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Annotated bibliography on musician wellness.


This bibliography is an extension and update of the Annotated Bibliography on Musician Wellness on MTNA's website: This ongoing project began in 1994, when it was first published in the Proceedings for the National Conference on Piano Pedagogy, 1994-1995 (pages 293-296). MTNA has sponsored it since 1997.

The bibliography's purpose is to provide a quick resource tool for teachers and students to address the prevention of medical problems, performance preparation, stage fright, healthy practice techniques and physiological and psychological issues. The list is by no means complete, but the most recent publications in books have been annotated except for a few publications too difficult to obtain or lacking sufficient educational value.

In the last few years, more information than ever before has become available on the topic of musician wellness. Not only have many manuals and texts been written on the subject, but several journals are now adding a section on health and the musician as well.

Please note that books go out of print so quickly that sometimes it is just a matter of months before a book is no longer available. Out-of-print items sometimes can be obtained via a library and/or through interlibrary loan.

As noted in earlier bibliographies on musician wellness, these items listed may contain controversial information. Neither MTNA nor the author endorses or claims the efficacy of any product or technique. Students and teachers need to judge accordingly.

The format of the bibliography is as follows:

General information included' Author, date of publication, title, publisher, current publisher's address, phone and/or fax if available, e-mail and website information if available, number of pages and ISBN number.

Specific information included: A brief description of the content of the book, journal, website or video, the intended audience (addressing value for the instrumentalist, keyboardist and/or vocalist), the authors' approach and specific techniques (such as physiological and psychological when relevant), general research information and bibliography and/or end notes, if included in the book. A general viewer evaluation also is included.


Shockley, Rebecca Payne. (1997, second printing 2001) Mapping Music: For Faster Learning and Secure Memory, A Guide for Piano Teachers and Students. A-R Editions, Inc., 1350 Deming Way, Ste. 200, Middleton, WI 53562. (800) 736-0070; fax: (608) 831-8200. 122 pp. ISBN: 0-89579-397-0. Also translated into Korean: Myungsuh, Kim. (2002) Hanyang University Press. (02) 2290-1432-4; fax: (02) 2290-1435; ISBN 89-7218-200-1.

Wilson, Paul. (1998) Completely Calm. Penguin Books Australia Ltd., 487 Maroondah Hwy., P.O. Box 257, Ringwood, Victoria 3134, Australia. (A combined edition of two books: The Calm Technique, 1995 but also published in 1998 by Barnes and Noble, 125 pp. ISBN: 0-7607-1523-8, and Instant Calm, first published in 1995. 318 pp. ISBN: 0-452-27433-8). ISBN: 1-85471-960-2.


Berry, Susan. (2000) Healthy Ringing: For Handbells and Handchimes. Handbell Services, Inc., 1213 Mason St., Dearborn, MI 48124. (800) 37-BELLS. 200 pp. ISBN: 0-9678707-0-4.

This text provides helpful hints for avoiding injuries and what to do if one has an injury. It is an excellent resource about how one develops good physical habits, recognizing danger signals and understanding "why."

There are five parts to this book: "Anatomy of Ringing," "Ringing Basics," "Exercises for Ringing," "Care of Your Body" and "The Massed Ring."

Part One, "Anatomy of Ringing," contains three sections: major muscles used, posture and breathing.

Part Two, "Ringing Basics," has eight sections: basic grip, basic ring, basic damp (stopping the casting from vibrating), weaving and learning to shift your weight from side to side, special effects--stopped techniques: plucking, thumb damp, martellato, ring touch, mallets; nonstopped techniques: shake, toll (swing), vibrating, gyro or shimmer bell tree; bass bell ringing, multiple bell techniques and hand chimes.

Part Three, "Exercises for Ringing," has nine sections. Here, wellness issues are forefront. Warm-ups for ringing, shoulder and neck, arm, finger, hand and wrist are reviewed, and back, abdomen, leg, foot and resistance training (upper-body strength weight training) are discussed.

Part Four, "Care of Your Body," has nine sections and, again, is about wellness issues. Ears, eyes, voice, stress management, nutrition, moving handbell cases and tables, gloves, support devices (bands and braces) and other medical concerns are reviewed. The author reviews common problems such as tendonitis, deQuervain's Disease and carpal tunnel syndrome and drug and non-drug relievers.

Part Five, "The Massed Ring," contains two sections--one for the director, which reviews how directors should prepare for and conduct rehearsals, and one for the ringer, which discusses personal preparation for rehearsals.

A list of resources serves as a bibliography. This book offers a clear layout with excellent illustrations. Susan Berry also has coauthored a video with David Weck titled Bell Basics, a Training Videotape (Hope Publishing Company; HP 1274) and another book coauthored with Janet Van Valey, Director's Manual, from the Learning to Ring series (The Lorenz Publishing Company; HB215).

Audience: bell ringers, directors and teachers

Breth, Nancy O'Neill. (2001) The Piano Student's Guide to Effective Practicing. Published by the author at or 3324 N. Kensington St., Arlington, VA 22207. Pamphlet format.

This is a short but practical practice guide addressed to pianists of all levels, particularly youths and undergraduate students. It is organized in a handy pamphlet that students can carry along with them to the practice room.

Nancy O'Neill Breth proposes the student should first make a "PACT" with himself.' Patience, Awareness, Curiosity and Tunnel Vision. Second, she lists three tools one needs to begin practice a pencil, metronome and tape recorder.

The next section consists of five steps to follow to learn a new piece. Number One, "Pencil Work: Pre-practice Mapping," reviews how to determine overall structure of a piece, phrase structure, phrasing and details (melody, harmony, rhythm, fingering and ornaments) and marking possible problem sections. Number Two, "At The Piano: First Steps," reviews working in sections and practicing hands separately. Suggestions for playing slowly and counting are given. Number Three, "Asking Questions," examines what to ask when something goes wrong. Breth suggests asking oneself, "What did I hear? Why did it happen, and how can I solve it?" Number Four, "Finding Answers," lists eleven different qualities one would want to achieve in one's own playing and offers practice tips under each. Qualities include coordination, accuracy, expression, fingering, speed, comfort, balance, rhythm, evenness, clarity and continuity. The last section consists of thirty-four practice tips--"bread and butter drills" a student can use. Each tip is carefully explained so students can apply it to a particular piece if necessary. Breth suggests such things as a week's score of metronome practice, practicing in rhythms, chord voicing, jumps, counting and trill drills, and relaxation.

A bibliography is not included. This is an easy-to-use guide containing excellent tips for piano students to apply in everyday practice. It also would be useful in pedagogy courses that emphasize practice techniques along with relaxation.

Audience: pianists

Chaffin, Roger, Gabriela Imreh and Mary Crawford. (2002) Practicing Perfection: Memory and Piano Performance. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 10 Industrial Ave., Mahwah, NJ 07430. 303 pp. ISBN: 0-8058-2610-6.

This book is about how a pianist learns, memorizes and polishes a piece of music. The authors of the text are two psychologists (cognitive and social) and a pianist. Using the third movement of J.S. Bach's Italian Concerto as the subject of the study, the authors provide a detailed account of how an experienced pianist organizes his or her practice and works on a piece of music from the beginning stages of learning it to the performance of the piece. The book's main focus is on the memorization process itself.

The book is divided into eleven chapters. Chapter One, "In the Green Room," describes the daily life of a concert pianist. Chapter Two, "Improvisations," explains how the authors conducted their study. Here, they describe how they met, what they set out to do and how they did it. All the practice sessions of pianist Gabriela Imreh were videotaped. Chapter Three, "In the Words of the Masters: Artists' Accounts of Their Expertise," analyzes interviews of famous pianists talking about memory and performance. Chapter Four, "Expert Memory," explains the importance of conceptual memory and how it helps to integrate the hands and head. Chapter Five, "The Way to Carnegie Hall," assesses what it takes to be a musician, reviewing what people put into it according to what they want to be. Here, the authors assess the training of professional musicians, student musicians, future teachers and amateurs. The different practice styles of individual students are examined and compared. Chapter Six, "Lessons from J.S. Bach: Stages of Practice," is the heart of this book and describes the learning process in detail. Here, the six stages of learning are reviewed. Scouting it out, section by section, the gray stage, putting it together, polishing and maintenance are examined. How videotaping affected the learning process of the pianist, practice records, segment length, tempo and a summary of the time spent are reviewed. Chapter Seven, "In the Words of the Artist," reveals what the pianist said during the practice session and how her practicing changed during the learning stages. Chapter Eight, "Effects of Musical Complexity on Practice," is about what the pianist did during her practice and what took priority. Chapter Nine, "Memory and Performance," discusses the three principles of expert memory: meaningful recording, the retrieval system and the retrieval of long-term memory. How a performer deals with mistakes in performance also is reviewed and examined. The psychologists conclude that conceptual memory is vital for the performer; however, it is a skill musicians develop later in their studies. Chapter Ten, "Stages of Practice Revisited," returns to the six stages of learning cited in Chapter Six and identifies the key issues in the learning process. Chapter Eleven, "Coda," discusses the characteristics of effective practice and what the authors themselves learned from this interdisciplinary collaboration.

This book includes two appendices: Appendix One is a copy of the score of the third movement of the J. S. Bach Italian Concerto, and Appendix Two is a lengthy bibliography of books and journal articles about memory. A CD recording of Imreh's performance of the Italian Concerto also is included.

Audience: advanced pianists

Chasin, Marshall. (2001) Hear The Music: Hearing Loss Prevention for Musicians. Published by the author, Director of Auditory Research, Musicians' Clinics of Canada, 565 Senatorium Rd., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L9C N4. 88 pp. ISBN: 0-920445-74-8.

Readers already familiar with Marshall Chasin's earlier book, Musicians and The Prevention of Hearing Loss (1996), will recognize this as another version of that text. However, this newer text is a little less technical than his earlier book and more readable for most musicians.

