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Annotated bibliography on musician wellness.

INTRODUCTION

This bibliography is an extension an update of the Annotated Bibliography on Musician Wellness on MTNA's website: www.mma.org. This ongoing project began in 1994, when it was first published in the Proceedings for the National Conference on Piano Pedagogy, 1994-1995 (pages 293-296). MTNA has sponsored it since 1997.

This bibliography's purpose is to provide a quick resource tool for teachers and students to address the prevention of medical problems, performance preparation, stage fright and physiological and psychological issues. The list is by no means complete, but the most recent publications in books have been annotated except for a few publications too difficult to obtain or lacking sufficient educational value.

In the last few years, more information than ever before is available on the topic of musician wellness. Not only have many manuals and texts been written on the subject, but several journals are now adding a section on health and the musician as well. Educating the musician as well as prevention of medical problems is the general focus.

Please note that books go out of print so quickly that often it is just a matter of months before a book is no longer available. Out-of-print items can be obtained sometimes via a library and/or through inter-library loan.

As noted in earlier bibliographies on musician wellness, these items listed may contain controversial information. Neither MTNA nor the author endorses or claims the efficacy of any product or technique. Students and teachers need to judge accordingly.

The format of the bibliography is as follows:

General information included: author, date of publication, title, publisher, current publisher's address, phone and/or fax, if available, e-mail and website information, if available, number of pages and ISBN number.

Specific information included: a brief description of the content of the book, journal website or video, the intended audience (addressing value for the instrumentalist, keyboardist and/or vocalist), the authors' approach and specific techniques (such as physiological and psychological when relevant), general research information and bibliography and/or endnotes, if included in the book. A general viewer evaluation also is included.

Book changes from 2001 Bibliography: Montparker, Carol. (19'98) A Pianist's Landscape. Amadeus Press, 133 S.W. 2nd Ave., Ste. 450, Portland, OR 97204. (800) 327-5680. www.timber-press.com. 297 pp. ISBN: 1-57467-039-5/hardback; ISBN: 1-57467-073-5/paperback.

BOOKS

Alderson, Richard. (1979) Complete Handbook of Voice Training. Parker Publishing Company, affiliated with Prentice-Hall, 200 Old Tappan Rd., Old Tappan, NJ 07675. (800) 835-5327. www.phdirect.com. 255 pp. ISBN: 0-13-161307-3.

Although this is not a recent publication, it warrants annotation since it is a standard reference tool for teachers, therapists and choral directors. Recent publications on vocal wellness continue to refer to this text as a reliable and valuable source for vocal training techniques. Both individual and group singers are addressed.

The handbook consists of eleven chapters. Reviewed in the book are the principles of voice training; proper breathing; making the proper sounds: developing the rich voice; how to form the best vowel sound; how to train singers to change registers smooth]y; how to teach the communication of ideas, emotions and situations; strategies for developing a rich choral sound; effective procedures for choral rehearsals; teaching voice classes; and training changing voices.

Singers of all ages are discussed, and common vocal problems such as improper breathing, poor articulation, breathy tone quality, strident tone quality, nasality, tense jaw, lazy tongue and the changing voice are examined.

Recommended exercises with explanatory drawings and charts are included in each chapter.

An extended bibliography is included. Audience: vocalists

Berman, Boris. (2000) Notes From the Pianist's Bench. Yale University Press, P.O. Box 209040, New Haven, CT 06520-9040; www.yale.edu/yup. 223 pp. ISBN: 0-3000-08375.

This book is divided into two parts and consists of a total of eleven chapters. Part One is titled "In the Practice Room" and discusses sound, touch, technique, articulation, phrasing, timing, pedaling and practicing. In Part Two, "Shaping Up a Performance," artistic and psychological issues are addressed. Here, Boris Berman examines such diverse topics as conveying the composer's message, seeing the big picture, developing more technique, maintaining concentration before and during the performance, and the art of teaching and learning. (Chapters on technique include clearly marked diagrams.)

Musical examples throughout the book consist of a good variety of early advanced to advanced repertoire. Chapters can easily be read our of order. Practical advice is included for both students and teachers and comes from an author who himself is an experienced artist/teacher.

No bibliography is included, but there are notes at the end of the book where a few references are included.

Audience: advanced pianists

Bonetti, Ruth. (1997) Taking Centre-Stage: How to Survive and Enjoy Performing in Public. Albatross Books Pty Ltd., P.O. Box 320, Sutherland, NSW 2232, Australia. 384 pp. ISBN: 0-7324-1064-9.

Taking Centre-Stage is about taking negative thoughts sometimes connected with performances and turning these thoughts into a positive performing outcome. The text contains fifteen chapters and is divided into four parts: A, B, C and D.

Part A--"The Problem" (Chapters One to Four) is about fear, its symptoms, the brain's reaction to fear and the mind's potential to work for us; helpful hints are included for coping with fear.

Part B--"Solutions" (Chapters Five to Eight) discusses how to prepare, offering practice techniques for preparing to perform: how to perform as well as possible; how to prepare physically for peak performances; and how to revitalize oneself after a performance. Some highlights in this section include suggestions on what to do just before a performance, handling mistakes (turning negative into positive), maintaining stage presence, co ping with fidgeting, establishing contact with audiences, using meditation and so on. There also is an interesting and unique discussion of "the seven deadly sins of audiences."

Part C--"Specific Situations" (Chapters Nine to Fourteen) examines performing problems and solutions for musicians (reviewed by specific instruments), public speakers, actors and interviewees. Highlights in this section include information about how to handle criticism and dealing with the young and gifted performer.

Part D--"The Reward" (Chapter Fifteen) is subtitled "How to Love your Art and Make your Soul Soar."

This text is a valuable addition to the performance anxiety literature, though not readily accessible to purchase due to its Australian publication. Ruth Bonetti discusses famous musicians throughout the text, and cartoons and diagrams are included. Red, white and laughing, positive faces are included in all sections of the book. These little sections give an analysis of what one might be feeling toward a specific performing situation and then develop ideas about how to cope with that situation. Summaries are included at the end of each chapter.

Although a bibliography per se is not included, endnotes containing an extensive resource list of books and articles are included. Appendix includes "How educational Kinesiology/Brain Gym," taken from a book titled Brain Gym: Teacher's Edition, revised by Paul E. and Gail E. Dennison.

Audience: all performers

Caldwell, Robert and Joan Wall. (2001) Excellence in Singing. Caldwell Publishing Company, PST ... Inc. Subsidiary, P.O. Box 3231, Redmond, WA 98073. (800) 284-7043; fax: (425) 869-9114. www.caldwellpublishing.com.

Since this is a five-volume set, each volume will be annotated separately.

Volume I: Beginning the Process. 270 pp. ISBN: 1-87761-16-8.

This volume is divided into two parts--"Beginning the Process" and "Mastering the Fundamentals." Part One is divided into three chapters and examines teaching and learning at multiple levels. Part Two consists of three chapters and discusses understanding the voice at multiple levels, focusing on developing flexibility with attention to such fundamental issues as anatomy, physiology, acoustics and aerodynamics.

Volume One is addressed more to the teacher or perspective teacher of singing than the student. Color photos, diagrams, exercises and chapter summaries are included.

An Appendix is included at the end of this volume that charts the international phonetic alphabet.

Volume II: Mastering the Process. 344 pp. ISBN: 1-87761-18-4.

This volume has four chapters (Seven through Ten) and focuses on developing flexibility in the parts of the body that control the voice, with particular consideration of breathing, phonation and resonance. The subject matter in this volume is easily comprehensible to teachers and students.

Volume III: Advancing the Technique. 580 pp. ISBN: 1-87761-18-4.

This volume has three chapters (Eleven through Thirteen) and is about the process of becoming a performer--coordinating and conditioning the physical factors that control the voice. The authors discuss voice mapping and offer strategies for smoothing voice spots.

Exercises for developing sostenuto, legato, trill, rapid scales, messa di voce and other vocal techniques are included. Charts of the ranges of each voice type--low, middle and high--are included in the front and back of this volume.

Volume IV: Becoming an Artist. 284 pp. ISBN: 1-87761-19-2.

This volume has six chapters (Fourteen through Nineteen) and discusses the vocal line, the score, the story and the gestalt. Connecting with an audience and evolving as an artist are also examined. Interesting exercises to help singers understand the progression of music from composer to score to performer to audience are included. These exercises are unusual in that the authors raise potent questions about the music, the tempo, the rhythm, the text and the score that lead to unique contributions in pedagogy. There is also a section on how to rise above artistic plateaus.

Volume V: Managing Vocal Health. 173 pp. ISBN: 1-87761-20-6.

