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Anomalous Behaviour of Cryptographic Elliptic Curves over Finite Field.

I. Introduction

Elliptic curves have been studied as a mathematical concept since the second century A.C., while the name "elliptic" was given in the nineteenth century [1]. However, the concept of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) has only been known about in the last 30 years. The first use of elliptic curves in cryptography was by H. W. Lenstra for elliptic curve factorization which was used as the fastest algorithm to find factors of large integers [2]. However, N. Koblitz and V. Miller are considered as the founders of ECC. In 1985 N. Koblitz [3] and V. Miller [4] independently proposed the use of a group of points on an elliptic curve defined over a finite field. Over the past 30 years, ECC has become a key part of many current cryptosystems, cryptographic schemes and algorithms, e.g., Elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH), Elliptic curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES), Elliptic curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA), Edwards-curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA), Elliptic curve Menezes-Qu-Vanstone (ECMQV), and Elliptic curve Qu-Vanstone (ECQV). ECC is also recommended in different standards, e.g., by Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group (SECG) in SEC1 [5], SEC2 [6] and SEC4 [7]; by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 800-57 [8] and FIPS 186-2 [9]; by Accredited Standards Committee X9 in ANSI X9.62 [10] and ANSI X9.63 [11]; by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in IEEE 1363-2000 [12]; and by Wireless Application Forum in WTLS [13]. Furthermore, many real implementations use and provide ECC primitives and algorithms, e.g., Bouncy castle [14], TinyECC [15] Crypto++ [16], OpenSSL [17], and FlexiProvider [18].

The main advantage of ECC is reaching the same level of security by using a smaller key compared to classical asymmetric cryptographic schemes based on factoring modulus or a discrete logarithm. This reduces such factors as memory storage requirements, key transmission time, arithmetic computation power costs and the bandwidth [19], [20]. This key advantage is the reason why ECC is favoured in internet-based applications and preferred for constrained devices with low computational power and low memory storage, smart cards and cryptographic tokens. These constrained devices are portable, small, and lightweight and have low processing power, parameter storage and memory [21]. These areas might be summarized as limited devices, which are defined mainly by their low computational power and low memory storage capacity. This paper deals with the research of new effective methods for speed and memory optimization of ECC used in limited devices. Many current methods deal with ECC optimization by finding new effective methods. These solutions are hard to deploy and often require main system changes. On the other hand, we try to provide a solution which is comparably effective as more complex methods, but very easy to deploy.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section II summarizes related works. Section III introduces our experimental environment. Further, in Section IV the main experimental measurements of ECC are provided. The discussion and comparison with other works is provided in Section IV. Finally, Section V summarizes our conclusions.

II. Current and Related Work

Due to new wireless technologies and other worldwide technological changes and progresses made, the modern concept of The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting more attention. IoT is based on connecting even the simplest sensors (limited devices) with each other as well as connecting these to the global network infrastructure [22]. These connected devices have a wide use over many areas and should provide heightened amounts of information which might be used to increase the life quality of the citizens, ensure higher level of process automation, discover new options for optimization, general security purposes and even for saving lives in disasters [23]. The wide use of connected devices and objects also gives rise to new challenges in the areas of architecture, availability, reliability, mobility, performance, management, scalability, interoperability, security and privacy [24]. Basic security issues might be solved by encryption, authentication and authorization algorithms. However, due to the usage of limited devices, the implementation of these algorithms is a difficult task. ECC is nowadays used among others to solve these difficulties and it also provides secured solutions for limited devices [25].

Most of the current works that are focused on improving the efficiency of ECC algorithms are based on:

--developing new and more efficient algorithms i.e. for point multiplication [26]-[28],

--creating new and more efficient curves [29],

--using different unusual algorithms or more efficient mathematical fields forECC [30], [31].

In general, these methods are appropriate and they bring significant and efficient results, but they are also often very hard to deploy. However, if we take a closer look at the curve speed in different kinds of algorithms, methods and implementations, we can see significant speed differences even for curves of similar types. In the work [32] we showed our lightweight ECDH implementation with various curves, where curves of the same size had up to 50 % speed difference. Our previous work [33] already showed the differences between the efficiency of prime field based and field of characteristic 2 based elliptic curve systems in limited devices. The prime field based curves show a higher efficiency on limited devices than curves with field of characteristic 2 (by tens of percent). Based on these results we believe the efficiency might be improved not only with new algorithms or new curves, but also by choosing the right elliptic curve from the current ones. Our solution will be easier to deploy with similar effectiveness. Additionally, the in-depth research of current elliptic curves and their behaviour on specific limited hardware might also bring significant results for new algorithms or curves in the future.