The book contains five chapters: Chapter One: "Hearing and Hearing Loss," Chapter Two: "Factors Affecting Hearing Loss," Chapter Three: "Strategies to Reduce Music Exposure," Chapter Four: "Five Fact Sheets for Musicians," and Chapter Five: "Frequently Asked Questions." All five give detailed explanations of the factors that affect hearing loss and what musicians can do to prevent it.

Chapters Four and Five summarize the issues reviewed in the first three chapters. In Chapter Four, Chasin explains five different musical instrument categories and for each one suggests ways to reduce hearing loss. He first discusses guitar and rock/blues vocalists, giving insight on such factors as the use of ear monitors, earplugs and loudspeakers and the impact of being too close to a drummer's high hat cymbal. In the second category, woodwinds and large stringed instruments, the author makes suggestions about the use of different types of earplugs when sitting in an orchestra or jazz band, the use of baffles, ear monitor devices and acoustic monitors. In categories three, brass players and drummers; four, school band teachers; and five, violins and violas, Chasin gives similar suggestions and explains the use of wall coverings, carpets, mutes and so on.

Chapter Five consists of twenty-five frequently asked questions, with answers to each one. For example, Chasin examines outer-, middle- and inner-ear problems, what is treatable and what is not.

Chasin is an audiologist who has treated musicians and completed research in the field of hearing loss and musicians. No bibliography is included in this resource; however, a website has been developed by the Musicians' Clinic of Canada:

Audience: musicians with hearing loss

Dornemann, Joan with Maria Ciaccia. (1992) Complete Preparation: A Guide to Auditioning for Opera. Excalibur Publishing, Inc., 511 Avenue of the Americas, PMB 392, New York, NY 10011. 149 pp. ISBN: 0-9627226-3-4.

Written by the assistant conductor and opera coach of the Metropolitan Opera, this text gives sound and practical advice to all vocalists who sing or aspire to sing operatic literature.

The book contains eleven chapters. Chapter One, "Hurry Slowly," is about getting started as an operatic singer. Here, the author discusses the importance of being in good mental health, coping with rejection, being prepared as the key to survival and juggling working in various small jobs while launching a singing career.

Chapter Two, "The Externals," is a short chapter about realizing your strong points. This includes a discussion about being overweight and the contemporary feelings about it. Dress, style, walking and excess weight--the external things taken into consideration when auditioning--are examined.

Chapter Three, "Repertoire," is about choosing good repertoire for one's own voice. The different ranges and qualities are reviewed along with suitable repertoire for both the beginning and more experienced opera singer.

Chapter Four, "The Language," discusses understanding the text, pronunciation and diction.

Chapter Five, "The Music," examines errors found in the music, practice time, rhythms and tempo, harmony, melody, phrasing, coloraturas, cadenzas and performance practice.

Chapter Six, "Analyze, Don't Criticize," is about working with group classes, performing, analyzing your own voice and assessing what others say about it or do not say about it. How to receive information given to you about your abilities and having the ego and strength to perform and accept criticism also are among the ideas discussed in this remarkably discursive chapter.

Chapter Seven, "The Process of Complete Preparation," discusses how to focus and create the right atmosphere for an audition; the importance of solid technique and finding what you need regarding proper training also are discussed. Considerations such as singing in a foreign language and creating the right atmosphere for the cultural aspects of the operatic literature performed are reviewed.

Chapter Eight, "For the College Student," reviews the ups and downs of dealing with several different teachers and coaches in a college atmosphere.

Chapter Nine, "When to Audition--and Where," is about age requirements, competitions versus auditions, management auditions, re-auditioning, which auditions to take and how to research auditions.

Chapter Ten, "The Audition," discusses audition preparation, glitches in the process and how to handle them.

Chapter Eleven, "Your New Role: Working Professional," tells the reader about continuing training and coaching, dealing with difficult situations and acting like a professional once working in the field.

The book ends with a detailed list of suggested reading. A bibliography is not included.

Audience: opera singers

Duvall, Katherine, M.D., M.H, M.S. and David Hinkamp, M.D., M.P.H., guest editors. (2001) Health Hazards in the Arts. Hanley & Belfus, Inc. Medical Publishers, 210 S. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA 19107. (215) 546-4995; fax: (215) 790-9330. This is the October-December issue (Volume 16, No. 4) from Occupational Medicine: State of the Arts Reviews. Pages 535-702. ISBN: 1-56053-341-2.

This collection of articles is from a series of reviews published quarterly since 1993. Each issue deals with safety in occupations. This particular set concentrates on occupations in the arts.

Five articles dealing with wellness issues and musicians are included in this edition. "Hazards in the Theater," by Monona Rossol, M.S., M.EA. and David Hinkamp M.D., M.P.H., surveys the health hazards performers and theatrical workers may encounter. "Career Hazards for the Dance," by James Garrick, M.D. and Susan Lewis, M.D., discusses overuse injuries, maintenance of the extremes of flexibility, and strength, and conditions necessary to maintain a professional career. "Instrumental Musicians' Hazards," by Richard A. Hoppmann, M.D., reviews the risk factors, physical examination, treatment and prevention of common problems of instrumentalists, with specific emphasis on the team approach to treatment and prevention. "Professional Voice Users: The Evaluation of Voice Disorders," by Robert Thayer Sataloff, M.D., D.M.A., discusses the most recent developments in treating voice disorders. "Cognitive Occupational Hazards and Psychopathology of the Artist," by Erica Green, M.A., Q.M.H.P., examines creativity and mental health issues.

Each article contains an extended reference list. These articles would be a useful tool for musicians interested in researching wellness issues.

Audience: all musicians doing research in wellness issues and the arts

Farnbach, Rod and Eversley Farnbach (2001) Overcoming Performance Anxiety. Simon & Schuster (Australia) Pty. Limited, 20 Barcoo St., East Roseville, NSW 2069. 186 pp. ISBN: 0-7318-0798-7.

This is a self-help manual about performance anxiety in general. A psychiatrist and a professional pianist/educator coauthored the text. The book employs the philosophy, theory and methods of Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), originated by Albert Ellis around 1955. REBT is based on the theory that it is how we think about the events of our lives, not the events themselves, that determines our emotions and actions. The text begins with a description of six different people in six very different professions (including a concert pianist) who experience performance anxiety and progresses through a discussion of self-help exercises one can do to learn to cope with it. In addition, the authors address other clinical conditions such as depression, anxiety disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder that also may be underlying performance anxiety.

There are a total of nineteen chapters. They progress as follows: "Anxiety And Performance," "Understanding Anxiety," "About REBT, .... The Irrational Beliefs," "First Catch Your Irrational Beliefs," "Disputing," "I Must Act Competently and Correctly at All Times," "I Must Approved of and Accepted by "Everyone Must Act Competently Correctly," "Life Must Give Me Want," "It's Awful' and 'I Can't Stand It," "Globa Rating," "Procrastination," "Relaxation Methods, Exercises and Techniques," "Clinical Techniques," "Clinical Conditions," "Medication and Other Physical Treatments" and "General Health and Habits." Chapter Nineteen, "Quick Fix," is a questionnaire designed to identify one's areas of vulnerability.

This book explains a great deal about the physical attributes of performance anxiety, self-talk, relaxation methods, characteristics of rational and irrational behavior, techniques used to facilitate behavioral change and, most importantly, how to keep an anxiety journal and use it with related exercises to make changes to reduce anxiety and have better performances. The text is in a clear format with supporting diagrams and is very readable. This is a particularly useful text for all musicians suffering from performance anxiety or researching anxiety disorders. A short bibliography is included.

Audience: all musicians

Freeman, Margaret and Margaret Fawcus. (2000) Voice Disorders and Their Management. Third edition. Whurr Publishers Ltd., 19b Compton Terr., London N1 2UN, England and 325 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19106. (215) 625-8900; fax: (215) 625-2940. in USA. 402 pp. ISBN: 1-86156-186-5.

This book focuses on vocal problems caused by misuse, psychological and physiological stress, laryngeal pathologies or neurological disorders. Chapters are written by leading medical professionals (a total of twenty) from the United Kingdom, United States and Australia. This third edition is expanded and updated from the original, which was published in 1986.

There are eighteen chapters. Many of the topics included are issues not commonly found in similar books about vocal disorders.

Chapter One, "Physiology of Phonation" by Robert Fawcus, is about the co-ordination between phonatory and articulatory behaviors. Respiratory studies, laryngeal physiology, linguistic demands, the three types of phonation occurring during fluent speech (modal, pulse and loft registers), laryngeal reflex mechanisms, histological studies of the structure of the vocal folds and their function, neuromuscular activity and management of dysphonia are examined.

Chapter Two, "Voice Development and Change Through the Life Span" by Margaret Freeman, explores how vocal skills develop and change in relation to physical development and maturation and provides background information

on normal development (a baseline for understanding voice disorders). Early school ages, prepuberty, puberty, male and female differences in voice and speech, and changes in later life are examined.

Chapter Three, "Surgical Management of Laryngeal Disorders" by Andrew Johns, concentrates on the conditions of primary and secondary organic pathology and the surgical aspects of their treatment. Alternative treatments and rehabilitation after surgery also are evaluated.

Chapter Four, "The Causes and Classification of Voice Disorders" by Margaret Fawcus, reviews the three causes of disorders, classifying them, their prevalence by age and gender, functional versus organic dichotomy and developmental issues.

Chapter Five, "The Speech and Language Therapist's Assessment of the Dysphonic Patient" by Paul Carding, examines the importance of comprehensive voice assessment in managing a patient's problems. In this chapter, the author divides voice assessment into three main categories: the case history interview, perceptual judgments and instrumental measurement. However, it is stressed that anatomical, physiological, occupational, psychological and acoustic aspects need to be taken into account as well. A sample patient questionnaire that includes twelve questions about vocal performance is included at the end of this chapter.