This volume has three chapters (Twenty through Twenty-Two) and deals with a wide scope of wellness issues. Maintaining vocal flexibility and the role of such wide-ranging factors as nutrition, fatigue, sinusitis, menstruation and menopause are reviewed. Identifying trouble, seeking medical intervention and practicing with an injured or recovering voice also are examined. This volume contains a useful section on medications, where the authors chart specific medications, drug categories (such as inflammatory, anxiety and so on) and the specific effects of particular medications on the voice, such as swelling of the throat.

Volume VI: Index. 34 pp.

This catalogues all exercises and tables and provides an index with volume and page numbers.

This is a very comprehensive and complete set of resource books that could be used by vocalists and vocal pedagogues.

An introduction at the beginning of each volume is included. Exercises, chapter summaries and endnotes are included at the end of each chapter in all the volumes.

Audience: vocalists and vocal pedagogues

De Mallet Burgess, Thomas and Nicholas Skilbeck. (2000) The Singing and Acting Handbook: Games and Exercises for the Performer. Routledge in London and New York. 11 New Fetter Ln., London EC4P 4EE; 29 W. 35th St., New York, NY 10001. www.singingandacting.com or www.routledge-ny.com. 204 pp. ISBN: 0-415-16657-8/hardback; ISBN: 0-415-16658-6/paperback.

Although the market is beginning to flourish with books on singing and musical theater and/or acting, this handbook is distinctive in that it addresses the opera singer as well. The text's purpose is to show students, teachers and directors how acting and singing can be integrated into all styles from all musical eras.

The text is divided into two parts with a total of six chapters. Part One is the introduction and consists of the first chapter only. Here, the authors discuss singing and acting in performance using wellness issues as their touchstone. Relaxation, physical fitness and concentration are among the issues examined.

Part Two is titled "The Exercises" and consists of the remaining five chapters. Chapter Two contains exercises for relaxation, visualization, warming up, concentration, awareness, imagination and spontaneity. Chapter Three is about rhythm, pulse, timing and musical structure. In this chapter, the authors examine the unification of real time with musical time, a unique topic among books about acting and singing. Chapter Four is about the music, the text and the score. Chapter Five discusses the music and character gestures, eye language, focus and emotion. Chapter Six offers a short conclusion, summarizing what the authors attempted to accomplish in their handbook.

The chapters are beautifully laid out, with special notes on the sides of the pages and space at the end of each chapter for readers to write their own notes. There are a total of 119 exercises in the text, and each exercise contains an outline about the exercise itself. Included in these outlines is information about the time needed to complete the given task, the resources needed and other pertinent material.

An appendix and extended bibliography are included at the end.

Audience: all vocalists, teachers and actors

Greene, Don, Ph.D. (2001) Fight Your Fear and Win. Broadway Books, a Division of Random House, Inc., 1540 Broadway, New York, NY 10036. www.broadwaybooks.com. 228 pp. ISBN: 0-7679-0625-X.

Don Greene is a trained sports psychologist who began coaching musicians a few years ago and authored the book, Audition Success (1998). As a result of coaching musicians, he has embarked on a more focused project in this book, emphasizing performance anxiety. Greene addresses the flight/fight human response via a twenty-one-day self-help plan for people in all kinds of professions, including musicians. What is unique about the text is his cross-referencing of various people and their different problems in dealing with the same issue: performance anxiety.

Greene's plan is designed to develop seven basic skills he found are needed to maintain good performance under pressure, which are addressed in seven of the eight chapters in the book. Greene begins with an introduction, where he defines the seven necessary skills for reducing anxiety and winning the struggle many professionals have in dealing with anxiety. In the introduction, he gives a Seven Skills Survey quiz of ninety-six questions so the reader can determine in which of the seven skills he or she is weakest. An explanation of how to score the survey is included in an appendix, or the reader can visit Greene's website at www.dongreene.com and take the test online; the website will score responses and give an individual profile once the test is completed.

The seven skills revealed in the first seven chapters are as follows:

Determination, Energy, Perspective, Courage, Focus, Poise and Resilience. Each skill is clearly defined, and self-help ideas for improving the skill are provided. Chapter Eight is titled "Putting It All Together" and gives a performance readiness checklist along with criteria for performance evaluation that can be used by anyone.

The book is extremely well organized and provides a short summary at the end of each chapter; it is easily readable cover to cover but also lends itself to casual browsing. Those familiar with Greene's book, Audition Success, will be delighted with this addition to the wellness literature.

A bibliography is not included. There are eight appendices.

Audience: all musicians

Greene, Don, Ph.D. (2002) Performance Success: Performing Your Best Under Pressure. Routledge in London and New York. 11 New Fetter Ln., London EC4P 4EE; 29 W. 35th St., New York, NY 10001. www.routledge-ny.com for New York office and www.routledge.com for London office. 151 pp. ISBN: 0-87830-122-4.

Don Greene has become quite a prolific writer about performance anxiety and methodologies for teaching all kinds of professionals how to cope with it. This is the third book of Greene's that deals with this topic, following Fight Your Fear and Win (2001) and Audition Success (1998).

Performance Success is not only an expansion and continuation of Greene's previous books, but, for the first time, Greene focuses on the performing musician throughout the entire text. Like his book, Fight Your Fear and Win, there is much discussion of the seven essential skills for optimal performance. Here, however. Greene renames some of these skills and offers more suggestions for coping with anxiety via better training and preparation. Moreover, the Artist's Performance Survey, Chapter One, is updated and divided into four scenarios: imaging yourself on the way to rehearse or perform, warming up and getting ready to begin, performing and encountering performance problems, and resolving performance problems. Again, one can score the survey via Green's website at www.dongreene.com,

There are six chapters in the book. Chapter Two, "Your Musical Benchmark," recommends making a "before" tape and evaluating it. Greene recommends making an audio or videotape to establish one's current level of performance abilities. He suggests three excerpts or solos with a total of fifteen to thirty minutes of music. Chapter Three is about learning how stress affects the performer and the need to shift from left to right brain in the critical process. Here, he discusses three distinct performance categories. Although Greene recognizes each individual is unique, he maintains that all performances fall into one of three categories: Suboptimal Performance, Optimal Performance and Peak

Performance. Much of the remaining text focuses on reaching optimal performance, since Greene states one cannot achieve peak performance before reaching optimal performance. Chapter Four is titled "The Seven Essential Skills for Optimal Performance" and is presented in a workbook format so readers can do specific exercises. Establishing practice goals, finding poise, learning to center, creating mental rehearsal logs and other related topics are examined. Each skill development topic mentioned contains detailed information and related exercises. Chapter Five discusses "Advanced Training"--further training after the reader feels he has developed the essential skills. In this chapter, Greene recommends making a second tape, setting more goals, keeping a journal and learning to develop ease with performing. Chapter Six, "The Countdown," is designed to work over a three-week period preceding an important performance. Beginning with day twenty-one and ending with day one, Greene develops a detailed plan for each of the twenty-one days. Each day suggests a list of activities to do and logs to keep about that day.

Greene's books are an excellent source of information on the topic of performance anxiety. They are well written and a valuable contribution to performing musicians.

Appendices and short list of reference books are included.

Audience: all performing musicians

Herbold, Sharrie A. and Walt Schafer. (1998) Student Workbook to Accompany Stress Management for Wellness. Fourth edition. Harcourt College Publishers, 6277 Sea Harbor Dr., Orlando, FL 32887-6777. (407) 345-3800; fax: (407) 345-4060. hbintl@harcourtbrace.com. www.hbcollege.com. 175 pp. ISBN: 0-15-506972-1.

This workbook consists of eighteen chapters with Application Exercises-Self-Tests for each. Topics included are passing the test of college stress; distress symptoms and related symptoms: type A behavior; coping health buffers; relaxation methods; time management; and social support.

Appendix (answers J3r self tests) and references are included.

Audience: all musicians needing help coping with stress

Howse, Justin. (2000) Dance Technique & Injury Prevention. Routledge, 29 W. 35th St., New York, NY 10001. www.routledge-ny.com. A & C Black (Publishers) Limited, 35 Bedford Row, London WC1R 4JH. 212 pp. ISBN: 0-87830-104-6.