This paper provides a new look at the efficiency of various cryptographic elliptic curves. We provide a clear description of elliptic curve parameterization. On this basis, we explain the links between computation speed and elliptic curve domain parameters. This new approach might be used for creating faster and memory friendly curves. Further, the experimental measurements which are showing the discovered anomalous behaviour of some elliptic curves are provided. This anomaly might be used for simple speed and memory optimization without additional needs.

III. Experimental Background and Pre-Sets

A. Network Model

We are developing a secure solution for the smart grid. Our network model helps us to develop solutions which might be rapidly implemented into real applications. The smart grid often uses limited devices i.e. for measuring consumption (water, gas, heat take-offs), failure states indicators, power quality monitors and many others. Fig. 1 shows our smart grid network model for this measurement where we can see the part with limited resources (limited devices) and also the part with non-limited resources.

The Intelligent Communication Unit is a limited device which connects even the simplest meters, sensors and indicators via a specific interface (i.e. PLC, RS485, USB) and communicate over access technology (i.e. PLC, Wireless) with a data concentrator. In this experiment, we consider a microcontroller MSP430 and a computer unit, the Raspberry Pi 2, for the non-limited area as a core of the communication unit for the limited area.

B. Experimental Measurements Pre-Sets

The MSP430 of the 5438A family is considered as a core for limited devices in our measurements. MSP430 is an ultra-low power micro-controller with power consumption in hundreds of [micro]A for the active mode and units of [micro]A for the standby/sleep mode. This microcontroller has 256 kB FLASH, 16 kB RAM, 32-bit multiplier, high/low frequency crystal (32 MHz/32 kHz) and allow 16-bit operations; more details about technical specification of MSP430 can be found in [35]. For MSP430, we used our lightweight implementation of elliptic curve primitives and ECDH algorithm.

The Raspberry Pi 2B is considered in our measurements as a core for non-limited devices. We included this unit in our measurement to obtain more data. The Raspberry Pi 2B is a simple computer unit based on the Broadcom BCM2836 processor. This device has a 900 MHz quad-core ARM Cortex A7 processor and 1 GB LPDDR2 memory; more details about the technical specification of the Raspberry Pi 2B are in [36]. For the Raspberry Pi 2B, we used the OpenSSL library which implements elliptic curve primitives, curves of different standards and many different algorithms based on elliptic curves i.e. ECDH or ECDSA.

C. Elliptic Curve Cryptography Implementations

Our light-weight solution is precisely described in [32] and it is available on [37]. We have implemented more than 60 elliptic curves of different kinds of standards together with a big-number representation and basic and modular arithmetic. We use classical representation of elliptic curves by domain parameters which are pre-generated and defined by a standard. For point multiplication, the non-adjective form of multiplication w-NAF is used (Double-and-add variation, D&A) and Montgomery modular algorithms are used for other modulo operations. The operations are optimized for the low-power microcontroller MSP430 and ECDH algorithm.

The OpenSSL is a non-lightweight ready-to-use library for a wide range of applications. This solution brings all the necessities for implementing a system based on ECC. This library also contains all the necessities for the ECDH and ECDSA algorithms. A detailed description of this library is in [38] and it is available on [39].

IV. Impact of Elliptic Curve Domain Parameters on Speed Efficiency

Each elliptic curve is defined by the field and domain parameters. We will work with two different field types, field of characteristic 2 and prime field. The elliptic curves over finite field of characteristic 2 ([F.sub.2]m) have seven domain parameters (septuple)

[mathematical expression not reproducible] (1)

where m is an integer specifying [F.sub.2]m; f(x) is irreducible binary polynomial of degree m specifying the polynomial basis representation of [F.sub.2]m ; a, b are two elements of [F.sub.2]m (a, b [member of] [F.sub.2]m) specifying an elliptic curve E([F.sub.2]m) defined by

E: [y.sup.2] + xy = [x.sup.3] + [ax.sup.2] + b in [F.sub.2]m, (2)

where variable G is a base point G = ([x.sub.G], [y.sub.G]) on E([F.sub.2]m); prime n is order of G; and finally the integer h is the cofactor

h = # E ([F.sub.2]m)/n. (3)

The elliptic curves over finite prime field ([F.sub.p]) have six domain parameters (sextuple)