Chapter Six, "Children with Voice Problems: A Perspective on Treatment" by Moya Andrews, gives some intuitive insights into dealing with children having voice problems. Points to consider here are that children generally lack technical understanding of their problems, and the kinds of songs sung by preschoolers are different from those sung by older children. A multidisciplinary and team approach to voice assessment and treatment is strongly recommended.

Chapter Seven, "Voice Disorders Associated with Hyperfunction" by Jennifer Oates, reviews vocal fatigue, throat discomfort, impaired voice quality, and pathological changes such as vocal fold oedema, inflammation, nodules, polyps or hemorrhage. Classifying, causes, management and psychological effects are some of the topics included for dealing with vocal hyperfunction.

Chapter Eight, "Psychogenic, Psychological and Psychosocial Issues in Diagnosis and Therapy" by Freeman, considers some of the issues raised by the terms "functional" and "psychogenic." Here, the author discusses how voice disorders can be explained in an apparently healthy larynx and how the psychological processes play a part in working with clients who have voice disorders.

Chapter Nine, "Voice Problems of Speakers with Dysarthria" by Lorraine Olson Ramig, discusses neurologically based voice disorders. It provides a background and framework for studying these kinds of disorders as well as clinical assessment and treatment.

Chapter Ten, "Vocal Fold Paralysis--Paresis--Immobility" by Janina K. Casper, discusses the impact of vocal fold paralysis from several aspects: physical, emotional, social and vocational. This article reviews a study of three different groups and validates the need for developing forms of rehabilitation and treatment for patients suffering from these diseases.

Chapter Eleven, "Spasmodic Dysphonia Redefined: Diagnosis, Assessment and Treatment" by Renata Whurr, explains this most poorly understood voice disorder and discusses the newly recognized fact that there is no cure for spasmodic dysphonia, but there is symptomatic relief by means of intralaryngeal injections. How to diagnose this disease via multidisciplinary teams and treatments is reviewed. Four appendices are featured at the end of this section: "Sample Case History," "Spasmodic Dysphonia Voice Assessment Protocal," "The Speech and Language Therapist's New Role in the Assessment, Diagnosis and Treatment of Spasmodic Dysphonia"and "Botulinum Toxin."

Chapter Twelve, "Managing Voice with Deaf and Hearing Impaired Speakers" by Sheila Wirz, describes some of the changes in this field during recent years, as well as the use of Vocal Profile Analysis as a technique for managing the voices of deaf and hearing-impaired speakers. The difference in communication and language skills of hearing-impaired speakers as well as relaxed phonation also are examined.

Chapter Thirteen, "Mutational Disorder of Voice" by Robert Fawcus, assesses the rapid changes in the process of phonation throughout a person's life span. A few case histories are examined.

Chapter Fourteen, "The Voice of the Transsexual" by Judith Chaloner, is about recognizing the need for medical teams to take a holistic approach to successful adjustment and transition into a new sex role. Voice work is generally a very important element in this treatment. The chapter's discussion is a very practical guide based on empirical observation. Three case histories are summarized and reviewed.

Chapter Fifteen, "Post Radiotherapy Voice Quality" by Eva Carlson, reviews the effect of radiotherapy on voice quality in patients with early glottic patients.

Chapter Sixteen, "Voice Care for the Professional Voice User" by Stephanie Martin, gives practical advice for various types of occupations, including teachers who use their voice on a daily basis. This is one of the book's most useful chapters for the vocalist.

Chapter Seventeen, "Phonosurgery" by Marc Bouchayer and Guy Cornut, explores a branch of laryngeal surgery whose primary aim is to restore the laryngeal function rather than just address lesions. The advances in this fairly recent surgical technique are reviewed. Treatments and assessments for benign vocal fold lesions such as nodules are discussed, and polyps, Reinke oedema, cysts and sulcus vocalis are explained.

Chapter Eighteen, "The Multidisciplinary Voice Clinic," is coauthored by Sara Harris, Tom Harris, Jacob Lieberman and Dinah Harris. This chapter explains the advantages and disadvantages of a multidisciplinary voice clinic; the personnel and their roles; equipment; what to assess; approaches to administration; and outcome measures and audit.

Although this book is addressed primarily to the medical professional dealing with vocal disorders, its value to singers and teachers as a research tool deserves merit. Each chapter is well organized, with a clear introduction and summary. Diagrams and charts are clear to the average reader, and each chapter deals with the physiological, as well as the social and psychosocial, effects of vocal disorders on those afflicted with these diseases and ailments. An extended bibliography is included at the end of this text.

Audience: vocalists

Fried, Scott, M.D.O. (2001) The Carpal Tunnel Helpbook: Self-Healing Alternatives for Carpal Tunnel and Other Repetitive Strain Injuries. Perseus Books Group, 11 Cambridge Ctr., Cambridge, MA 02142. (617) 252-5298. 109 pp. ISBN: 0-7382-0455-2.

Although this book does not specifically focus on musicians, it does address upperextremity nerve problems involving the neck, shoulders, arms, wrists and/or hands. Repetitive strain injuries are examined with a look at alternative treatments. Scott Fried, a nerve specialist and surgeon, offers nonsurgical remedies for treating nerve problems.

The manual is divided into twelve chapters. Chapter One, "Nerve Problems in the Neck, Shoulders, Arms and Hands," explains carpal tunnel, nerve injury, thoracic outlet syndrome, fibromyalgia and repetitive strain injury. Chapter Two, "The Anatomy of Nerve Injury," explains the three major nerves in the arm, the median, radial and ulnar nerves, and gives an overview of the nonsurgical treatment options available to injured patients.

Chapter Three, "Treatment Modalities and How to Use Them," reviews the use of heat treatments, paraffin, fluid therapy, ultrasound, electrical modalities, high-voltage stimulation, iontophoresis, trans utaneous electrical nerve stimulation, cold applications and medications. Chapter Four, "A Nerve Sliding Program," discusses how to prevent scar tissue from constricting motion and function by keeping the structures moving. Important treatments reviewed are a progressive stretching and exercise program, postural awareness and correction, and lifestyle and activity modifications. Detailed step-by-step exercises are given with clear diagrams and photos.

Chapter Five, "Soft Tissue Stretching," examines strethching and sliding exercises that can be used for both carpal tunnel and repetitive strain injuries. Careful use of them is stressed, as well as the need for gradual and progressive therapeutic stretching. Chapter Six, "Posture Do's and Don'ts," examines natural alignment and good posture. Sitting correctly and posture while driving and sleeping are discussed. Chapter Seven, "Creating a Comfortable Workplace," discusses heights of chairs, computer screens, the mouse and keyboard, working with tools and lifestyle changes that could prevent overuse. Such matters as improving your diet and exercise and pacing your workload are reviewed.

Chapter Eight, "Effective Splints and How to Use Them," discusses the different uses of splints for nerve, as well as bone injuries. Fried cautions readers of the constrictions popular splints cause if used improperly. Chapter Nine, "Meditation/Biofeedback, Yoga and Tai Chi," advocates the use of relaxation and stress reduction techniques along with a regular therapy program. Chapters Ten and Eleven, "A Home-Based Exercise and Healing Program" and "How To Set Up Your Own Home Therapy Center," discuss different ways one can incorporate exercise and therapy into a normal lifestyle.

Chapter Twelve, "A Final Thought," acts as a concluding chapter in which Fried tells readers how to find help in one's area when one does not think help is available by utilizing local YMCAs and the like. This is an easy-to-read manual with clear diagrams and photos. Other books by Fried include Light at the End of the Carpal Tunnel: A Guide to Understanding and Relief from the Pain of Nerve Problems. A short bibliography is included at the end. An appendix on resources for home therapy centers also is included.

Audience: musicians with repetitive strain or nerve injuries

Grindea, Carola. (2001) Healthy Piano Technique: To Prevent Physical Problems and Injuries and To Reduce Stress and Anxiety in Performance. Richard Simrock House, 220 The Vale, NW11 8HZ. 020-8731-6665; fax: 020-8731-6667. 44 pp. ISBN: M221118004.

This is a short manual about of healthy piano technique. It is divided into six sections with an introduction and conclusion. Carola Grindea advocates that teachers understand and educate themselves with regard to tension and joint stiffness. She emphasizes teaching good technical principles at an early age.

Section One discusses a pianist's relationship with the piano--physical and physiological factors and ergonomic interaction with the instrument. Here, posture, physical tension, body and mind, approaching the instrument in a relaxed manner, balanced arms, feet and legs, and the function of hand position and joints are examined.

Section Two is devoted to the role of breathing. Arm weight and muscular energy, as well as downward and upward movements to release tension when playing chords, octaves, sixths, thirds, scales and arpeggios, are reviewed. Sections One and Two deal with the big muscles--shoulders, upper arms--and muscular energy.

Section Three explains finger and wrist techniques and the use of the smaller muscles in the hand and forearm. The next section (Four) is about touch and tone and reviews a cantabile versus a brilliant tone. Portato, legato, nonlegato and staccato touches also are reviewed. Different movements associated with these touches and wrist techniques are included in this section.

Section Five discusses simultaneous movements: vertical and horizontal as well as other wrist movements. Section Six is about the psychological approach to performance; how to prepare mentally to perform, mental rehearsal and coping techniques when performing are examined.

Grindea ends the manual with two articles: "Sight Reading and Sight Singing for Beginners" and "Feminine Endings."

A list of the "ten commandments" for reducing stress, clear diagrams and photos throughout are a part of this text. A bibliography is not included. Other resources by Grindea include the texts: Tension in the Performance of Music--A Symposium and We Make Our Own Music. Grindea also has completed two videos on Piano Technique and Focal Dystonia.