Although this text is addressed to the dancer, musical theater choreographers could greatly benefit from this reference tool. There are five main sections: Section One is titled "Anatomy and Physiology" and can be used to learn basic human anatomy and physiology. Section Two, "Injuries: Pathology, Causes, Treatment, Prevention," describes injuries in general. Section Three, "Specific Injuries: Their Cause and Treatment," is aimed at helping an injured dancer recover quickly and reviews steps to take to avoid injury recurrence. Section Four describes strengthening exercises and contains a series of photographs demonstrating how to work on specific body parts. Section Five, "Technical Faults and Anatomical Variations; Their Causes, Consequences and Treatment," specifically focuses on injuries related to technical faults, including incorrect weight placement, and prescribes how to treat them. The book is well organized and contains many diagrams and photographs that are clear and easy to understand.

A bibliography is not included.

Audience: musical theater musicians who use choreography

Jowitt, Deborah, general editor. (2001) Not Just Any Body: Advancing Health, Well-Being and Excellence in Dance and Dancers. The Ginger Press, Inc., 848 2nd Ave. E.; Owen Sound, Ontario; Canada N4K 2H3. www.gingerpress.com. 194 pp. ISBN: 0921773-56-0.

This book is based on a global dance conference, Not Just Any Body, where participants were linked through site-specific workshops and joint satellite sessions in Toronto and The Hague. The outcome of these 1999 meetings is outlined in this book, whose many contributors have provided a sourcebook for readers to learn what dancers, choreographers and teachers are thinking about in the dance world today.

There are nine chapters, each co-authored by several conference participants. Chapter One, "Focus on Excellence," reviews various participants' own dance and teaching careers and the demands placed on a dancer's body, which go beyond the natural limitations of any body in terms of flexibility and control. Group dynamics in dance training is examined and compared to sports training and the use of group dynamics as a natural part of sports education. Chapter Two, "Focus on Dance," and Chapter Three, "Focus on the Future," deal with current changes in dance education, the advancement of injury prevention in dance and dancers' general awareness of potential health problems. Authors discuss the continual problem of the dancer's optimal performance level being at odds with the mechanics of the body. Chapter Four, "The Dancer's Career," reviews dance teaching, classical ballet, gender issues, dancers who become mothers, the life of a performing dancer and its limited time span.

Wellness issues are the special focus of Chapter Five, "The Dancer As Athlete," which examines sports medicine, prevention of physical and mental overload, body conditioning, aerobic fitness and gender differences. Chapter Six is titled "Safety in Dance." Chapter Seven, "Choreography and Dancing," examines physical and intellectual preparation for dance performance.

The last section, "The Dance of Perfection," Chapter Eight, reviews dance education as related to individual backgrounds. Here, dancers who had tragic endings to their careers are discussed. Chapter Nine, "Writing about Dance," discusses dance writers and critics.

No bibliography is included, but there are two appendices containing workshop reports and contributors' biographies.

Audience: musical theater performers

Kropff, Kris, general editor. (2002) A Symposium for Pianists and Teachers: Strategies to Develop Mind and Body for Optimal Performance. Heritage Press (A division of the Lorenz Corporation), P.O. Box 802, Dayton, OH 45401-0802. www.lorenz.com. 275 pp. ISBN: 0-8932-154-9.

This text is divided into five sections, titled "The Mechanical," "The Technical," "The Musical," "The Healthful" and "The Pedagogical." There are a total of twenty-six individually written articles by members of the Pianist's Committee on Technique, Movement and Wellness. The text is designed as a "how-to" book as stated in the authors' preface. Eight different pianists and two medical professionals contributed to this text.

Specific writers include Gail Berenson, Jacqueline Csurgai-Schmitt, William DeVan, Mitchell Elkiss, Seymour Fink, Phyllis Alpert Leher, Barbara Lister-Sink, Robert Mayerovitch, Norman B. Rosen, M.D., and Dylan Savage.

Section One, "The Mechanical," contains five articles. "Mechanics of the Piano," by Fink, serves as an introductory chapter and reviews how sounds are produced, controlled, sustained, terminated and pedaled. "The History, Evolution and Application of Biomechanics and Physiology of Piano Playing," by Savage, gives a historical summary of piano pedagogues from the eighteenth century (Deppe and Breithaupt) to the present, who addressed how the body works and how it best can be used playing the piano. Included in this discussion are the parallels to sports training techniques--cross and interval training--and the use of today's technology. "A Fundamental of Movement: The Action of Third-class Levers," by Csurgai-Schmitt, focuses on the controversies surrounding today's piano pedagogues and how each of them treat the various levers finger, hand and forearm of the playing unit. "Biomechanics of Healthy Pianistic Movement," by Fink, outlines how the body moves efficiently in healthy piano playing. Audiation, coordinated movement. inertia, alignment, timing, speed, tension, habit formation and legato are discussed. "The Pianist's Physiology," by Csurgai-Schmitt, reviews in technical terms the functions of fingers, hands and arms. Long and short finger flexors, finer extensors, small finger muscles, muscle activity, efficient and inefficient alignment and ulnar deviation are reviewed.

Section Two, "The Technical," contains two articles. "Fingering: The Key to Arming," by Fink, illustrates, via examples from the standard repertoire, the principles of fingering or what Fink calls "hand-vocabulary" thinking. "Developing a Technique for Advanced Piano Repertoire," by DeVan, reviews basic hand position, closed or open position, the quiet hand, bass stabilization and integration of the parts. DeVan addresses the ability to listen intensely coupled with a keen kinesthetic sense that allows recall of many sensations. How the study of repertoire relates to this also is discussed.

Section Three, "The Musical," contains two articles. "Mind Over Muscle," by Mayerovitch, deals with overall musicianship and the pianist. Simplifying a task notes, ornaments, groupings and common-sense ideas about sight reading, memory and the like also are reviewed. "Musicality," by Fink, brings a holistic approach to playing nmsically by explaining the basic rules of technique, motion, notation, literature and continuity and how these rules relate to musical playing.

Section Four, "The Healthful," is divided into two parts "Mind" and "Body." Part One, "Mind," has four articles. "Spirit, Ego and Music," by Savage, explains how a pianist seeks fulfillment in what one does through a personal journey rather than other influences. Methods for "finding peace" are discussed. The next two articles, "An Introduction to Cognitive Strategies and Skills for Practice and Performance" and "Coping with Performance Anxiety: Inner Game of Music Strategies," by Lehrer, examine the mental challenges of performing and techniques for coping with performance anxiety. "Strategies for Handling Performance Anxiety," by Berenson, discusses ways to help students cope with performance anxiety. The importance of regular exercise for lowering heart rate and reducing stress are examined. Progressive relaxation, cognitive thinking, visualization and imagery techniques also are reviewed. A section titled "Positive Thought: Guided Imagery for the Day of a Performance" provides tips for preparing students. "Benefits of Fitness," by Berenson, reviews how musicians benefit from aerobic exercise, strength training and proper nutrition. "Pushing the Physiological Envelope," by Csurgai-Schmitt, examines stretching exercises that improve one's physical coordination, thus improving movements at the piano. "Overuse, Pain, Rest, and the Pianist" explains types, causes and treatments of injury and pain. An exercise regime geared toward prevention and a table of common medical problems affecting pianists are included. "Muscle Pain and Pianists: The Myofascial Pain Syndromes and Fibromyalgia," by Rosen, gives information about the symptoms and diagnosis surrounding pain. "Neurological Insight and Treatment of Practice and Performance-related Pain," by Elkiss, explains occasional acute pain and chronic pain and their relationship to biomechanical dysfunction among pianists. Myofascial syndrome, how pain develops and re-education are examined in this article.

Section Five, "The Pedagogical," contains eight articles. "The Role of the Teacher if an Injury Should Occur," by Berenson, gives a list of factors involved with injury. Inherited genetic makeup, cumulative excessive tension, poor practice habits, improper technique, inappropriate repertoire, unhealthy lifestyle and practicing on a poor instrument are considered. Suggestions for how teachers should handle injured students are given. In "Keeping It Simple: Fundamentals of a Healthful Piano Technique," by Lister-Sink, how to develop (or re-develop) a healthy piano technique is explained in a step-by-step manner. Included in this discussion are basic definitions associated with healthy technique and challenges teachers face in helping with this process. "Healthy Practicing," by Berenson, reviews the necessary ingredients for productive and healthy practice sessions. Tips for teachers when selecting repertoire and guiding a student's practice also are included. "Orienting to the Keyboard: Middle D," by Fink, discusses how to develop a comfortable relationship with the piano. Proper placement at the instrument, keyboard knowledge and contrary motion practice and hand vocabulary are encouraged. "Video Camera Application for Enhancing Piano Practice and Performance," by Savage, provides a detailed explanation of ways videotaping can enhance reaching. "An Introduction to Learning Styles," by Lehrer, gives an overview of the personality types and related learning theories as they pertain to the pianist and piano teacher. "The Importance of Lesson Environment," by Berenson, reminds us of the important role teachers play in encouraging students. "A Child's First Lessons," by Csurgai-Schmitt, serves as a concluding chapter to the book. summarizing ideas presented earlier but in a manner that focuses on the training of a child.