[mathematical expression not reproducible] (4)

where p is an integer specifying [F.sub.p]; a, b are two elements of [F.sub.p] (a, b [member of] [F.sub.p]) specifying an elliptic curve E([F.sub.p]) defined by

E: [y.sup.2] [equivalent to] [x.sup.3] + ax + b (mod p), (5)

where variable G is a base point G = ([x.sub.G], [y.sub.G]) on E([F.sub.p]); prime n is order of G; and finally the integer h is the cofactor

h = # E ([F.sub.p])/n. (6)

There are three main mathematical operations with elliptic curves (or their points): point addition, point doubling and point (scalar) multiplication. These operations are the basis for all other mathematical algorithms for ECC i.e. the ECDH and ECDSA algorithms. The time consumption and computational difficulty of these basic operations with points of elliptic curves is obviously curve-size dependent. This means operations with curves of larger domain parameters should be slower than operations with curves of smaller domain parameters.

We independently measured more than 60 elliptic curves on two different software implementations (own and OpenSSL implementation) and two different hardware devices (the MSP430 limited-device and the Raspberry Pi 2B non-limited device). The size of domain parameters for each measured elliptic curve is in Appendix A (Table A-I, A-II). Table I and II summarize our main experimental results where curve name is the official elliptic curve name defined by the standard SEC (sect/secp elliptic curves), WTLS (wtls elliptic curves), ANSI (prime, c2pnb/tnb elliptic curves) or IPSec (ipsec elliptic curves). Field defines the [2.sup.m] of [F.sub.2]m (or p of [F.sub.p]). No. is the number of significantly smaller domain parameters than degree m (i.e. curve wtls1 with field F114 has domain parameters [m.sub.114b], [a.sub.1b], [b.sub.1b], [x.sub.113b], [y.sub.112b], [n.sub.112b] the No. is 2, because of a, b). Parameter to is time needed for curve ECDH key and ECDH parameters generation with the specific curve. The At is defined as a time difference between the fastest curve and the concrete curve and it is given as a percent (value 0.00 mark the fastest curve), where [DELTA][t.sub.1] is measurement on Raspberry Pi 2B and [DELTA][t.sub.2] is on MSP430.

Table I shows the results for measured elliptic curves over the field of characteristic 2 on the Raspberry Pi 2B with OpenSSL implementation. The results are as expected and more samples or other measurements on different platforms are not necessary. The curves with a higher degree are generally slower. Further, the curves of the same degree with small domain parameters (a, b, x, y) are generally faster than curves with normal sized domain parameters (same size as curve degree). Some higher degree curves with small domain parameters (ipsec3, [??]) are even comparably as fast as lower degree curves with non-small domain parameters (sect131r2, [??]). Figure 2 shows an example of a different curve speed for [mathematical expression not reproducible] on the Raspberry Pi 2B with OpenSSL implementation of elliptic curves. The white colour is for curves with four, grey is for curves with two and black is for curves with zero small domain parameters. As evident, the fastest curve is the curve with the smallest domain parameters.

The curves over the prime field shows a significant anomaly in behaviour. Table II shows the results for measured elliptic curves over the prime field on the Raspberry Pi 2B and also on the MSP430 (for a greater range of samples). The curves with a higher degree are generally slower. However, the curves of the same degree with small domain parameters (a, b, x, y) are not generally faster than curves with normal sized domain parameters (same size as curve degree). Conversely, the small domain parameters had no effect or made the curve even slower than the curves with the same sized domain parameters. Some higher degree curves with normal sized domain parameters (secp128r1, [F.sub.128]) are even comparably as fast as lower degree curves with smaller domain parameters (wtls8, [F.sub.112]). Figure 3 shows an example of a different curve speed for [F.sub.160] on the Raspberry Pi 2B with OpenSSL implementation of elliptic curves. The grey is for curves with two and black is for curves with zero small domain parameters. As we can see the slowest curve is the curve with the smallest domain parameters.

Figure 4 shows the same example as in Fig. 3, but on the MSP430 with our implementation of elliptic curves. The grey is for curves with two and black is for curves with zero small domain parameters. As we can see here also the slowest curve is the curve with the smallest domain parameters.