Audience: pianists and pedagogues

Hagins, Marshall, Ph.D., ET. (2002) Dance Medicine Resource Guide. Second edition. J. Michael Ryan Publishing, Inc., 24 Crescent Dr. N., Andover, NJ 07821. (973) 786-7777; fax: (973) 786-7776. 119 pp. ISBN: 1-887064-07-9.

This is a secondary resource tool that could be useful for musicians and actors who need to find help and treatment for orthopedic and eating disorders. Although the information in this guide specifically is addressed to dancers, the list of medical practitioners and associations, treatment centers, research laboratories and academic programs from literally around the world could lead most anyone to the right kind of help. Although Marshall Hagins states in the manual's preface that she does not necessarily endorse the individuals included, she does clearly state her rigorous criteria for their inclusion.

The manual is divided into eight sections: "Directory of Practitioners," "Index of Practitioners," "Dance Medicine Organization," "Dance Medicine Treatment Centers," "Dance Medicine Research Laboratories," "Education in Dance Medicine and Science" (including academic programs, workshops and clinical programs), "Products and Vendors" and "Audio-Visuals, Books, Journals, Reports and Web Sites." Audience: dancers and actors but also musicians seeking physical therapy help

Haroutounian, Joanne, Ph.D. (2002) Kindling the Spark: Recognizing and Developing Musical Talent. Oxford University Press, Inc., 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. 366 pp. ISBN: 0-19-512948-2/hardback; 0-19-515638-2/paperback.

This book is addressed to all musicians, teachers, students and parents interested in learning how talent is found and nurtured in a healthful manner.

It is divided into three parts and has fifteen chapters. Part One, "Perspectives of Musical Talent," contains seven chapters. Musical aptitude, musical intelligence, performance, creativity and giftedness are discussed. The material in this section presents the viewpoints of several specialists in the music field: music psychologists, educators, performers and teachers who specialized in teaching the gifted. The topics explored can be adaptable for school, studio or home to help teachers and parents work with musical talent. The author is interested in the cognitive/perceptive function that is at the heart of musical talent.

Part Two, "Recognizing Musical Talent," has four chapters and gives perspectives on identifying talent and how to spark and unveil talent. Here, the author summarizes current research on musical talent and how to identify it. Activities and useful tools for recognizing talent are given.

Part Three, "Developing Musical Talent," contains four chapters and is about nurturing young students through their teenage years. Characteristics of musical talent and what to look for from crib through the high school years are reviewed. Various philosophies that include Orff, Kodaly, Dalcroze and other preschool programs are examined. Controversies over competitions, master teachers and other related issues parents and students often face also are discussed.

Although wellness issues are not directly examined, the author's emphasis on nurturing musical talent gives a healthy perspective from various viewpoints: as a researcher, musician and parent. An appendix and extended bibliography are included.

Audience: music educators

Horvath, Janet. (2000/2002) Playing (less) Hurt: An Injury Prevention Guide for Musicians. Morris Publishing, 3212 E. Highway 30; Kearney, NE 68847. 295 pp. ISBN: 0-9713735-0-7.

This is a comprehensive spiral-bound manual addressed to professional and amateur musicians, teachers, students, doctors and therapists. There are twenty chapters in this text plus an appendix titled "Resource List," which lists books in print, organizations, websites, videos, products, clinics and practitioners.

Chapter One, "My Story," tells about the life of the author as a cellist. Janet Horvath describes how she was accepted into the Indiana University School of Music as a cello major and began experiencing problems after hours of practice. Fortunately, she finally took a three-month rest from the cello and confessed to her teacher, Janos Starker, that she had been suffering from repetitive strain injury (RSI). Horvath relates how Starker helped her change her technique to avoid future problems.

Chapter Two, "You Are Not Alone," discusses the prevalence of injuries among many instrumental musicians. Here, Horvath cites that orchestral musicians have the highest rate of injuries found in musicians and that 86 percent of these musicians have admitted to a physical problem between ages 35 and 45. Chapter Three, "Why It May Hurt to Play," discusses what overuse is in musicians. The author explains soft tissue injuries (sprains and strains), nerve disorders and neurological disorders. Chapter Four, "The Conductor Is in The Driver's Seat," examines ten risk factors in addition to stressors particular to orchestral life. Chapter Five, "Causes of Overuse Injuries," explains how an injury often is the result of a combination of factors. There is an "Injury Susceptibility Quiz" with questions for the reader to answer. Body size, build, conditioning, muscle imbalances, fatigue, joint laxity, stress levels, misuse (poor technique), abrupt changes in schedule, playing style, lifestyle choices and equipment set-up are reviewed.

Chapter Six, "Risk Factors and Understanding Danger Signals," lists ten danger signals to look for. Chapter Seven, "Static Loading, Back and Disc Problems," reviews back problems that frequently occur in instrumental musicians. Chapter Eight, "Muscle and Tendon Disorders of the Arms and Shoulders," examines radial and ulnar deviations, and muscle extension and flexion. The author gives ten onstage tricks that can be done even while playing to avoid pain. Chapter Nine, "Nerve Entrapments, and Hand and Forearm Pain," examines carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, deQuervain's tenosynovitis, thoracic outlet syndrome, Morton's Neuroma and how to treat nerve entrapments. The chapter ends with a list of ten prevention tips for avoidance of overuse injuries and nerve entrapments. Chapter Ten, "Other Conditions," reviews Taynaud's disease, the use of beta-blockers to treat performance anxiety, ganglion cysts, focal dystonia, fibromyalgia, TMJ, and eye and lip problems.

Chapter Eleven, "Too Much, Too Soon," examines the dynamics between a teacher and student, teeth, jaws, lips, asthma and wind players, the larynx and finger action. Chapter Twelve, "Stretching and Strengthening," gives detailed examples of how to do stretching exercises to ease practicing and performing under stress. Chapter Thirteen address "Chair Problems." Chapter Fourteen, "Location, Location, Location," gives Musician's Survival Travel Kit" to follow for outdoor concerts and other hazards related to traveling and performing. Chapter Fifteen is about musicians' hearing loss. Preventive strategy tips are reviewed, and the signs of hearing loss are examined. Chapter Sixteen, "The Worst Case Scenario," is about what to do when you're hurt. Chapter Seventeen is about rehabilitation and work hardening after an injury. Chapter Eighteen, "Instrument Modification," is about splints, slings, supports and orthotics and the performer. Chapter Nineteen discusses practicing and includes a section about warming up, cooling down, sample practice plans, tools of practice (including the use of a practice plan, mirror, tape recorder and camcorder) and a list of dos and don'ts. Chapter Twenty is a concluding chapter.

Chapters are short and well organized, with plenty of easy-to-view diagrams and pictures. A bibliography is included at the end. Audience: all instrumental musicians

Hughlett, Dave. (1985) Understanding Drum Techniques. UDT Publishing Co., 3747 McMillan, #103, Dallas, TX 75206.32 pp. ISBN not provided.

This short manual concentrates on basic drum techniques using natural and coordinated movements of both the body and the stick. Relaxation techniques, basic anatomy and unnecessary body tension are topics addressed throughout the book.

The layout consists of an introduction and ten sections: "The Drumstick as a Lever," "Muscles Groups and Their Basic Motions," "Establishing a Stable Fulcrum," "Turning the Stick," "Practicing the Grip and Stick Turns," "Fulcrum Accents," "Alternating Strokes," "Double Strokes," "Playing Softly" and "Arm Accents."

A bibliography is not included. Clear diagrams, pictures and exercises are included. Although this is not a recent publication, it still is in print.

Audience: percussionists

Iznaola, Ricardo. (2000) The Physiology of Guitar Playing. International Centre for Research in Music Education, School of Education. The University of Reading, Bulmershe Ct., Earley, Reading, RG6 1HY, UK. 74 pp. ISBN not provided.

Ricardo Iznaola, an artist/teacher, provides a very basic introduction for guitarists to the anatomy, physiology and biomechanics of guitar playing. Other texts by Iznaola are On Practicing (1994) and Kitharologus: The Path to Virtuosity (1995), both published by Chanterelle Verlag.

The book is divided into twelve units or chapters. The first section (Units One and Two), gives a general overview of the musculoskeletal anatomy and limb movements in guitar playing. The next section (Units Three, Four and Five) examines motor function, proprioception, muscle metabolism and leverage in the context of tension as an obstruction to achieving artistic mastery. Performance anxiety also is discussed in this section. In Units Six to Nine, the author discusses sitting position and height, use of foot stools, nails, left- and right-hand positioning and basic technique. The impact of gender, strength, size and other physiological attributes on guitar playing is assessed.

The section following (Units Ten and Eleven) is about somatic training, movement and re-training. Here, the author discusses the Alexander Technique, the Feldenkrais Method and Bodywork (Rolfing). Although Iznaola advocates both meditative and massage techniques, no details are given. Faulty breathing, stage fright, cumulative trauma disorders, tendonitis, carpal tunnel and cubital tunnel syndrome, trigger finger and tennis elbow also are reviewed.

The final section, Unit Twelve, titled "Training for Virtuosity," explains the word virtuosity in pedagogical terms for the teacher and student to explore.

Iznaola's writing shows in-depth research in the area of wellness issues and its significance for a wide range of intrumentalists. Assignments are given at the end of each section. Diagrams of basic anatomy included. A list of references and recommended reading are included at the end of the text.

Audience: guitarists

Mackworth-Young, Lucinda. (2000) Music and Movement: Tuning in Practical Psychology for Musicians Who are Teaching, Learning and Performing. MMM Publications, The Houghton Centre for the Arts, Houghton-on-the-Hill, South Pickenham, Swaffham, Norfolk PE37 8DP. 137 pp. ISBN: 0-9539485-0-1.