The articles can easily be read separately throughout this text. The layout and writing style are uniformly accessible. Diagrams, charts and summaries are prevalent throughout the book. This is an excellent resource for piano pedagogy classes and for pianists interested in wellness issues.

An extended bibliography is included, divided into the five book sections. Audience: pianists and pedagogues

McKenzie, Jon. (2001) Perform or Else: From Discipline to Performance. Routledge in London and New York. 11 New Fetter Ln., London EC4P 4EE; 29 W, 35th St., New York, NY 10001. www.routledge-ny.com for New York office and www.routledge.com for London office. 306 pp. ISBN: 0-415-24769-1/paperback; ISBN: 0-415-24768-3/hardback.

This book takes an unusual approach to the topic of performance that on the surface seems to have little to do with musician wellness or performance anxiety. Jon McKenzie's text globalizes performance and analyzes the relationship between the cultural, organizational and technological aspects of performing. Most of his discussion would be helpful to someone interested in the technological and multimedia aspects of performing, or in performance modes other than "live" performance.

The text is in three parts: Part One, "Performance Paradigms," consists of three chapters. Chapter One analyzes cultural performance and its social challenges, examining performance studies and contemporary theories of the theater. Chapter Two focuses on the organizational aspects of performance, addressing management skills and performance diversity. Chapter Three discusses the effectiveness of technology and computer-assisted performance. Part Two, "The Age of Global Performance," surveys global performance. Chapter Four recounts the case of the Challenger shuttle accident, citing the performance pressures created by this incident as an example of how cultural, organization and technological performances become embedded in one another. The concluding chapters, Five and Six, examine the formation of a performance stratum. Part Three, "Perfumance," concludes that performance will be to these times what discipline was to earlier times and argues for a more globalized approach to performance.

Detailed notes and a bibliography are included at the end.

Audience: musicians interested in the technology of performance

McKinney, James C. (1994) The Diagnosis and Correction of Vocal Faults: A Manual for Teachers of Singing and Choir Directors. Revised and expanded edition. Genevox Music Group, 127 9th Ave. N., Nashville, TN 37234. 213 pp. ISBN: 1-5659-3940-9.

This unique and valuable manual is designed to serve as a reference tool for diagnosing and correcting vocal faults. There are eleven chapters. Chapters One and Two review teaching methods that help identify and evaluate vocal problems and different vocal sounds. Chapters Three through Eleven discuss specific faults and procedures for correcting them. Chapter headings are as follows: "Posture, Breathing and Support," "Phonation." "Registration," "Voice Classification," "Resonation," "Articulation," "The Speaking Voice" and "Coordination."

Appendices include an evaluation checklist and phonetic symbols. An extended bibliography is included.

Audience: voice teachers and choir directors

Miller, Richard. (1996) The Structure of Singing: System and Art in Vocal Technique. Schirmer Books, 1633 Broadway, New York, NY 10019-6785. 372 pp. ISBN: 0-02-872660-X.

The Structure of Singing: System and Art in Vocal Technique can serve as a comprehensive reference tool for all singers and pedagogues. The author's approach to the topic is unique in that he uses exercises--vocalizes--specifically relating to common problems of the staging voice that stem from a physical cause.

There are seventeen chapters in the text. The first chapter is titled "The Coordinated Vocal Onset and Release: Establishing Dynamic Muscle Equilibrium through Onset and Release." Chapter Two is about breath management and the supported singing voice. Chapter Three is about agility in singing and applying breath power. Chapter Four discusses the resonant voice and includes information about the singer's timbre, the open throat, voice placement and vowel formants. Chapter Five examines vowel differentiation in singing. Chapter Six examines nasal consonants and resonator adjustment. Chapter Seven discusses resonating balancing through non-nasal consonants. Chapter Eight is about sustaining the voice and gives exercises for developing sostenuto. Chapter Nine covers unifying the register of male voices, offers register terminology such as primo passaggio and so on and outlines registration issues for male voices--the chest, mixed, head, feigned, falsetto, the male falsettist and strohbass. Chapter Ten examines the female voice in the same way. Chapter Eleven is about vowel modification in singing, while Chapter Twelve discusses range extension and stabilization in singing. Chapter Thirteen contains exercises for controlling dynamics. Chapter Fourteen reviews vibrato and timbre.

Wellness issues particularly are addressed in the last three chapters of the text. These chapters discuss coordinating technique and communication, pedagogical attitudes and healthy singing.

All chapters contain clear diagrams, pictures and exercises. Most chapters end with a summary, and all chapters have subdivisions, making the text easy to use as a reference tool.

Six appendices are included on "Laryngeal Structure and Function," "The Structure and Mechanics of the Breath Apparatus," "The Physiology of the Vocal Tract Resonator System," "The Physical Factors of Vocal Registration," "Influences of Various Voices and Unvoiced Consonants on Resonator Adjustment" and "International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Symbols." Glossaries on nonmusical and vocal terms are included, as well as a very extended bibliography on articles and books.

Audience: vocalists

Miller, Richard. (2000) Training Soprano Voices. Oxford University Press, Inc., 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016, www.oup.com. 177 pp. ISBN: 0-19-513018-9.

Richard Miller thoroughly examines the different categories of soprano voices--soubrette, soubrette/coloratura. dramatic coloratura, lyric, lirico spinto. spinto, young dramatic, dramatic and cross-Fach. For each soprano category, Miller gives samples of appropriate repertoire for that particular voice quality and examines voice building, breath management, vibration and resonance balancing, articulation and language, voice agility, sostenuto, registration and dynamic control for building a healthy soprano voice.

There are thirteen chapters. The last two chapters deal with developing a daily regimen for healthy singing and performance. Anatomical diagrams and musical examples from appropriate repertoire to demonstrate technique are included in this concise and clear handbook. This would be a useful book for teachers and for anyone studying the soprano voice.

An appendix on female vocal health and a bibliography are included.

Audience: vocalists, particularly sopranos

Rammage, Linda, Murray Morrison, Hamish Nichol with Bruce Pullan, Lesley Salkeld, Philip May. (2002) Management of the Voice and Its Disorders. Second edition. Singular, Thomson Learning, 401 W. "A" St., Ste. 325, San Diego, CA 92101-7904. (800) 730-2214; fax: (800) 730-2215. www.singpub.com or www.thomsonrights.com. 316 pp. ISBN: 0-7693-0054-5/paperback.

This text gives a multidisciplinary view of vocal pedagogy as well as information on voice care and management. It is by authors whose expertise includes laryngology, speech-language pathology, psychiatry and pedagogy.

There are a total of eight chapters. Chapter One, "Evaluation of the Patient with a Voice Disorder," reviews joint assessment, evaluation of dysphonia, acoustic and perceptual acoustic assessment, aerodynamic and musculoskeletal evaluations. physical exams of the larynx and vocal tract, neurological evaluation and diagnostic voice therapy. Chapter Two, "Causes and Classifications of Voice Disorders," discusses dysphonia, muscle misuse voice disorders, organic disorders, motor speech disorder, occupational factors, voice disorders in children and the elderly, and irritable larynx syndrome. Chapter Three, "Medical Treatment of Voice Disorders," examines medical therapies for muscle misuse voice disorders, structural-organic factors, neurological and neuromuscular disorders. There are two appendices at the end of this chapter: Appendix One is a patient handout sheet for throat problems and gastroesophageal reflux. Here, treatment is reviewed, including nutritional factors, foods to avoid, too-tight clothing, sleeping with extra pillows and so on. Appendix Two is a set of postoperative instructions including voice rest and use. Chapter Four, "Approaches to Voice Therapy," includes information on the purpose of therapy, rehabilitation programs, holistic therapy and different therapies available for different types of voices and people. Chapter Five, "Psychological Management of the Patient with a Voice Disorder," is a short chapter that reviews the literature written on this topic and psychiatric referral. Chapter Six, "Pediatric Voice Disorders: Special Considerations," discusses young performers and problems they might experience due to genetic conditions or impairments such as deafness. Chapter Seven, "Issues in Vocal Pedagogy," examines all aspects of vocal pedagogy associated with teaching and singing. Here, the authors emphasize the need for the voice teacher to work with medical professionals. Chapter Eight, "Anatomy and Physiology of Voice Production," reviews many aspects of vocal production, including the function of the respiratory system and normal development and aging of the voice.