The results show that on the field of characteristic 2 we can reduce up to 5 % to 15 % of the time consumption on smaller degree curves (114-156 b) and up to 15 % of the time consumption on the higher degree curves (164-572 b) only by choosing the right curve with small domain parameters. On the prime field we can reduce the time consumption by 10 % to 50 % only by choosing the right curve with normal not-smaller domain parameters. The measurements reveal the anomalous behaviour of the prime field curves. This means that it cannot be clearly concluded whether the smaller domain parameters will have a positive effect on speed of elliptic curve operations. They result in reduced memory requirements, but not necessarily a reduction in speed.

V. Discussion

From our measurements we expect significant results which should help in choosing the right elliptic curve for a real application from the point of view of time and memory requirement. Our results prove that the size of domain parameters has a significant impact on computational complexity and time consumption of algorithms which work with elliptic curves. Further, we show that the time consumption of an elliptic curve algorithm can be significantly reduced only by choosing the right elliptic curve. Table III shows the results of chosen current and relevant works dealing with ECC optimization, new methods and algorithms or new curves. As we can see, the maximum speed reduction is about 50 %, but very often much smaller.

Our solution shows very close results to the more complex optimization methods by simply only choosing the right curve. This fact might be used for easy speed and memory optimization without any further needs of algorithm change.

VI. Conclusions

The Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is nowadays already a frequently used method for lightweight secured communication solution and it is spread over wide areas. We might see it also as a solution for future LPWAN, MANET, VANET and many others. We showed as an example the Smart Grid network (Fig. 1), in which the low-power devices are used to gather the sensitive customers or network data from sensors as well as crucial management data. For securing this communication, these devices with limited physical resources need a sufficiently secure and resource effective cryptographic solution. For this purpose, the AES cipher and ECC are often used together, the ECC being always more resources demanding.

Many current works focused on improving the efficiency of ECC are dealing with developing new efficient algorithms, creating new efficient curves or trying to implement or develop new primitives. However, this paper shows an efficient and easy deployable solution for the speed optimization of ECC algorithms without the need of changing current algorithms, primitives or protocols. Our solution is based on choosing the right elliptic curve with right domain parameters. We provide measurements of more than 60 elliptic curves (Section IV) on two different hardware devices (limited and not-limited) with two different software implementations (our software and OpenSSL). These measurements show a significant impact of the domain parameters on the speed of basic elliptic curve operations. Compared with other works (focused on new algorithms, curves or more efficient operations), we achieved comparable results by only choosing the right elliptic curve and with a deeper look at its domain parameters (up to 50 % time reduction). Further, section V shows that many other current works achieved same or smaller time reduction by using much more complex methods. Last but not least, these facts demonstrate that in-depth research of elliptic curve parameterization might bring valuable results.

Future work should investigate the relationship between the domain parameters and the common computational algorithms in greater detail (i.e. point multiplication algorithms). Mathematical analysis is required for a deeper understanding of the speed dependency. We believe this research will bring very significant and valuable information for future cryptosystems and new elliptic curves.

http://dx.doi.Org/10.5755/j01.eie.23.5.19248

Manuscript received 29 April, 2017; accepted 21 July, 2017.

Research described in this article was financed by the National Sustainability Program under grant LO1401. For the research, the infrastructure of the SIX Center was used.

Appendix A
TABLE A-I. LENGTH OF DOMAIN PARAMETERS FOR MEASURED
ELLIPTIC CURVES OVER FIELD OF CHARACTERISTIC 2.

Curve        m     a     b     x     y     n
name         [b]   [b]   [b]   [b]   [b]   [b]

GF([2.sup.114])
wtlsl        114   1     1     113   112   112
wtls4        114   110   112   112   112   113
sect113r1    114   110   112   112   112   113
sect113r2    114   111   112   113   112   113
sect113k1    114   110   112   112   112   113
GF([2.sup.132]) and GF([2.sup.156])
sect131r1    132   131   130   128   131   131
sect131r2    132   130   131   130   131   131
ipsec3       156   0     19    7     9     154
GF([2.sup.164]) and GF([2.sup.186])
wtls3        164   1     1     162   162   163
wtls5        164   163   160   163   161   163
sect163r1    164   163   163   162   159   162
sect163k1    164   1     1     162   162   163
c2pnb163v1   164   163   160   163   161   163
c2pnb163v2   164   161   163   158   163   162
c2pnb163v3   164   163   162   162   163   162
c2pnb176v1   177   176   175   176   175   161
ipsec4       186   0     13    5     4     184
GF([2.sup.234]) and GF([2.sup.240])
wtls10       234   0     1     233   233   232
wtlsll       234   1     231   232   233   233
sect233r1    234   1     231   232   233   233
sect233k1    234   0     1     233   233   232
sect239k1    240   0     1     238   239   238
c2tnb239v1   240   238   239   239   239   238
c2tnb239v2   240   239   239   238   239   237
c2tnb239v3   240   233   239   239   238   236
GF(2284)
sect283r1    284   0     1     283   281   281
sect283k1    284   281   282   283   282   282
GF(2410)
sect409r1    410   0     1     407   409   407
sect409k1    410   1     406   409   407   409
GF(2572)
sect571r1    572   0     1     570   570   570
sect571k1    572   1     570   570   570   570