This text is addressed to all music teachers and performers. The material in this book can be used for those who teach individually or in groups and for all ages and levels. As the author points out in her forward, she attempts to spell out the intuitive processes all teachers and performers use so conscious intent will enhance the learning and performing process. The psychological understanding in this process is emphasized throughout the text.

There are ten chapters that are easy to read due to the clever layout. Chapter One, "Emotions in Education: The Pupil's Emotional Experience and the Role of the Teacher," begins with questions about their emotions for pupils to answer and discuss with their teachers. First impressions, learning anxiety, roots in infancy, teacher as parent (caregiver and critic), internalizing parents and teachers, transference, becoming independent and endings are examined.

Chapter Two, "Learning and Teaching: Teaching for Learning," begins with an exercise for exploring learning and teaching. This chapter discusses the process of teaching and learning; holistic and step-by-step skills (right and left brain); why and how hands alone versus hands together works only sometimes; aural, kinesthetic, intellectual and visual skills; emotional balance; whole body skills; and teaching styles.

Chapter Three, "Emotions, Motivation, and Practice," begins with an exercise in exploring emotions and motivations. Understanding motivation and assessing and motivating pupils to practice are topics examined.

Chapter Four, "Maintaining Positive Energy; Dealing with Negative Feeling," begins with an exercise intended for exploring energy. Here, both positive and negative energy in teachers and pupils are explored.

Chapter Five, "Making Music Now: Practical Activities to Have Fun and Raise Energy," gives suggestions, such as playing together and improvising, to raise students' energy levels.

Chapter Six, "Group Teaching," explores how to teach groups, the advantages of group lessons and how to deal with differing abilities.

Chapter Seven, "Parents," begins with an exercise for exploring teacher-pupil-parent relationships. Understanding pupils and parents, how to establish and maintain a working relationship and dealing with difficulties are examined.

Chapter Eight, "Age-Related Learning Guide: Summary of Chapters One to Seven," gives a wonderful summary of what students should be able to do at different ages and what they need to learn from ages 4 to 10, 11 to 18 and as an adult pupil.

Chapter Nine, "Performance: Anxiety, Communication and Safety," begins with two exercises exploring performing and audiences. Some helpful suggestions for dealing with performance anxiety and performance preparation (both mental and physical) are given.

Chapter Ten, "Action Research," is about the research you do on your own teaching with the purpose of enhancing and enriching your awareness and skills as a teacher.

Chapters begin with an exercise about the chapter topic. Most chapters end with a summary and practical checklist. Chapters also allow space for personal reflection and a personal/practical checklist. An extended bibliography is included.

Audience: all musicians

Mark, Thomas. (2003) What Every Pianist Needs to Know About the Body. GIA Publications, Inc., 7404 S. Mason Ave., Chicago, IL 60638. 155 pp. ISBN: 1-57999-206-4 and GIA Publications--G5883. Also distributed by Andover Educators, 4427 N. Willis Blvd., Portland, OR 97203. (877) 553-1766.

This book is addressed to all keyboard players, including those who play organ, digital keyboard, harpsichord and clavi-chord. It is about learning good body mapping at your instrument to prevent physical injuries.

There are nine chapters. Chapter One, "Basic Concepts," explains why some people experience pain while playing the piano, and such concepts as finger orientation, quality of movement, intellectual knowledge, kinesthetic awareness and musical imagination are reviewed. Chapter Two, "Mapping the Structure," is about supporting and delivering body weight. The skull, spine and spinal movement, the pelvis, upper and lower legs and foot movements are examined. Chapter Three, "Mapping the Places of Balance," discusses posture and balance throughout the body. There also is some discussion about sitting at the piano, as well as bench height. Chapter Four, "Mapping the Arm and Hand," examines the joints and rotations. The wrist, the hand (including movement of the fingers and the MCP joints) and thumb use are reviewed. Chapter Five, "Mapping Muscles," examines mechanical issues such as curled fingers, thumb orientation, ulnar deviation, forearm arches and arm suspension. Chapter Six, "Mapping Breathing," is about breathing within phrases. Chapter Seven, "Mapping the Piano," discusses how the body interacts with the piano. Such issues as key depression, the amount of force delivered to the key, velocity, tactile issues and so on are discussed. Chapter Eight, "Additional Concerns of Organists," examines the unique movements and balance issues an organist encounters. Chapter Nine, "Injuries and Retraining," quickly reviews how injuries develop, tendonitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, dystonia and why many pianists do not recover.

Those readers already familiar with Barbara Conable's book, What Every Musician Needs to Know about the Body, will find this is a more detailed examination of her ideas on body mapping. It is an easy-to-read manual, with clear pictures of bone structures, joints, muscles and so on. A short bibliography is included. There also is a video by Thomas Mark entitled What Every Pianist Needs to Know about the Body from GIA Publications (VHS-566).

Audience: pianists

Martin, Stephanie and Myra Lockhart. (2000) Working with Voice Disorders. Winslow Press Ltd., Telford Rd., Bicester, Oxon OX26 4LQ, UK. 212 pp. ISBN: 0-86388-243-9.

This text is addressed to clinicians working with voice disorders, as well as teachers and students of voice. It is a practical resource about all aspects of patient management that includes a patient's journey from disorder back to health. The book's layout allows for reading it in its entirety or just reading a specific chapter as needed.

There are eight chapters. Each chapter begins with a separate title page and a list of chapter offerings with page numbers. Thus, readers can easily jump to the area they need.

Chapter One, "Anatomy Overview," has an introduction and includes the topics: the respiratory system, the phonatory system, the resonatory system, the aging process and classification of tumors.

Chapter Two, "Non-Organic Disorders," begins with an introduction followed by information about muscle tension, disorders, professional voice users, occupational voice disorders, gender dysphoria, puberphonia and psychogenic disorders.

Chapter Three, "Organic Disorders," contains information about laryngitis, vocal nodules, fold polyps and cysts, oedema, reinke's oedema, contact ulcer, granuloma, dysphonia plicae ventricularis, hyperkeratosis, vocal fold paralysis, post-radiotherapy, laryngeal papilloma, scarring of the vocal folds, spasmodic adductor dysphonia, laryngeal web, sub-mucous hemorrhages, sulcus vocalis and bowing of the vocal folds. The chapter ends with a summary section.

Chapter Four, "The Case History," discusses what should take place at the initial interview, offering suggestions about how to elicit and document information. The chapter then relates voice disorders to the patient's vocal characteristics and overall medical history, employment and work environment, and domestic, social and recreational activities. This chapter ends with a summary.

Chapter Five, "Assessment," begins with an introduction followed by a section on perceptual assessment and instrumentation.

Chapter Six, "Treatment Strategies," discusses methods of therapeutic intervention, relating a variety of interdependent factors, including posture relaxation, breathing, voice, pitch, muscularity and resonance This chapter includes exercises and easy-to-read charts for vocalist to follow and try on their own.

Chapter Seven, "Management Strategies," consists of sections on stress, the clinician's role, the patient's perception, clinical effectiveness, options for therapy programs, prognostic indicators and target-setting.

Chapter Eight, "Service Management," begins with an introduction and then reviews where a clinician should begin, how to assess a patient's needs, resources, clinical governance, how to build a team and how to monitor the service provision. The chapter ends with a summary section.

Eight appendices are included: "Voice Care Advice," "Voice Disorders Summary Chart," "Voice Questionnaire," "Case History Proforma," "Voice Assessment Sheet," "Voice Record Sheet, .... "Voice Diary" and "Prognostic Indicator Check List. 'An extended bibliography is included.

This text is useful for vocal pedagogy classes reviewing vocal disorders, researchers and clinicians in the field. The authors have a background in speech therapy and voice, therefore making the text readable for both the vocalist and clinician.

Audience: vocalists

Parncutt, Richard and Gary E. McPherson. (2002) The Science and Psychology of Music Performance. Oxford University Press, Inc., 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. 388 pp. ISBN: 0-19-513810-4.

The organization of this book is rather unique. Two international scholars coauthored each chapter: one a scientist (psychologist or physician) and the other a performer or music educator. These coauthors work in two different parts of the world. Four people reviewed the chapters: the two editors, another author from the book and one external reviewer. There are a total of thirty-nine contributors to this book.

The book is divided into three parts: "The Developing Musician" (personal and environmental influences that shape learning and performance during a musician's life span), "Subskills of Music Performance" and "Specific Instruments and Ensembles." Containing twenty-one chapters, this book is addressed to music educators, music psychologists and performers. The reseach here is exploratory with discussion of the application of findings. Its interdiciplinary approach gives the text a wide audience. In Part One, "The Developing Musician," there are six chapters: "Musical Potential," "Environmental Influences," "Motivation," "Performance Anxiety," "Brain Mechanics" and "Music Medicine."

Part Two, "Subskills of Music Performance," has nine chapters: "From Sound to Sign," "Improvisation," "Sight-Reading," "Practice," "Memory," "Intonation," "Structural Communication," "Emotional Communication" and "Body Movement."

Part Three, "Instruments and Ensembles," includes six chapters: "Solo Voice," "Choir," "Piano," "String Instruments," "Wind Instruments" and "Rehearsing and Conducting."

Each chapter begins with an abstract summary of the topic being examined. Recommendations and conclusions are listed in every chapter. Chapters end with an extended bibliography on the topic examined. The information in this book is current, and the chapters are easy to read. This text addresses wellness issues for the music educator, musician and music researcher.

Audience: all musicians, particularly educators and researchers

Sapolsky, Robert M. (1998) Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers: An Updated Guide to Stress, Stress Related Diseases, and Coping. W. H. Freeman and Company, 41 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10010 and Houndmilk Basingstoke, RG21 6XS, England. 434 pp. ISBN: 0-7167-3210-6.