For readers already familiar with the first edition of this text, the second edition adds information about "The Irritable Larynx Syndrome" and updates scientific and technological information related to the voice and voice disorders.

Summaries and a list of references are included at the end of each chapter.

Audience: vocalists

Rapson, Steve. (2000) The Art of the Solo Performer: A Field Guide to Stage and Podium. The American Success Institute, 5 N. Main St., Natick, MA 01760. www.success.org. 159 pp. ISBN: 1-884864-14-7.

This is an unusual text in that its primary purpose is to address how a solo performer or speaker connects with an audience. There are five main sections, with many little divisions throughout each section. The first section is titled "Philosophy" and discusses what it takes to be a performer. Basic performing issues such as videotaping as well as how to deal with different audiences are discussed. The second section, titled "Business," reviews practical issues such as networking, setting up a website, writing a bio, pursuing publicity, selecting a management agent, securing travel expense reimbursement and linking up with a useful professional organization. Section Three, "Material," is addressed to the comedian, and topics of comedic interest, such as borrowing other people's jokes, are examined. Section Four, "Performance," discusses matters such as mikes, sound systems, television versus radio, audience participation and the like. The heart of this chapter is a section on overcoming stage fright, where Steve Rapson discusses practicing to perform. Section Five, "Public Speaking," is almost a separate book in itself: Here, the author offers valuable practical suggestions about how to present a paper that will be useful to anyone giving presentations or speeches.

The book is full of cartoons pertaining to the subject at hand. This book is easy reading and particularly useful to those preparing to give a speech, acting, playing and/or singing gigs.

A bibliography h included at the end of the text.

Audience: mostly pop artists and those interested in public speaking

Robinson, Kevin. (2000) The Actor Sings: Discovering a Musical Voice for the Stage. Heinemann: A Division of Reed Elsevier, Inc., 361 Hanover St., Portsmouth, NH 03801-3912. www.heinemanndrama.com. 111 pp. ISBN: 0-325-00177-4/paperback.

Kevin Robinson approaches his topic from his own personal perspective, which was originally as a clarinetist who played in musical theater pit bands but eventually got into acting and then singing. His personal account is important because he can and does address his topic with a vivid understanding of how an actor can become a singer as well.

The book is divided into three parts. Part One (Chapters One to Four) discusses obstacles that get in the way of the actor who has not yet discovered his singing voice. This section acts as an introduction to Part Two, reviewing problems of various students who went on to acquire good singing voices.

Part Two (Chapters Five to Nine) gives an overview of how the voice works and examines the connection between the speaking voice and singing. Clearly written exercises are included in this section. Wellness issues such as relaxation, body alignment, proper breathing, expansion, resonance, register, articulation and basic internal vocal mechanics are examined. This section is clearly written.

Part Three acts as a reference section, addressing the problems of finding a teacher, performing and preparing for an audition.

A short list of annotated references is included at the end.

Audience: vocalists, particularly those interested in acting and musical theater

Sazer, Victor. (1995) New Directions in Cello Playing: How to Make Cello Playing Easier and Play Without Pain. Ofnote Press, P.O. Box 66760, Los Angeles, CA 90066. 176 pp. ISBN: 0-944810-02-0.

This book, written by an artist-teacher, reviews how body parts move, balance each other and inter-relate during cello performance. In addition, it addresses pain its causes and prevention and types of injuries. Victor Sazer also reviews ways of sitting and holding the cello, hand techniques and bowing.

The text is divided into six parts and contains seventeen chapters. Part One (Chapters One to Four) is all about pain. Part Two (Chapters Five to Eight) discusses body mechanics, balance, gravity, physical powers and sitting. Part Three (Chapter Nine) is about alignment. Part Four (Chapter Ten) examines bowing techniques, including the angle of the bow, bow motion (straight and curved), arm level, up and down bows and preparatory motions in bowing. Rapid bowing, slow bows and staccato to bowing are reviewed, and exercises for each are prescribed. Part Five (Chapters Eleven to Fifteen) is about the left hand, with consideration given to arm alignment, fast and slow playing, producing a slow, even vibrato (including pivot point), shifting, extension, expansion and contractions. Part Six (the final section of the manual) has two chapters, Chapter Sixteen, "Odd and Ends," and Chapter Seventeen, "Coda." Here, the author examines fingering choices, double stops and chords, shifting and bow changes, connecting fifths on neighboring strings, thumb position, artificial harmonics, trills and intonation, and vibrato direction.

Exercises and diagrams are included throughout the book. No bibliography is included, but some footnotes are included within chapter discussions.

Audience: cellists

Simon, Robert M., M.D., and Ruth Aleskovsky. (2000) The Repetitive Strain Injury Handbook: An 8-step Recovery and Prevention Plan. Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 115 W. 18th St., New York, NY 10011. Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd., 195 Allstate Pkwy., Markham, Ontario L3R 4T8. 244 pp. ISBN: 0-8050-5930-X/paperback.

This text is very user-friendly and offers advice about nutrition, exercise, breathing, traditional and alternative pain-management programs and a holistic maintenance plan for long-term health. There also is information about women and repetitive strain injury (RSI) and about how pregnancy, PMS, osteoporosis, a mastectomy and menopause can aggravate this condition.

The book is divided into two parts and has twelve chapters. Part One opens with an introduction that describes the Eight-Step Recovery Plan. Chapter One defines and explains RSI. Individual chapters devoted to each of the eight steps follow this introduction. They are the following: "Get an Early Diagnosis," "Develop Your Treatment Plan." "Take a Deep Breath," "Walk off your RSI." "Create Your RSI Nutrition Plan," "Practice Safe and Easy Yoga for RSI" and "Follow Your Personal RSI Exercise Program." In Part Two, "Special Concerns" are addressed. Such issues as women, office ergonomics, housework and "intimacy" are focused on. There are three chapters in this unit.

A short bibliography is included at the end, titled "Reading List. " A list of Internet resources, organizations, government agencies, libraries and newsletters also is included.

Audience: all musicians suffering from pain

Sloan, Carolyn. (1999) Finding Your Voice: A Practical and Spiritual Approach to Singing and Living. Hyperion Publishers, 114 5th Ave., New York, NY 10011. 172 pp. ISBN: 0-7868-8388-X.

Carolyn Sloan's approach to her topic is similar to Julia Cameron's spiritual theories in her book, The Artist's Way. Sloan espouses a holistic vision that is explained via students she has taught or come into contact with. Her background in meditation, visualization techniques and tai chi enhances her discussion.

The book is divided into eight chapters. Chapter One, "The Power of the Voice," is about the multiple purposes of the voice. Chapter Two is devoted to the exploration of how one feels about oneself, which Sloan unfolds by discussing her own successes and failures as a voice teacher. Chapter Three is about the ingredients necessary For finding one's voice. Here, Sloan examines energy level, breath, imagination and motivation for singing. Chapter Four, titled "The Warrior," is about how one reacts to a song, breathing and vibration, and clarifying one's purpose for singing. Chapter Five, "The Scientist," is about learning to be an observer of one's diaphragm. The way Sloan explains the three stages of the diaphragm is different From other books that review the mechanics of the diaphragm when singing. She examines the diaphragm at rest, during inhalation and during exhalation, and provides exercises for finding each of these stages. Finding the center of gravity, for example, for the tongue, jaw and lips is reviewed. Chapter Six, "The Detective," is about discovering one's voice placement, navigating high and low registers and maintaining pitch accuracy.

The most significant chapters are Seven and Eight. Chapter Seven, "The Spiritual Master." is about uniting the mind, body and spirit. Re-evaluating one's goals is examined by suggesting exercises for breathing, controlling emotions and channeling energy while singing. The last chapter is about discovering one's own joy when singing and "making the music yours," with some interesting suggestions for more effective ways to develop more "meaning."

A bibliography is not included. Exercises and diagrams are included in each chapter.

Audience: vocalists

Stepp, Laura Sessions. (2000) Our Last Best Shot: Guiding Our Children Through Early Adolescence. Riverhead Books, The Berkley Publishing Group, A division of Penguin Putnam, Inc., 375 Hudson St., New York, NY 10014. www.penguinpumam.com. 369 pp. ISBN: 1-57322-160-0.

This book deals effectively with wellness issues pertaining to adolescents between the ages of 10 and 15. Laura Sessions Stepp provides an interesting and useful analysis, dealing with at least a dozen adolescents and their families, and she makes music lessons and creativity a part of her discussion.

The book is divided into Four parts: "Knowing Who They Are," "The Company They Keep," "Learning In and Out of School" and "The Right Connections." Each part begins with an introduction followed by three chapters. At the end of each part is a summary of what parents and others can do to help adolescents. Stepp bases her stories on adolescents from California, Kansas and North Carolina. She confirms that musical activities and sports play a major part in the well-being of teenagers.