TABLE A-II. LENGTH OF DOMAIN PARAMETERS FOR MEASURED
ELLIPTIC CURVES OVER PRIME FIELD.

Curve        p     a     b     x     y     n
name         [b]   [b]   [b]   [b]   [b]   [b]

GF(112) and GF(128)
wtls6        112   112   111   108   112   112
wtls8        112   0     2     1     2     113
secp112r1    112   112   111   108   112   112
secp112r2    112   111   111   111   112   110
secp128r1    128   128   128   125   128   128
secp128r2    128   128   127   127   126   126

GF(160)
wtls7        160   160   160   159   160   161
wtls9        160   0     2     1     2     161
secp160r1    160   160   157   159   158   161
secp160r2    160   160   160   159   160   161
secp160k1    160   0     3     158   160   161
GF(192)
secp192k1    192   0     2     192   192   192
prime192v1   192   192   191   189   187   192
prime192v2   192   192   192   192   191   192
prime192v3   192   192   190   191   190   192
GF(224)
wtls12       224   224   224   224   224   224
secp224r1    224   224   224   224   224   224
secp224k1    224   0     3     224   223   225
GF(256)
secp256k1    256   0     3     255   255   256
prime256v1   256   256   255   255   255   256


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Radek Fujdiak (1), Petr Dzurenda (1), Petr Mlynek (1), Jiri Misurec (1), Milos Orgon (2), Bezzateev Sergey (3)

(1) Department of Telecommunications, Brno University of Technology, Technicka St. 12, 616 00 Brno, Czech Republic

(2) Department of Telecommunications, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovicova St. 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

(3) Technologies of Information Security, Saint-Petersburg University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Bolshaya Morskaya St. 67, 190 000 Saint Petersburg, Russia fujdiak@feec.vutbr.cz

Please Note: Illustration(s) are not available due to copyright restrictions.

Caption: Fig. 1. Smart Grid network for remote data acquisition [34].

Caption: Fig. 2. Comparison of different curves over field of characteristic [mathematical expression not reproducible] on Raspberry with OpenSSL implementation.

Caption: Fig. 3. Comparison of different curves over prime field F160 on Raspberry with OpenSSL implementation.

Caption: Fig. 4. Comparison of different curves over prime field [F.sub.160] on MSP430 with our implementation of elliptic curves.
TABLE I. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR MEASURED ELLIPTIC
CURVES OVER FIELD OF CHARACTERISTIC 2 ON RASPBERRY.

Curve        Field         No.   tG1             At1
name                       [-]   [[micro]M]      [%]
GF(2114)
wtlsl        [2.sup.114]   2     3,362         0.00
wtls4        [2.sup.114]   0     3,496         +3.99
sect113r1    [2.sup.114]   0     3,500         +4.10
sect113r2    [2.sup.114]   0     3,528         +4.94
sect113k1    [2.sup.114]   0     3,487         +3.72
GF([2.sup.132]) and GF([2.sup.156])
sect131r1    [2.sup.132]   0     6,235         0.00
sect131r2    [2.sup.132]   0     6,464         +3.67
ipsec3       [2.sup.156]   4     6,417         +2.92
GF([2.sup.164]), ([2.sup.177]) and GF([2.sup.186])
wtls3        [2.sup.164]   2     8,174         +2.14
wtls5        [2.sup.164]   0     8,815         +10.15
sect163r1    [2.sup.164]   0     8,802         +9.98
sect163k1    [2.sup.164]   2     8,197         +2.42
c2pnb163v1   [2.sup.164]   0     8,822         +10.23
c2pnb163v2   [2.sup.164]   0     8,795     +9.92
c2pnb163v3   [2.sup.164]   0     8,795         +9.90
c2pnb176v1   [2.sup.177]   0     8,739         +9.20
ipsec4       [2.sup.186]   4     8,003         0.00
GF([2.sup.234]) and GF([2.sup.240])
wtls10       [2.sup.234]   2     15,865        +0.23
wtlsll       [2.sup.234]   1     17,474        +10.40
sect233r1    [2.sup.234]   1     17,493        +10.52
sect233k1    [2.sup.234]   2     15,828        0.00
sect239k1    [2.sup.240]   2     16,244        +2.63
c2tnb239v1   [2.sup.240]   0     17,890        +13.03
c2tnb239v2   [2.sup.240]   0     17,843        +12.73
c2tnb239v3   [2.sup.240]   0     17,784        +12.36
GF(2284)
sect283r1    [2.sup.284]   1     32,072        +11.91
sect283k1    [2.sup.284]   2     28,659        0.00
GF(2410)
sect409r1    [2.sup.410]   2     76,160        +14.35
sect409k1    [2.sup.410]   1     66,605        0.00
GF(2572)
sect571r1    [2.sup.572]   2     174,749       +14.86
sect571k1    [2.sup.572]   1     152,143       0.00