There are sixteen chapters. Chapter One, "Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers" gives background information about the different kinds of stresses to which humans are subject. Robert Sapolsky compares the acute physical stress a zebra might have with the psychological and social stressors of humans. The flight/flight syndrome, used to descibed the stress response, is explained, as well as the importance of appropriately turning on and off the stress response.

Chapter Two, "Glands, Gooseflesh, and Hormones," reviews the hormones and brain system involved in the stress-response: which ones are activated during stress and which ones are inhibited.

Chapter Two, "Glands, Gooseflesh, and Hormones," reviews the hormones and brain systems involved in the stress-response: which ones are activated during stress and which ones are inhibited.

Chapter Three, "Stroke, Heart Attacks, and Voodoo Death," is about short-term physical emergency and the cardiovascular stress response. Chronic stress and how it results in adverse effects and consequence, heart disease and other ailments are reviewed.

Chapter Four, "Stress, Metabolism and Liquidating Your Assets," is another chapter about the nature of the stress response and the pathological consequences when prolonged. How energy is stored and how we use it when needed are discussed. The causes of energetic diseases, like diabetes, are examined.

Other chapters include Chapter Five, "Ulcers, Colitis and The Runs," Chapter Six, Dwarfism and the Importance of Mothers," Chapter Seven, "Sex and Reproduction," Chapter Eight, "Immunity, Stress and Disease," Chapter Nine, "Stress-Induced Analgesia," and Chapter Ten, "How Memory Works." Each chapter carefully examines the problems identified in the chapter title and proposes ways of improving and coping.

Chapter Eleven, "Aging and Death," examines the role of stress in the aging process and how the secretion of certain hormones during stress may accelerate the aging process.

Chapter Twelve, "Why is Psychological Stress Stressful?" serves as an introduction to the remaining sections of the book. Chapter Thirteen, "Stress and Depression," reviews major depression the symptoms, neurochemistry, neuro anatomy and endocrinology. Chapter Fourteen, "Personality, Temperament, and Their Stress-Related Consequences," discuss what personality differences have to do with individual differences in patterns of stress-related disease. Anxiety disorders, type A personalities, and links between personality and the stress response are examined.

Chapter Fifteen, "The View from the Bottom," looks at one's place in society, the type of society in which one lives and how this correlates to stress-related diseases.

Chapter Sixteen, "Managing Stress," looks at the main principles of stress management and how we can protect ourselves from too much stress.

Extensive notes are included at the end in addition to a bibliography of topics examined in the text. Clear diagrams and cartoons are notable features of the book. As the title suggests, the authors often compare humans and our responses to those of animals, which helps readers easily put things into perspective.

Audience: musicians/stress disorders

Shainberg, Nancy. (2001) Getting Out of Your Own Way: Unlocking Your True Performance Potential Luminous Press, 2565 Broadway, #185, New York, NY 10025. (212) 316-6648. 198 pp. ISBN: 0-9708004-0-1.

This book is written by a psychotherapist who is director of the psychological services for the Miller Health Care Institute for Performing Artists of St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital in New York. The author's purpose is to offer insights into psychological pitfalls that often prevent us from achieving optimal performance. Nancy Shainberg concentrates on how to change negativity, how to stop chasing a perfect future, being authentic, becoming your own ally and how to allow yourself to succeed.

There are fifteen chapters: "Willingness," "Getting Off the Fence," "Being Present: Learning to Pay Attention," "Deserving Success," "Imperfection," "Negative Self-Talk," "Overcoming Negativity, .... Thinking Positive," "Parents," "The Competition," "The Zone," "Relishing the Unknown," "Becoming Real: Shedding the Impostor," "Inhabiting Your Life" and "Practical Techniques."

There are many good, "chit-chatty" discussions about dealing with one's internal conflicts and the role we play in achieving our own peak performance level. In the process of Shainberg's discussions, she gives examples of athletes and musicians. A short bibliography is included at the end. She also suggests contacting the focusing institute: Audience: all musicians/performance anxiety

Tschaikov, Basil, editor. (2000) Physical and Emotional Hazards of a Reforming Career. This is from a special issue of Musical Performance journal, Volume 2, Part 4, published by Harwood Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 32160, Newark, NJ 07102. (800) 545-8398; fax: (973) 643-7676. 143 pp. ISBN: 90-5755-138-1.

This is a special edition of Musical Performance journal (available by itself) that contains eleven articles about musicians' injuries and emotional problems and performance. There are thirteen contributors, who are medical professionals from around the world.

The articles are "The Causes and Effects of Stress in the Orchestral Player" by lan Jones, "Helping Performers: The Work of the British Performing Arts Trust" by Ann Fingaret, "Causes of Stress in the Popular Musician" by Geoffrey I. Wills, "Stress and the Music Student" by Catherine Butler Smith, "Dystonia in Musicians" by Richard J. Lederman, "Brass Players and Embouchure Problems" by Richard Canter, "Voice Disorders: Psychological Considerations" by Deborah Caputo Rosen and Robert T. Sataloff, "The Effects of Sex Hormones on the Female Voice" by Gordana M. Prelevic, "Velopharyngeal Incompetence in Wind Players" by D.R. Ingrams, D.J. McFerran and J.M. Graham, and, "Deafness in Musicians" by A.G.D. Maran.

Musical Performance is a relatively new journal, published three times a year and addressing subjects related to performers of all genres and styles, from classical to jazz to popular music. Each issue researches a particular performance aspect; this issue examines the hazards of a performing career and can serve as an excellent tool for musicians researching the physical and emotional effects of performing. An extended bibliography at the end of each article is included, and a glossary of medical terms is listed.

Audience: all musicians/research oriented

Uszler, Marienne, Stewart Gordon and Scott McBride Smith with contributions by Rena Upitis and Elyse Mach. (2000) The Well-Tempered Keyboard Teacher. Second edition. Schirmer Books, 1633 Broadway, New York, NY 10019. (800) 257-5157. 475 pp. ISBN: 0-02-864788-2.

This is a standard piano pedagogy text that has been expanded and updated since the first edition was published in 1991. The 2000 edition contains many additions such as information about current learning theories and styles; it provides teaching suggestions that are sound, practical and promote wellness for the growing pianist, gives an overview of the history of piano techniques including contemporary views, and provides an annotated list of resources (books, journals and videos). Also included, in Chapter Twenty-Five, "Great Pianists of Today," is a discussion of concert pianists and their approaches to learning new music, technique and memorization, nervousness and preconcert tension.

The text is divided into six parts: "The Beginning Student," "The Intermediate Student," "The Advanced Student," "The Professional Keyboard Teacher," "The Well-Informed Keyboard Teacher" and "Historical Overview of Keyboard Pedagogy." There are twenty-five chapters. An extended bibliography is included at the end as well as annotated lists at the end of certain sections in the text.

Audience: pianists, pedagogy

Uszler, Marienne. (2003) Play It Again, Sam ... What, Why and When to Repeat. The FJH Music Company, Inc., 2525 Davie Rd., Ste. 360, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33317-7424. 62 pp. ISBN: 1-56939-273-0 or FF 1328.

This short manual is part of a self-help pedagogy book series by Marienne Uszler for teachers and prospective teachers. College students needing practicing tips about when, how and why to repeat something also can benefit from this text. There are twenty-three short sections or "topics," with teaching suggestions in each of the areas discussed. Teachers and students will find the ideas presented in such a way that one quickly learns why and how something is done. Using the ideas in this text will promote the use of repetition as a positive teaching and practice tool.

Physical, visual, listening and mental skills are examined along with the ability to synthesize and properly use one's own kinesthetic body knowledge. Teaching students how to properly group concepts such as rhythm or melody, playing legato, how the body learns, how to reinforce concepts, how to judge a student's comprehension of these concepts and how to judge their ability to transfer these concepts are reviewed. In the last section of the manual, Uszler discusses teaching scales and a short etude (Innocence) by Johann Friedrich Burgmuller. Here, she gives specific instructions for how many times a day one should practice a scale and what to do each time the scale is repeated. The most intriguing section of the book is her discussion of how to teach the etude. Warm-ups, playing certain measures and how to keep the student's ear and mind alert are examined. Healthy practicing is at the heart Of this text, with the goal of making each repetition meaningful. A short bibliography is included.

Audience: pianists, pedagogy

Westney, William. (2003) The Perfect Wrong Note and Other Musical Breakthroughs. Amadeus Press, 133 S.W. 2nd Ave., Ste. 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527. Can be ordered through Hal Leonard Music Dispatch, P.O. Box 13920, Milwaukee, WI 53213. (800) 637-2852. 240 pp. ISBN: 1-57467-083-2.

This text is addressed to the student, teacher, parent, professional musician or "would-be" musician and is about how we approach practicing and performing. William Westney gives an overview of the life of a musician, beginning with a beginner (whether a child or adult) and, through his (sometimes humorous) discussions, focuses on nurturing a musician via a healthy mind, body and spirit relationship. The book is really about overcoming the fears, conflicts and misconceptions with regard to music making. Teacher-student relationships and how students learn also are discussed. Most importantly, Westney's book is premised on the belief our educational traditions have not necessarily been very healthy and perhaps have needlessly discouraged many students from studying a musical instrument. Keeping this premise in mind, the author proceeds to explain ways to encourage positive music making (hence the title The Perfect Wrong Note).

The book is divided into eleven chapters. Chapter One, "Music, Magic and Childhood," begins with the author's own beginning in music at the age of 3 with Dalcroze Eurhythmics. Westney feels that toddlers and performing musicians have a common magical trait, examining this throughout the chapter. He goes on to explain the commonalities between a toddler and artist in their respective creative processes and shows how our learning process can be impaired as an adult if our intuitiveness is neglected.