A general bibliography is included as well as a separate bibliography for each part.

Audience: teachers of adolescents

Thurman, Leon and Graham Welch, coeditors. (2000) Bodymind and Voice: Foundations of Voice Education. A revised edition in five volumes. The VoiceCare Network, St. John's University, Collegeville, MN 56321. (320) 363-3374; fax: (320) 363-2504. atheimer@csbsju.edu. 861 pp. ISBN: 0-87414-123-0.

This set contains a host of authors, ranging from medical professionals to music education professors and teachers of voice and choral music. Volumes can be read separately, since their intended purpose is as a reference tool. Volume One, titled "Bodyminds, Learning and Self-Expression," contains nine chapters by coeditor Leon Thurman. Here, Thurman examines the nervous system, immune system, sensory experiences, human interaction and learning. Volume Two, "How Voices are Made and How They are `Played' in Skilled singing and Speaking," contains sixteen chapters with a variety of authors and co-authors. The mechanics of singing are examined in this volume. Such issues as resonance, vocal sounds, breath flow, the larynx, vocal registers, basic voice qualities and vocal styles are discussed. Volume Three, "Health and Voice Protection," examines health issues and the voice. There are fourteen chapters in this comprehensive volume on health matters, all co-authored. Volume Four, "Lifespan Voice Development," contains only six chapters; however, it is unique in that it devotes an entire volume on voice development from a young to an old voice in both males and females. Volume Five, "A Brief Menu of Practical Voice Education Methods," examines such topics as the Alexander Technique; classifying voices; choral conducting patterns; safe singing skills for children, adolescents and adults; developing children's voices in music education; and the future of voice education. There are nine chapters in Volume Five.

All volumes contain a list of references at the end of each chapter.

Audience: vocalists and pedagogues in the vocal field

Tubiana, Raoul, M.D., ER.C.S. Ed. (Hon.) and Peter C. Amadio, M.D., editors. (2000) Medical Problems of the Instrumentalist Musician. Martin Dunitz Ltd., The Livery Houses, 7-9 Pratt St., London NW1 0AE UK. Distributed in the United States by Blackwell Science, Inc., Commerce Pl., 350 Main St., Malden, MA 02148. (800) 215-1000. Distributed in Canada by Login Brothers Book Company, 324 Salteaux Cresent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3J 3T2 Canada. (204) 224-4068. 626 pp. ISBN: 1-85317-612-5.

This textbook marshals an expansive list of contributors, ranging from medical professionals, musicians (soloists, artist/teachers and orchestra members) and sports medicine professionals from all around the world. There are a total of thirty-eight, and many are world-renowned in the fields of music and medicine. The book contains thirty-two chapters and is comprehensive in that all medical problems that affect instrumental musicians are reviewed. Injuries and their treatment and prevention are discussed, as are the physiology and psychology of instrumentalists as well as therapeutic solutions offered by a vast spectrum of different medical advisors and musicians.

Chapters provide information about general anatomy, specific anatomy--hand, upper limb and spine--biomechanics, hand functions, neurophysiology, psychology, epidemiology, occupational disorders, overuse syndrome, focal dystonia, posture, the role of surgery, vision problems, stage fright, rehabilitation with musicians, the handicapped musician, orofacial problems, prevention and "healthy" techniques reviewed by instrumentalists, specifically violinists and pianists. There also is an interesting chapter about Glenn Gould's hand by Frank Wilson. The information on vision problems and the handicapped musician is unique and not to be found in other reference books.

Each chapter has clearly divided subdivisions, and there are many illustrations. Chapters end with a summary and bibliography. This is clearly intended to be a reference tool j3r musicians and medical professionals in the field of music medicine.

Audience: all musicians

Walker, C. Eugene, Ph.D. (2001) Learn To Relax: Proven Techniques for Reducing Stress, Tension, and Anxiety--Promoting Peak Performance. Third edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 3rd Ave., New York, NY 10158-0012. (212) 850-6011; fax: (212) 850-6008. 234 pp. ISBN: 0-471-37776-7/paperback.

This book, not specifically addressed to musicians, is about stress management and how individuals experience stress, tension and anxiety in their everyday existence. There are a total of fourteen chapters. Topics addressed that are relevant to musicians include anxiety and creative living, realistic goal setting, nutrition, exercise, recreation and escape. Other pertinent topics are relaxation exercises, systematic desensitization and where to get professional help. The book is essentially a self-help manual by a clinical psychologist and consultant.

Stress management exercises are included at the end of each chapter. Readers can write inside the book when doing these exercises. A short bibliography is included at the end.

Audience: all musicians

Weiss, Susan L. (1996) The Anatomy Book for Musicians: A Guide to Understanding Performance Related Muscle Pain. Muscle Dynamics, P.O. Box 431, Glenview, IL 60025.69 pp. ISBN: 0-9660308-0-X.

The whole purpose of this manual is to make musicians aware of the location of their muscles used while playing, how these muscles perform and how they can become injured. Susan Weiss is a certified massage therapist, personal trainer and amateur flutist whose practice consists largely of musicians in the Chicago area. There are thirty-two segments devoted to a particular muscle, such as temporalis, masseter, sternocleidomastoid, biceps brachii and so on. Each muscle section is accompanied by a diagram of the muscle, illustrated by Jill Chittenden, in which parts are clearly labeled, along with a description of each muscle that includes the following information: action, what instruments use this muscle when they are played, the symptoms of overuse or trigger points, the typical causes of injury and some self-help tips for injury prevention. This is an excellent resource that is so clear that anyone could easily comprehend the basic, muscular information provided.

The appendices at the end include a section on "Muscle Names by Pain Location," such as head, neck, upper back, lower back, chest, shoulder, arms and hands, "Use of Ice Application," "Locating Others Who Can Help, "a glossary of muscular terms and a short list of references.

Audience: all musicians

Werne, Joellen, editor. (1996) Treating Eating Disorders. Jossey-Bass, Inc., 350 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94104. (415) 433-1740; fax: (800) 605-2665. 377 pp. ISBN: 0-7879-0159-8/cloth; ISBN: 0-7879-0330-2/paper.

This text examines how clinicians in the psychiatry field treat anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorders. In-depth cases are discussed, and the book offers some solutions to these eating disorders. Although the book generally is addressed to clinicians and students in the field of psychology, the text is easy to comprehend and gives some insightful background to teachers dealing with a student who has an eating disorder.

There are eleven chapters. Some pertinent issues examined ill this manual are the male who has anorexia nervosa, the typical length of therapy, family therapy for the adolescent victim, and age-specific symptoms and treatment. Treatments used and outcomes are included in each chapter.

A bibliography is not included, but there are notes at the end of some chapters that give bibliographical information.

Audience: all musicians suffering from eating disorders

Wolf, Thomas. (2000) Presenting Performances: A Basic Handbook for the Twenty-first Century, New Revised Edition. The Association of Performing Arts Presenters, 1112 16th St., N.W., Ste. 400, Washington, D.C. 20036. www.artspresenters.org. 271 pp. ISBN: 0-915400-987.

There is virtually no comparable book available for managers and curators of art. This updated text, first edition published in 1971, incorporates ideas on how managers and presenters can deal with our changing technological world, the nonprofit art business and the cultural diversity of today.

The book is divided into seven chapters. Chapter One, "Presenting in the Twenty-first Century," Chapter Two, "The Community Context," and Chapter Three, "Your Organization," give the reader ideas about getting to know a community, becoming a leader in that community, finding good local artists and working with the logistical, financial and legal issues of any arts organization. Chapter Four, "Programming and Performers," Chapter Five, "Audience Development," and Chapter Six, "Raising Money," are self-explanatory; Chapter Seven, "Behind The Curtain," deals with all aspects of performance support behind the curtain, including technological supports, workable equipment, union rules, wardrobe and so on. Thomas Wolf divides all these chapters into subdivisions called "rules." There are a total of fifty-four "rules" throughout the seven chapters. Each chapter contains several cartoon captions helping to lighten treatment of the subject matter, and chapters end with a summary as well as a list of study questions.

Wolff also is the author of Managing a Nonprofit Organization in the Twenty-first Century (1999), Simon & Schuster. This book would be excellent for a course on the business of music and/or arts administration.

Extended appendices offer information on national, state and local arts organizations. Wolff provides sample bylaws, contracts, fundraising letters and press releases, along with a glossary of basic terms, a technical production guide and a list of current publications in the field.

