contrast to this regional pattern, contemporary plant and animal remains from Sitel2Fr336 exhibit continued reliance on a mixed subsistence base emphasizing indigenous cultigens, with only sporadic use of maize, augmented by a traditional pattern of faunal exploitation. These observations represent a possibly unique extension of early Late Woodland subsistence patterns in the lower Whitewater River drainage in Southeastern Indiana. We further consider evidence of possible recurrent small scale feasting at this site during the Late Woodland occupation.

Another Look at the Norris Farms 36 Cemetery. JoAnn Wallace and Jodie O'Gorman, Michigan State University

Mississippian influence on Oneota material culture has been documented in previous archaeological studies. We are interested in the relationship between these two populations evident at the Norris Farms 36 Cemetery in west-central Illinois. This project is a reanalysis of the mortuary context demonstrated at the Norris Farms 36 Cemetery. This analysis will focus on the hypothesized Mississippian and Oneotan cultural interaction through an identity and migration theoretical approach for the region and an analysis of the GIS information available for the cemetery.

Cross-Cultural Interaction among the Bold Counselor Oneota and Middle Mississippians. Andrew J Upton, Michigan State University

From AD 1300-1425, the central Illinois River valley was marked by the presence of Bold Counselor Oneota and Spoon River Middle Mississippians. Archaeological evidence in the form of the sharing of ceramic traits, including the production of hybrid pots, and skeletal remains, which show a population suffering from periodic conflict and stress, show how these peoples interacted with one another cross-culturally. This available evidence indicates a negotiation of identity and a negotiation of power among these chiefly societies, and unravels a portrait of cross-cultural interaction during the cohabitation period of west-central Illinois.

Everybody Mate Randomly: A Population Genetics Activity for the Introductory Classroom. Megan M. McCullen, Alma College

This paper will discuss an in-class activity that I have developed to teach Introductory Anthropology students the basics of Population Genetics, which is essential for understanding the development of our species over time. Using paper alleles, students produce offspring for several generations, over which we incorporate mutations, gene flow, genetic drift and natural selection. We track the change in our population on the board, allowing students to gain a clearer understanding of how the process of genetic change occurs in a population. By participating in an experiment that shows how the different forces work upon a population, students get deeper comprehension of how these forces work. This makes it easier for them to develop hypotheses about changes in human populations discussed later in the semester.

Granary Deities, Rice Terraces, and Headhunting: An Introduction to Ifugao Mythology. Andy Sanford, Grand Valley State University

The mythology of the Ifugao people on the Island of Luzon in the Republic of the Philippines is fascinating. The myths of the mountain civilizations in Central Luzon are as fascinating as the people. The Ifugao tribe was the most feared headhunting tribe of the region. The skulls of victims were collected and served as a status symbol among men of the tribe. They produced wooden statues known as bulol, granary deities or rice gods, which are said to protect fields, homes and families. The Ifugao built one of the most remarkable systems for the irrigation of rice known to man, rice terraces. The Rice Terraces of Banaue and Batad were built approximately 2500 years ago and have been named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The study of the religious traditions of the world's various civilizations is a fascinating part of the human journey which should be of interest to everyone. Headhunting cultures are foreign to us in the West but it is necessary to understand these cultures and their religious life, in order to understand our human journey. This essay stems from field research on the humanities in the Philippines summer of 2008. Those with the most skulls were more highly regarded in the community.

Russian Old Believers in Woodburn Oregon a Subculture or a Counterculture? An Ethnography. Marius Sidau, Madonna University

Russian Old Believers immigrated to Woodburn, Oregon in the 1960s. They have resisted assimilation, believing modem society a threat to spiritual salvation. Yet this community exists in modem America. This study, constituted in an Ethnographical holistic approach, explores their experience with this resistance by way of field research in their community in Woodburn, Oregon. The goal of the research is to gain an understanding of whether the Russian Old Believers look more like a subculture or a counterculture. This study employs ethnographic qualitative methodology using fieldwork, gathering informal ion through observations, participant observation, interviews and pilotgraphs.

The Archaeology of Conquest: Contact Strategies in Spanish Florida and the French Great Lakes. Alexandra Conch, Michigan State University

When Europeans arrived on the shores of the New World following its discovery, they knew that native populations, who were considered to be savage, primitive, and generally inferior to the Europeans, existed on these lands. Out of necessity, Europeans developed various strategies to contend with the natives. Ultimately, the goal was to allow the Europeans full access to the new lands and resources to do with whatever they desired. This paper will examine archaeological evidence from Spanish Florida conquest and missionary spaces and Great Lakes French trade and missionary spaces and the evidence's indications of the value which native populations placed on the influence of their European contacts. Based on this examination from colonialist and agency perspectives, the most successful early contact period European strategy for contending with North American natives was the Great Lakes French trade negotiations to assimilate the natives. This was due to two main factors: (1) differences in the goals of the French and Spanish and how those goals interacted with the goals of the native populations; and (2) a willingness of the Great Lakes French traders to negotiate a middle-ground with the native populations so that both groups could successfully fulfill their needs.

Wikipedia: Exploring Interactions, Identities, and Addiction. Timothy A. Brunet, University of Alberta

In the world of cyber-culture there are few communities as unique and complex as Wikipedia. ranks Wikipedia as the seventh most visited site in the world. Many view Wikipedia as an untrustworthy online encyclopaedia, but few examine the drama of this behind the scenes community which continues to test the ownership of knowledge. Three sections outline this paper: the motivation of the Wikipedia community, identities and interactions in the Wikipedian culture, and the emotional toll of the Wikipedian addiction.

Making Waves in the Baptismal Font: Karl Barth and Infant Baptism. Andrew J. Peterson, Hope College

The profound unfaithfulness of the German church during World War II emboldened the 20th century German theologian Karl Barth to break with the Reformed tradition over the practice of infant baptism. With the exegetical assistance of his son, Markus Barth, Karl Barth reexamined the New Testament basis for baptism and concluded that infant baptism gravely distorted the biblical view of baptism. Such a radical departure from the orthodox Reformed tradition is uncharacteristic of Barth and constitutes a provocative turn in his thought. This essay argues that while Barth's ethical concerns provide a useful critique from which to reevaluate the classical Reformed understanding of baptism, Barth's treatment of infant baptism is unsatisfactory for two reasons. First, Barth's argument seeks to dismantle the classical Reformed argument connecting baptism and circumcision. However, his rejection fails to exegetically surmount the New Testament passages connecting baptism and circumcision which lie at the core of the classical Reformed argument for infant baptism. Second, Barth's own construction of baptism is troubling because he distinctly separates Spirit baptism from water baptism. With the help of Calvin, this essay demonstrates that such a bifurcation of baptism is inconsistent with the ecumenical Christological formula crafted at the council of Chalcedon.
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Publication:Michigan Academician
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 22, 2013
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