Chapter Two, "Vitality," is about judgments and competition, skills, lessons, traditions and, finally, vitality in the practice room. This chapter reviews vitality as a necessary but extremely "perishable" ingredient in music making that needs constant "nurturing." How to keep the zest and originality in music is reviewed. The interpersonal relationship between a student and teacher, the inner and outer skills of a musician, and how they are different, also are discussed. Westney refers to Amy Fay's book Music-Study in Germany, giving positive and negative comments about the famous artist teachers of the nineteenth century. He poses the idea that today's piano festivals/competitions could perhaps place a more positive spin on these opportunities without sacrificing quality. Suzuki teaching and the fun involved are mentioned.

Chapter Three, "Juicy Mistakes," is about honest mistakes, careless mistakes, mistakes of teachers, suppression, denial, chaos and mindfulness. Here, he examines William Newman's book The Pianist's Problems, discusses how weekly lessons often do more harm than good, makes reference to Walter Gieseking's book Piano Technique: The Shortest Way to Pianistic Perfection and considers how honest mistakes give texture to the learning process. The cost of 100 percent accuracy, how to achieve mastery and the juiciness of learning are among the issues examined in this chapter.

Chapter Four, "Step by Step: A Guide to Healthy Practicing," examines the creative potential of the healthy practice process, how to put the mind-body system to a practice-ready state and how to address the music at hand. The chapter ends with a discussion of the ten most frequently asked questions about practicing. The heart of this chapter, what constitutes a healthy practice, gives an exact list of what to address, how to address it and how to take a practice break.

Chapter Five, "Breakthroughs," is about spatial relationships, hidden truths, "alike but different" physiology, negative space and artistry. Making discoveries in the practice room is examined, why an arpeggio often might have a mistake in it in a different octave because the body has to change its spatial relationship to the keyboard is explained and how to track problems is addressed.

Chapter Six, "Is It Good to Be a Good Student?," is a terribly honest chapter about what Westney describes as "the good student syndrome." Here, one reads about perfectionism, plateaus and sight reading (and its dangers). How perfectionism can get in the way of creativity is examined. The author examines several different students and how they approach music and taking lessons. The physical dangers of sight reading, why one should work out a way to practice a particular piece and why it is important to develop healthy sight-reading skills are reviewed.

Chapter Seven, "Out of Control: The Drama of Performing," is about the ego being in crisis, nerves and expansiveness. The fight/flight syndrome, what we can learn from being nervous, restrictions and the performer/audience circuit are examined.

Chapter Eight, "Lessons and Unlessons," is about removing the goals, brainstorming and being a flexible teacher. Musical examples, such as playing polyrhythms, performance practice and so on, are discussed.

Chapter Nine, "The Un-Master Class: Rethinking a Tradition," is a discussion of bringing exuberance and trust into master classes. Those who know the book Soprano on her Head: Right-side up Reflections on Live and Other Performances, by the late Eloise Ristad, particularly will appreciate this chapter.

Chapter Ten, "Adventurous Amateurs," is really about "grown-up practicing" and maturing as a student and a teacher. The comparison to Sherlock Holmes and Albert Einstein and what they have in common make for fun reading

Chapter Eleven, "Beyond the Music Room," states that music making should be healthy. Here the author defines the terms liberation, serenity, vitality, honesty, humility, awareness and beauty.

The text ends with a section titled "Postscript: A Word to Health Professionals." This includes an interesting set of questions for someone to ask a musician who has pain. This is an intriguing and refreshing book that contains current ideas and is fun to read. It would be useful to anyone interested in the physiological aspects of practicing and complements other books on the topic because of its unique approach. Resources and a bibliography are included.

Audience: pianists/practicing


Golandsky, Edna with Dorothy Taubman. (2001) The Taubman Techniques: Volumes 6-10. Taubman Institute, Route 351, Medusa, NY 12120. (800) 826-3720; fax: (518) 239-4284.

This set is a continuation of the first five-part videotape series (Volumes 1-5) of the Taubman Lectures. The purpose of these videos is to give an in-depth analysis of virtuosic technique while preventing physical injuries. The first set, Volumes 1-5 (1995) was about basic coordination of the human body in relationship to piano playing and how coordination works in motion with proper integration to develop virtuosic technique. This set (Volumes 6-t0) is about specific skills needed to resolve and master different situations in music itself. Particular chorography is given for effortless playing. Segments (musical examples) from standard advanced repertoire are used to demonstrate the ideas examined. The accompanying booklet contains all the musical examples from the set of videos, a list of repertoire by composer and a chart explaining symbols used in the booklet. Musical examples are easy to locate on each video because the exact time on the tape is listed in the booklet, and the tape itself has the exact time recorded in the right-hand corner.

Video Six, Grouping (2 minutes), explains how principles of grouping can help organize passages for ease of execution, to avoid stretching for different densities of notes and lengths of passages to facilitate changes in direction, to facilitate leaps with complex designs and to know when to breathe. Edna Golandsky makes a point of discussing breathing in relationship to the brain. She also stresses that one should use this information when it is needed. Fifty specific musical passages one can easily follow in the accompanying booklet are used. Fingerings and rotation are labeled. The video ends with a master class lesson with Dorothy Taubman. The piece performed is the Barcorolle by Frederic Chopin.

Video Seven, Leaps (1 minute, 43 seconds), is about how to play both staccato and legato leaps. The goal here to is minimize the distance of a leap and at the same time play it quickly and securely without becoming tired. This is a well-functioning technique. Leaps in both hands, played at the same time, repeated leaps and how to leap but give the feeling of playing legato also are discussed. Thirty-eight musical examples are used in this video. The video ends with a master class lesson with Taubman. The piece performed is Estampes by Claude Debussy.

Video Eight, Interdependence and Memorization (1 minute, 40 seconds), is about interdependence versus independence of the hands and how they reinforce each other. The pitfalls of practicing hands separately are reviewed. Here, Golandsky discusses vertical and horizontal learning. She uses the learning of a Bach fugue as an example. Rotation, alternating hands, in and out movements, shaping, security of cross rhythms, trills, timing of broken chords, playing staccato in one hand and legato in another and how to play these things securely are reviewed. Interdependence/independence of the hands with cueing and kinetic dependence is examined. There are forty-one musical examples.

The last portion of this tape discusses memorization. The five different components to memorizing a piece of music are examined: visual (both notes on the printed page and the keyboard), kinetic, aural, conceptual and technical (in-coordinated movements). There is much discussion by Golandsky about how the mind needs to be involved for each note to be recorded in the brain. She stresses that a pianist must teach the notes to the mind, not just the fingers.

Video Nine, Fingering (1 minute, 40 seconds), discusses what is good fingering and why. Choosing fingering that places you at the best advantage, avoiding fingering that causes stretching, twisting and crowding, knowing when and why to redistribute a passage between the two hands, utilizing white-and-black key ins and outs in fingering, and mastering trill fingering are some of the issues discussed. Fingering that establishes the best coordination with minimal motion always is stressed here. The video ends with a master class lesson with Taubman. The piece performed is Nocturne in D-flat Major (Opus 27, No. 2) by Chopin.

Video Ten, Tone, Legato and Enslavement to Notation (1 minute, 55 seconds), is about creating a beautiful tone via good technique. Golandsky takes this opportunity to summarize points made in earlier videos along with discussing legato and tone. The two aspects of legato: physical (what we do) and musical (what we hear) are examined. Also reviewed are how to make octaves, chords and "stretchy" passages that cannot be physically connected sound connected, the role of shaping and pedaling in legato playing, the physical components of tone production and key speed (the way we approach and release a tone). Interpreting the score to realize a composer's intention also is examined. Twenty-seven examples are presented in this video, which ends with a master class lesson with Taubman. The piece performed is L'isle Joyeuse by Debussy.

Wellness issues and injury prevention permeate all these videos. These would provide an excellent overview of technique for advanced students.

Audience: advanced pianists


Biofeedback. Published four times per year. Distributed by the Association of Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 10200 W. 44th Ave., No. 304, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-2840. (303) 422-8436; fax: (303) 422-8894. ISSN: 1081-5937.

The Biofeedback journal was first published in 2002.


Performing Arts Medicine Association.

This association focuses on improving health care for performing artists through education, communication and research. Membership includes a subscription to the journal Medical Problems of Performing Artists.

Performing Arts Psychophysiology. or

This organization focuses on mind-body issues in performing arts; its mission is "to promote the growth and overall quality of life for those involved in performing arts through better education and understanding of applied psychophysiology and biofeedback techniques." This is a new subspecialty for psychophysiological (mind-body) issues in the performing arts.


The number of new web pages dealing with performing arts wellness is certainly an indication of the growing awareness of the health issues affecting musicians, dancers and other performing artists. Many of these pages promote the services of clinics and medical specialists or alternative-medicine products and techniques, all now widely available in the United States, Canada and Europe. Most websites in this bibliography represent nonprofit organizations and educational institutions; commercial sites are included only if they offer a substantial amount of free help and guidance and/or a collection of useful links.


This site is no longer active.

This site has been moved to

The is the new address for the Occupational Diseases of Performing Artists website.

This is the new address for the Canadian Network for Health in the Arts.


Sponsored by the Hear-It AISBL organization headquartered in Belgium, this website provides basic information about all aspects of hearing loss. Its brief but informative articles describe the physiology of hearing, common causes of hearing impairment and tinnitus, and the various treatments available. Coping strategies also are emphasized. One of the site's internal links, page=1662, deals specifically with noise-induced hearing loss in musicians. This noncommercial public education site will be especially useful as a teaching tool to help music students become aware of the hearing problems that can result from playing an instrument or listening to music at a loud volume and of simple self-help measures that can preserve their hearing.