Audience: managers and directors of arts groups

VIDEOS

Joseph, Arthur Samuel. (1999) local Awareness: How to Discover, Nurture, and Project Your Natural Voice. Sounds True, Inc., P.O. Box 8010, Boulder, CO 80306. (800) 333-9185. www.soundstrue.com. ISBN: 1-56455-687-5. Running Time: 99 minutes.

This video addresses the speaking voice and the singing voice. Arthur Samuel Joseph begins the video by discussing the mission and journey of his approach to the voice. He explains it in terms of following a map to develop kinesthetic awareness of the voice. There are three aspects toward vocal awareness examined in the video. They are "The Warm Up," "The Bridge" and "The Performance." He states in his opening that during the warm-up stage, one focuses more on technique and preparation, along with the unification of the mind, body and spirit. During the second stage, one continues to concentrate on technique but adds the aesthetic part as well. During the third stage the aesthetic is concentrated on more so than technique.

Joseph offers a checklist of twelve rituals as part of the first stage or warm-up. They are as follows: "thank you to my source," "love and let go," "allow a silent, loving, down-through-my-body breath and enjoy it," "release my tongue and jaw, neck and shoulder tension," "the breath precedes the tone," "see the nasal edge," "see the arc," "support the sound," "take my time," "have a wonderful time," "pay attention/deeper listening" and "be myself."

In the second stage, "The Bridge," Joseph focuses on making the transition from warming up to actually performing. Here, he adds word projection, tongue exercises and so on.

During the third stage, "The Performance," he discusses bringing together all of the techniques previously discussed. Here, he uses integrating exercises and a daily practice of seven minutes for seven days drill.

Materials needed to use the video are a chair, a washcloth or handkerchief, a pencil, a mirror and a tape recorder. In addition, Joseph suggests keeping a notebook. Joseph also is the author of The Sound of the Soul: Discovering the Power of Your Voice (Health Communications, Inc., 1996).

Audience: vocalists and people interested in public speaking

Sarandon, Susan with Larkin McPhee, director and producer. (2000) Dying To Be Thin. Nova Video Cassettes. WGBH Boston Video, P.O. Box 2284, South Burlington, VT 05407-2284. (800) 940-8670; fax: (802) 864-9846. www.wgbh.org. ISBN: 1-57807-232-8. Running Time: 60 minutes.

This video examines eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia--and current treatments for these disorders. Interviews with health experts, models, ballet dancers, artists, students and other women seeking recovery from these diseases are used to tell an alarming but comprehensive story. A historical account of women and diet through the ages is reviewed. Anorexia and/or bulimia among young girls are carefully considered, and symptoms to look for in females who might have an eating disorder are examined. The difficulty of diagnosing and treating these diseases, the alarming facts about adolescent females, perfectionists, our current obsession with being thin and the high percentage of females suffering from this potentially deadly disease are among the diverse topics clearly portrayed. Long-term physical consequences such as osteoporosis, heart disease and so on are vividly portrayed through interviews with such people as former ballet dancer, Erika Goodman, who now suffers long-term health consequences because she was not diagnosed and treated at an early age. This is an excellent resource for teachers who think they may have students suffering from these diseases.

Audience: female musicians suffering from eating disorders

NEW PERIODICALS

Classical Singer. Published monthly. P.O. Box 95490, South Jordan, UT 840950490. (801) 254-1025; fax: (801) 254-3139. www.classicalsinger.com.

Classical Singer began publication in December of 1987. Originally called The New York Opera Newsletter, this publication became the Classical Singer in 1998, recognizing that the publication was not just about New York and opera and was really a magazine, not a newsletter.

In every issue, there is an article by Anthony Jahn, M.D., on some aspect of vocal health. Topics such as dealing with a common cold, thyroid diseases and other illnesses common to vocalists are examined. Jahn examines vocal health tips and where to get help. He adds his e-mail address for readers to write for further information, but disclaims that his columns are for "general information" only.

Also included in this journal's website are online audition listings and singer, performance, coach, voice teacher, summer programs and university vocal programs directories.

Audience: vocalists

The Journal of Singing. Published five times a year. National Association of Teachers of Singing (NATS), 6406 Merrill Rd., Ste. B, Jacksonville, FL 32277. (904) 744-9022. www.nats.org/journal.html.

The Journal of Singing is the official journal of the National Association of Teachers of Singing (NATS). Topics included in this journal are vocal function. literature, care of the professional voice and teaching. This journal also has an online Journal Index, a searchable database of bibliographical information and brief annotations from articles published between 1944 and 1996. The journal is included as one of the benefits of NATS membership, along with a newsletter published three times a year.

Audience: vocalists

Percussive Notes. Published six times a year; February, April, June, August, October and December. Percussive Arts Society, 701 N.W. Ferris Ave., Lawton, OK 73507-5442. (580) 353-1455. percarts@pas.org, www.pas.org.

Percussive Notes is the official journal of the Percussive Arts Society. It is a scholarly journal featuring articles for both the professional and student percussionist. Articles on marching, drum sets, education, symphonic playing, the workplace, the history of instruments and health and wellness are included in each issue. This journal is available when one becomes a member of the Percussive Arts Society. Also included in society membership is Percussion News, a bimonthly newsletter containing information about membership activities, industry news and upcoming events, and a special Percussive Notes Research Edition. All issues, including past issues, are online and available to members. The Percussive Notes journal has been in existence since 1967. Wellness articles have been included in the journal on a regular basis since October 1998.

Audience: percussionists

Newsletter changes:

Arts Health News. Published quarterly. Center for Safety in the Arts.

This newsletter has discontinued publication. Its website is no longer active.

John Lunn Flutes Hands On/Newsletter

This newsletter has a new website: www.lunnfiutes.com/hotlinks.html.

Medical Problems of Performing Artists This newsletter has a new website: www.hanleyandbelfus.com.

Peformance Pulse: A Newsletter for Wellness.

This publication has a new website: www.ifpam.org/listofservices.html.

WEBSITES

The number of new web pages dealing with performing arts wellness is certainly an indication of the growing awareness of the health issues that affect musicians, dancers and other performing artists. Many of these pages promote the services of clinics and medical specialists or alternative-medicine products and techniques, all of which are now widely available in the United States, Canada and Europe. Most websites in this bibliography represent nonprofit organizations and educational institutions; commercial sites are included only if they offer a substantial amount of free help and guidance and/or a collection of useful links.

Corrections and updates from previous bibliographies:

www.sailor.lib.md.us/topics/music/ music.txt

This site has been moved to www.sailor.lib.md.us/topics/music/ art_ med_01.html.

Compiled by Susan Harmen and William Dawson, Music Medicine Clearinghouse, Medical & Chirurgical Faculty Library, 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, MD 21201. (800) 492-1056 in Maryland or (410) 539-0872. This website contains a list of journal articles, "Occupational Diseases of Performing Artists: A Performing Arts Medicine Bibliography." It is compiled alphabetically by the author's last name. After each entry, performance anxiety spine, overuse, eating disorder and so on are placed in italics, stating the article's focus. This website was last updated in August of 2001. There are 184 pages on this site. It is particularly useful if one is seeking a specific author.

Audience: all musicians

www4.pgh.net/~jdv/tamb/injury.html

This site is no longer available.

http://web.idirect.com/~cnha

This is the new website fot the Canadian Network for Health in the Arts.

www.soi.org

This is the Symphony Orchestra Institute's correct website address.

NEW WEBSITES

www.ncvs.org/singers

Drawing expertise from studies in medicine and education, this website of the National Center for Voice and Speech provides practical information on a variety of voice problems and conditions. The section titled "Information for Singers" offers a lengthy selection of articles by Ingo Titze on voice health and function, a series of vocal warm-up exercises and reprints of articles from The Journal of Singing, published by the National Association of Teachers of Singing. In the "Lifelong Learning" section, singers will find a lengthy list of practical self-help tips and techniques for preserving voice health and optimizing performance. Another section explains what a singer should expect when visiting a voice clinic, including medical history and behavioral assessment and therapeutic techniques.

Audience: vocalists, voice teachers

www.musicalonline.com/injury

This page, from an extensive directory of music-related sites, offers links to various performing arts medical sites with information about musical injuries. There are links to pages dealing with musculokkeletal disorders and other pages focusing on injuries and conditions related to specific types of instruments. Although an unacceptable number of links on this page are dead, the ones that remain active lead to pages on specific conditions more efficiently than a general Internet search. The links under the heading "Journals and Newsletters" inexplicably lead to other websites rather than to information about journals and newsletters. Despite these rather serious flaws, the page is worth visiting. If and when the page is updated, it could become a very useful directory of wellness information for musicians. This page is a portion of the Musical Online website directory of music sites, copyrighted by Intrepid Pixels Technology.