TABLE II. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR MEASURED ELLIPTIC
CURVES OVER PRIME FIELD ON RASPBERRY PI 2B AND MSP430.

Curve        Field   n     [t.       [DELTA]     [t.       [DELTA]
                           sub.G1]   [t.sub.1]   sub.G2]   [t.sub.2]
name                 [-]   [[mu]s]   [%]         [[mu]s]   [%]

GF(112) and GF(128)
wtls6        112     0     2,555     0.00        10,696    +8.68
wtls8        112     4     2,953     +15.58      10,897    +10.72
secp112r1    112     0     2,570     +0.59       9,842     0.00
secp112r2    112     0     2,599     +1.72       11,413    +15,96
secp128r1    128     0     2,825     +10.57      12,092    +22,86
secp128r2    128     0     2,899     +13.46      12,986    +31,94
GF(160)
wtls7        160     0     4,130     0.00        13,031    0.00
wtls9        160     4     4,704     +13.90      19,612    +50.50
secp160r1    160     0     4,143     +0.31       13,050    +0.15
secp160r2    160     0     4,143     +0.31       13,963    +7.15
secp160k1    160     2     4,557     +10.34      15,080    +15.72
GF(192)
secp192k1    192     2     6,364     +11.92      23,674    7.57
prime192v1   192     0     5,716     +0.53       25,400    13.04
prime192v2   192     0     5,686     0.00        22,470    0.00
prime192v3   192     0     5,701     +0.26       24,171    5.36
GF(224)
wtls12       224     0     7,483     +0.09       26,631    0.00
secp224r1    224     0     7,476     0.00        27,020    1.46
secp224k1    224     2     8,388     +12.20      30,771    15.55
GF(256)
secp256k1    256     2     11,007    +12.28      --        --
prime256v1   256     0     9,803     0.00        --        --

TABLE III. COMPARISON OF SPEED REDUCTION WITH OTHER
CURRENT AND RELEVANT WORKS.

                                                    Speed
Short description                                   reduction   #Ref.
                                                    [%]

Work focused on the use of ECC in wireless          46-48 %
sensor networks. They present a new technique       (D&A)
to speed up the multiplication operation.           32-37 %     L26J
                                                    (wNAF)
Work focused on double-and-add algorithm for
point multiplication and application to the         no data     [27]
Fibonacci sequence. The work compares only
chain size, where they achieved up to 18 %
differences. But final speed tests are missing.
Another work focused on new more efficient
design of elliptic curve point multiplication       4-38 %      [28]
based on Montgomery modular multiplication.
The authors introduce the new curve 25519 with
significant speed efficiency on hardware. A final   no data     [29]
comparison of this curve on specific hardware
and with other curves is missing.
The work focused on ECC in the Internet of
Things. The authors implement their solution of
ECDSA on a small processor and gain                 50 %        [30]
significant speed results compared to the other
implementations by using FPGA acceleration.
Another work providing a new algorithm based
on modified traditional extended Euclidean          >50 %       [31]
Great Common Divisor (GCD).
COPYRIGHT 2017 Kaunas University of Technology, Faculty of Telecommunications and Electronics
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Author:Fujdiak, Radek; Dzurenda, Petr; Mlynek, Petr; Misurec, Jiri; Orgon, Milos; Sergey, Bezzateev
Publication:Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika
Article Type:Report
Date:May 1, 2017
Words:5751
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