Audience: all musicians, music teachers

This sports medicine website offers self-help information for the musician and dancer. The "Physical Therapy" link leads to a selection of articles about several types of neck and shoulder disorders caused by repetitive motion or cumulative stress, as well as foot, knee and leg conditions often associated with dancing. Some articles are addressed specifically to the musician and the dancer. Each article includes a series of photographs showing motions likely to cause to disorder and exercises to help prevent the problem or alleviate the symptoms. The exercises are clearly illustrated and easy to perform. Other links on the main page lead to articles about nutrition. For those who would like to become more familiar with the functioning of muscles and joints, there are well-illustrated articles on anatomy and physiology. This site is sponsored by the Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma, located in New York City.

Audience: all performing artists

This lively article discusses the importance of sitting properly while playing a musical instrument so the chair does not become an "instrument of torture" that causes back pain and other physical problems. A simple exercise illustrated in the article helps the performer understand the anatomical processes involved in sitting and shows how awareness of these factors can help each person create a healthier way of sitting.

Audience: all musicians

While not specifically for musicians, the Orthopaedic Knowledge Online website, sponsored by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, offers a wealth of reliable information about many conditions of interest to musicians and other performing artists. These are found by clicking on the "Patient Education" link and then selecting the appropriate part of the body (shoulder, hand and so on). Musicians will be interested especially in various articles on neck and shoulder pain and impingement problems, disorders of the arm such as tennis elbow and ulnar nerve entrapment, and problems of the hand and wrist, including carpal tunnel syndrome and deQuervain's tendonitis. Information about conditions affecting the spine, leg and foot may be of particular interest to dancers, as well as some musicians. Each article describes the condition and its symptoms and discusses causes and treatment, including self-help measures.

Audience: all performing artists

Physical problems related to string playing are the subject of the "Musicians Health" section of the website for the Kun shoulder rest. These exceptionally well-organized and attractive web pages present information in three categories: "Common Injuries," "Healing and Prevention" and "Reference Materials." The "Injuries" section discusses bursitis, tendonitis, thoracic outlet syndrome and temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TJM), with each section describing the condition, its causes and prevention, and providing worthwhile links to other websites. In the "Healing and Prevention" section are separate links to information about the Alexander Technique, the Feldenkrais Method and the Pilates Method, as well as a section on warm-up stretches specifically for string players and differing views on the use of shoulder and chin rests. The "Reference" section includes listings for clinics, workshops and organizations, plus a brief bibliography of books and other materials.

Audience: string players

This website for the Johnson String Instrument Company currently includes two wellness articles, both found under the link "News You Can Use." One is a short but helpful article about the condition often referred to as "fiddler's neck," though this site gives it the more amusing name of "violin hickey." The article describes this painful condition and offers some tips about prevention or reducing discomfort. A longer article, reproduced from Strings Magazine (1989), discusses predisposing factors, symptoms and treatment for various types of overuse injury among instrumentalists.

Audience: string players

Voice disorders ranging from mild hoarseness to complete loss of voice are the subject of this website from the Voice Disorders Center at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, one of the teaching hospitals at Harvard Medical School. On the main page are links to a series of articles dealing with voice disorders caused by neurological problems, non-neurological trauma or disease, and misuse or overuse. One article focuses on the professional singing voice. Each article contains a description of the problem accompanied by photographs, a summary of causes and treatments, and a listing of medical journal citations and other medical reference materials. In addition, the site provides information about the services of the clinic, which provides state-of-the-art diagnosis and treatment, including a voice restoration program.

Audience: singers, actors, health practitioners

Established in 1969, the Voice Foundation promotes vocal health by funding research programs, providing public education about voice care and improving the quality of voice medical care. Its website is a resource for both the singer and the educator, offering articles about various vocal problems along with news about symposia and research. The "Voice Care Information" section includes an article on vocal health by Robert T. Sataloff, a musician and medical doctor who has published books and articles about musician wellness, plus a selection of other articles that discuss various aspects of voice care and performer health. One article offers practical suggestions for mastering stage fright. Other links provide an overview of current voice therapy and a page of links to other voice-related websites. The site also provides a table of contents for the current issue of the Foundation's publication, the Journal of Voice.

Audience: singers, music educators, health practitioners

"Voice Awareness" is a page to help music educators teach students about proper voice care. It includes a lesson on how speech is produced, tips about good health habits, vocal warm-up exercises and information about environmental irritants. An extensive annotated listing of online articles and websites makes this site valuable for further research. This page was prepared by a faculty member at the Centre for Development of Teaching and Learning at the National University of Singapore.

Audience: music educators, singers, actors

This site emphasizes the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle that addresses the physical, emotional and spiritual needs of each individual. Topics include nutrition, stress management, preventive measures and holistic treatment of medical conditions. The phenomenal growth of interest in complementary and alternative or integrative medicine in recent years is reflected in this site's extensive collection of information about many different therapies and treatments, ranging from the traditional medical systems of several cultures to more familiar techniques such as massage, meditation and biofeedback. Performing artists may be especially interested in the sections on nutrition, yoga, biofeedback, imagery and meditation. This site is to be commended for its insistence on the importance of working with a licensed health professional to find health measures appropriate for the individual and the medical condition being treated.

Audience: all performing artists

The Alexander Technique Dance Website offers articles and links explaining how the Alexander Technique of body awareness and control can improve dance performance and prevent injuries. The author of this site is Madeleine Samuelson White, who trained as a dance instructor at the Royal Academy of Dancing in England and danced with the Sadlers Wells Royal Ballet Company before becoming a ballet teacher. She also is a certified Alexander Technique instructor. In the articles, dance instructors from the United States and United Kingdom give their perspectives on the use of the Alexander Technique to help or prevent such problems as breathing disorders, back pain, repetitive motion injuries and psychological stress. Their common theme is that ignoring or "dancing through" pain, which many dancers have been taught to do, can be extremely harmful and may lead to long-term or permanent disability.

Audience: dancers, actors (musical theater), dance instructors

This website from Great Britain is valuable for its extensive lists of health-related links to online articles and websites of interest to singers. Health information can be found in several places: Information about performance anxiety and confidence building is listed under the healing "Techniques," while the "Resources" section provides links to a series of health and fitness articles and websites. Subjects range from common voice problems associated with overuse and improper use to side effects of colds and flu. Under "Voice Training" are breathing, fitness and posture exercises, as well as articles about vocal technique. For health and wellness information, this site is valuable, not for its original material, but for its extensive compilation of material from credible online sources. Although the site seems directed primarily to popular music performance, its health and fitness materials are relevant for any vocalist.

Audience: singers, actors

This is the wellness page from a commercial site for guitarists, offering external links interspersed with tidbits of advice for players of both the acoustic and electric guitar. While the material is not especially well organized, it seems to fall into roughly three categories: information about hearing loss, warm-up exercises, and medical problems such as repetitive strain injuries and focal dystonias. The links include major musician wellness sites as well as online articles specifically about guitar playing, most anecdotal. This site is perhaps not the most authoritative source; however, it does offer an overview of the medical problems associated with guitar playing and emphasizes the importance of prevention and early treatment of injuries.

Audience: guitar players and other instrumentalists

This page, compiled by a Harvard graduate student, is a clear and well-organized guide to information about hand care for musicians who play the acoustic guitar. It discusses building and maintaining calluses on the fingertips, nail care for the guitarist, exercises for strengthening the hands and fingers, and warm-up exercises for injury prevention. There also are links to reputable web pages about various hand and wrist disorders and other medical problems of musicians.

Audience: instrumental musicians, especially guitarists

Founded in 1945, the American Society for Surgery of the Hand, which has a worldwide membership of hand, orthopedic, plastic and general surgeons, engages in education, research and advocacy to maintain standards of excellence in patient care. While much of the information on its website is directed toward the medical profession, its "Patients and Public" menu does include an extensive collection of original articles about hand therapy, surgery and injury prevention. This site also offers several online videos, such as an overview of hand surgeries and therapies and the story of one patient's experience with surgery. Another useful feature is a searchable directory of hand surgeons. Other links direct the user to professional sites for hand therapy information and directories of hand therapists.

Audience: all performing artists, especially instrumental musicians

Although much of the material offered by the Safety and Health in Arts Production and Entertainment (SHAPE) organization is directed toward the health and safety concerns of theater technicians and production staff, its publications includes a substantial amount of material specifically for performing artists. Two major articles of interest to musicians and actors include "Preventing Musculoskeletal Injury (Msi) for Musicians and Dancers: A Resource Guide," and "Listen While You Work: Hearing Conservation for the Arts," both downloadable for free from this site. This site's other publications offering wellness and safety information for dancers and actors can be obtained for free by sending an e-mail to the organization. This site also offers a complete online archive of SHAPE's past newsletters, containing additional wellness information for musicians and actors.

Audience: all performing artists


A special thanks to Rebecca Shockley, professor of piano pedagogy and class piano coordinator at the University of Minnesota and chair of MTNA's Pedagogy Saturday Committee; Rebecca Grooms Johnson, NCTM, associate professor and director, Community Music School and Conservatory Keyboard Pedagogy at Capital University and former chair of MTNA's Pedagogy Saturday Committee; Gail Berenson, NCTM, professor of piano and chair of the keyboard division at Ohio University, Athens; and Margaret Lorince, NCTM, professor emeritus, West Virginia University, who all have supported this project and helped keep it an ongoing endeavor. This research has been assisted by Kathryn Kalmanson, head of reference at Blackwell Library at Salisbury University. She continues to do the research necessary for this bibliography and has taken on the full responsibility for the websites, including writing the annotations and making sure sites are still active. Also, a thank you to Robin R. Cockey for his valuable insights in making sure the annotations are clear to the general reader.

Linda Cockey, professor at Salisbury Univenity in Maryland, teaches piano, music history and a wellness in performance course. She holds a D.M.A. degree from the Catholic University of America. She has authored numerous publications on musical topics, presented papers for several national organizations and is an active performer.
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Author:Kalmanson, Kathryn
Publication:American Music Teacher
Article Type:Bibliography
Date:Jun 1, 2003
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