Audience: all musicians

www.scoi.com

Created by the Southern California Orthopedic Institute, these pages offer a wealth of information about conditions that may affect performing artists. By clicking on one of the illustrated areas of the body, such as "hand" or "shoulder," the reader can find a succinct, clear explanation of the anatomy, with high-quality color illustrations and links to information about medical conditions associated with it. These conditions also are linked under the heading "Orthopedic FAQ's" for quick access. This site is noteworthy for its ease of navigation, high-quality graphics and well-written information.

Audience: all performing artists

www.rolf.org

The home page of the Rolf Institute of Structural Integration offers extensive information about the therapeutic use of "rolfing," a form of holistic treatment designed for "reshaping and reorganizing human structure." Rolfing consists of a combination of soft tissue manipulation and movement education that is said to ease pain and stress, promote physical and emotional well-being, and improve performance. Used extensively with athletic and repetitive-strain injuries, rolfing also specifically is recommended for musicians to correct problems caused by the physical strain of playing an instrument, including the voice. This website provides an overview of Rolfing techniques, a directory of licensed practitioners, a descriptive list of books and articles for further reading, and a bibliography of medical journal articles showing how Rolfing has been studied in various clinical applications.

Audience: all performing artists

www.aaop.org/patient_info.htm

Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) can cause a variety of painful symptoms, including neck and face pain and jaw-movement difficulties. While musicians are no more likely than anyone else to suffer from this condition, the head and neck positions required for playing certain instruments, such as the violin and viola, some brass instruments and possibly even the voice, may aggravate TMD (see Taddey, J.J., "Musicians and Temporomandibular Disorders: Prevalence and Occupational Etiologic Considerations," Cranio 10 (1992): pp. 241-244). If untreated, TMD can worsen and eventually become debilitating. This web page from the American Academy of Orofacial Pain offers a detailed patient information brochure explaining the symptoms, causes and treatments of this complicated and often elusive disorder. Suggestions for self-care also are included.

Audience: all musicians

www.music-injury.com

Music-Injury.com offers a comprehensive overview of the medical problems that may affect musicians, from repetitive-use injuries to hearing loss and muscluoskeletal disorders. Some features, such as the risk assessment chart for various instruments, are of particular interest. This attractive site is easy to navigate, and its "Health Maintenance" section contains a list of good links for additional information. This site is listed with some reservation due to the fact that it was not possible to determine the creator; however, it is valuable for understanding the broad range of physical problems musicians may experience and as a point of departure for finding additional information on specific conditions.

Audience: all musicians

www.rsi.deas.harvard.edu

The Harvard RSI Action Home Page is an online index to Web resources about all aspects of repetitive stress injuries (RSI). It is maintained by students in the Harvard RSI Action group, who offer information, advocacy and support to students suffering from these types of injuries. Although this page is concerned primarily with computer-use injuries, much of the information also is pertinent to musicians and other performing artists. For example, the diagnostic quiz for self-evaluation, the suggestions for preventive measures, the link to a listserv for RSI sufferers and the links to a number of web pages about prevention and treatment are all useful to anyone who suffers from RSI symptoms. One particularly interesting section contains the handout from a presentation by John Sarno, which explains his theory about the interrelationship of pain and the emotions. This page may be the most comprehensive listing of RSI resources available on the Web.

Audience: all performing artists

http://davidleisner.com

The home page of David Leisner, classical guitarist and composer, offers an article about conquering performance anxiety. Based on Leisner's own experience, the article proposes "Six Golden Rules" for preparing oneself to perform and for focusing the mind while on stage. This article originally appeared in American String Teacher, spring 1995.

Audience: all performing artists

www.idrs.org/Publications/Journal/ JNL18/JNL18.Goodman.Taming.html

This page presents the full text of an article titled "Taming Performance Anxiety" that was originally published in The Horn Call, Vol. 20, No. 11, pages 5-60. Written by David W. Goodman, a clinical psychologist and musician, the article describes relaxation and mental imaging techniques that can help control the body's physiological response to anxiety.

Audience: all performing artists

www.bodymap.org

The Andover Educators home page titled "What Every Musician Needs to Know About the Body" contains links to information on several topics about overall health, body awareness and psychological states. The "Articles" link provides access to a series of articles about various aspects of performance health, such as performance anxiety, violin and viola shoulder rests and the Alexander Technique. Of particular interest is the information on "body mapping," a method of learning to move naturally and gracefully by training oneself to move in ways that are in harmony with the body's own muscle and joint functioning. Another group of articles address teaching adults and children. Included also is a brief list of recommended readings and a selection of useful links to other websites.

Audience: all musicians, teachers

www.nureyev.org

The Nureyev Foundation, established to help promising young dancers, offers a rich selection of information for dancers and for the health practitioners who treat them. Topics cover dance physiology and anatomy, nutrition and metabolism, musculo-skeletal trauma and orthopedic conditions, preventive medicine and much, much more. Health professionals must register to access the clinical information, but all other information is available without restriction. There also are links to other dance and medical sites. Some users may dislike the internal navigation of this site, especially the awkward scrolling functions and the narrow frames around articles; however, these annoyances easily can be forgiven because of the extraordinary breadth and quality of medical information provided here. This is a not-to-be-missed site for anyone interested in dance and the health issues of dancers.

Audience: dancers, dance teachers, performing arts health practitioners

www.iadms.org

The International Association for Dance Medicine and Science is an organization of dance and medical professionals to serve as a forum for all issues related to the health, safety and well-being of dancers. Its web page provides details about the goals and activities of the organization as well as information about specific health issues. While many of its online resources are available to members only, some articles are freely accessible. This site also provides a directory of links to other dance sites and to websites that offer various health products and services to the dance community.

Audience: dancers, dance teachers, performing arts health practitioners

www.orthopt.org/committees_sigs/ performing_arts_sig

This is the web page for the Performing Arts Special Interest Group of the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association. This group was formed to focus on the treatment of injuries among musicians, dancers and other performing artists and to maintain listings of performing arts health care specialists. This website is designed for the medical specialist rather than the performer; however, performers may wish to be aware of this group's activities when looking for health care providers.

Audience: health care providers specializing in performing arts medicine

www.nationaleatingdisorders.org

The website of the National Eating Disorders Association is a goldmine of information about the many aspects of eating disorders and body image problems. A good way to begin exploring this site is to click on the "Listen to Your Body" link, which leads to a menu of short, lively articles addressing some common questions and concerns. Those who want to know more will find ample resources under the heading, "Eating Disorders Information," with its quick-pick menu describing thirty or more articles that explain various disorders, their treatment and prevention. These articles are intended primarily for individuals who suffer from eating disorders or their friends and family who need to understand and support them. A sidebar provides direct links to information specifically for men and boys, girls and women, parents, friends, students and educators. Other resources offered here include modestly priced materials for teaching about or promoting awareness of these disorders and a list of links to other related sites. For those who seek professional help, a directory of health care providers listed by state is featured on this site. Overall, the site is attractive, lively, well organized and easy to navigate, and the information is written in a friendly, conversational style that should help people feel more comfortable in approaching this serious and sometimes frightening health problem.

Audience: educators, performing artists with eating disorders, or their families and friends

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Without the support of the late Richard Chronister, resource projects such as this would never exist. Also, a special thanks to Gall Berenson, NCTM, professor of piano and chair of the keyboard division at Ohio University, Athens; Margaret Lorince, NCTM, professor emeritus, West Virginia University: and Rebecca Grooms Johnson, NCTM, associate professor and director, Community Music School and Conservatory Keyboard Pedagogy at Capital University, Columbus, Ohio, and chair of MTNA's Pedagogy Committee, who all have worked hard to maintain this bibliography as an ongoing project.

This research has been assisted by Kathryn Kalmanson, head of reference at Blackwell Library at Salisbury State University. She continues to conduct the research necessary for this bibliography and has taken on full responsibility for the websites, including writing the annotations and ensuring sites are still active. Also, a thank you to Robin R. Cockey, Esquire for his valuable insights in making sure the annotations are clear to the general reader.

Linda Cockey, associate professor at Salisbury University in Maryland, teaches piano, music history and a wellness in performance course. She received a D.M.A. degree from The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., where she was a piano student of Thomas Mastroianni and studied pedagogy with Barbara English Marls. She has authored numerous publications on musical topics, presented papers for several national organizations and performs recitals.
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Author:Kalmanson, Kathryn
Publication:American Music Teacher
Article Type:Bibliography
Date:Jun 1, 2002
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