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Annotated bibliography on musician wellness.

INTRODUCTION

This year's bibliography contains some of the latest books related to wellness issues for musicians. The full bibliography can be found on MTNA's website at www.mtna.org.

The format of the bibliography is as follows:

General information included: Author, date of publication, title, publisher, current publisher's address, phone and/or fax if available, e-mail and website information if available, number of pages and ISBN number.

Specific information included: A brief description of the content of the book, journal, website or video, the intended audience (addressing value for the instrumentalist, keyboardist and/or vocalist), the authors' approach and specific techniques (such as physiological and psychological, when relevant), general research information and bibliography and/or end notes, if included in the book. A general viewer evaluation also is included. Topics addressed are prevention of medical problems, meditation, performance anxiety, performance preparation, learning theories and physiological and psychological issues related to musicianship.

BOOKS

Beeching, Angela Myles. (2005) Beyond Talent: Creating a Successful Career in Music. Oxford University Press, Inc., 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. www.oup.com. 344 pp. ISBN: 13978-0-19-516913-3; 978-0-19-516914-0/paperback.

The purpose of this book is to show readers how to find and create healthy performance opportunities, produce professional-quality promotional materials, attract media attention and the like. This text is written by the director of the Career Services Center at New England Conservatory of Music, where alumni, faculty and guest speakers regularly present career strategy workshops. It offers detailed information and explanations about how musicians can make their way in the professional marketplace. The book's purpose is to show readers how to find and create performance opportunities, produce professional-quality promotional materials, attract media attention to build their reputation and audience, raise funds for music projects and design a career success plan for reaching long-term goals. Topics are organized in a step-by-step fashion, offering a holistic approach to advancing one's musical career. Each chapter contains background information, specific how-to directions and real-life stories.

There are twelve chapters in this book. Chapter One, "Mapping Success in Music," describes what it takes to make it, includes ten success principles and offers tips for becoming an entrepreneurial musician and setting goals. Chapter Two, "Making Connections: Schmoozing for Success," is focused on the areas of developing people skills, networking, conducting good phone interviews and working through a room full of people. Chapter Three, "Building Your Image: Creating Promotional Materials that Work," discusses how to put together a biography, how and when to use letterhead, the use of photos and how to use other promotional materials. Chapter Four, "Expanding Your Impact: Demos and CDs," reviews the recording industry basics and what it means for helping promote one's musical career. Also discussed are repertoire decisions, recording options, CD artwork and graphics, copyright, licensing and finance issues and how to promote CDs and CD reviews.

Chapter Five, "Online Promotion: Using the Internet to Advance Your Career," is about Web technology and information, how to promote careers on the Internet, creating a website and judging a website's effectiveness.

Chapter Six, "Booking Performances Like a Pro," is about artist management and how it works, self-management, how to research opportunities, how to effectively book performances, what to program for a specific type of audience and negotiating fees, confirmations and contracts.

Chapter Seven, "Building Your Reputation, Growing Your Audience: the Media, Publicity, and You," describes how to attract an audience, hiring a publicist, writing press releases and compiling media lists and gives advice on "trimming" publicity for the next concert.

Chapter Eight, "Connecting with Audiences: Residency, Educational, and Community Programming," discusses talking to audiences, working with children, adults and seniors, finding residency work and marketing oneself.

Chapter Nine, "Performing At Your Best," describes stage presence, performance anxiety, self-assessment, attitudes, interventions, treatment methods and performance health. Prevention of medical problems also is discussed.

Chapter Ten, "The Freelance Lifestyle--Managing Your Gigs, Time, and Money," reviews the basics on freelancing, gigs, musician unions, marketing, time and financial management and taxes.

Chapter Eleven, "Raising Money for Music Projects," reviews how to map out and research a project, finding grant opportunities and how to raise funds for projects involving music.

Chapter Twelve: "Getting it Together: Your Career Package," discusses different types of musical careers, the day job dilemma, teaching opportunities and arts administration and music industry opportunities. Different salary ranges also are examined. Although wellness issues are not specifically addressed in each chapter, this text offers a holistic and healthy approach to musical career choices.

An appendix is included that gives specific musical career resource information, job listing information, insurance and legal issues, festival and competition information, CD information, musical unions, funding information, a listing of state arts councils across the nation and other relevant career information.

Audience: all musicians

Bernstein, Seymour. (2002) Monster and Angels: Surviving a Career in Music. AuthorHouse, 1663 Liberty Dr., Ste. 200, Bloomington, IN 47403. www.authorhouse.com. (888) 519-5121 or (800) 839-8640. 486 pp. ISBN: 1-4033-27629/paperback.

Seymour Bernstein is well known for his previous books With Four Own Two Hands, 20 Lessons in Keyboard Choreography and MusiPhysi-Calit, and his videotape You and the Piano.

Monsters and Angels: Surviving a Career in Music is not specifically about wellness issues; however, it discusses surviving life while pursuing a performing career as a musician, as well as the importance of music education in everyone's life.

The book is divided into four parts. Part One is titled "Leave-Taking" and includes eight sections. Here, Bernstein gives an autobiography of his own musical career as a pianist. Part Two, "Monsters and Angels," contains seventeen sections with discussions about famous artist-teachers such as Alex Chiappinelli, Clara Husserl, Louise Curcio, Alexander Brailowsky, Isabelle Vengerova and many more. Part Three, "The Army," tells Bernstein's own story about being in the army while pursing a

career as a pianist. Part Four, "The Battle Continues," examines his world tours as a performing artist. Bernstein offers good advice and career alternatives to musicians who may be frustrated with their own musical career.

This is an interesting book for all musicians. Bibliography is not included.

Audience: all musicians

Bernthal, John E. and Nicholas W. Bankson. (2004) Articulation and Phonological Disorders. Fifth edition. Pearson Education, Inc., Allyn and Bacon, Permissions Department, 75 Arlington St., Boston, MA 02166. fax: (617) 848-7320. Online catalog at www.ablongman.com. 434 pp. ISBN: 0-205-34790-8.

This text is about the study of clinical phonology. It covers normal speech sound articulation, normal phonological development, factors related to the presence of phonological disorders, the assessment and remediation of phonological disorders, phonology as it relates to language and dialectal variations and phonological awareness. Discussion questions appear at the end of each chapter, as well as case studies in assessment and remediation chapters.

The book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter One, "Normal Aspects of Articulation," reviews normal aspects of articulation and provides an introduction to the phonological system of American English. Chapter Two, "Early Phonological Development," and Chapter Three, "Later Phonological Development," focus on a child's phonological developments and reviews the development of production and perceptual skills at both the prelinguistic and linguistic levels. Both chapters explain basic concepts and give updated information of the literature related to phonological acquisition.

Chapter Four, "Etiology/Factors Related to Phonologic Disorders," examines various factors that have been studied in terms of their relation ship to the presence and/or maintenance of disordered phonology. Literature related to impairments of speech and/or hearing is reviewed. Psychosocial factors related to phonological disorders also are presented.

Chapter Five, "Phonological Assessment Procedures," addresses procedures for phonological sampling and interpretation. Screening procedures are reviewed and discussed.

Chapter Six, "Remediation Procedures," reviews basic considerations related to treatment. Chapter Seven, "Treatment Approaches," continues the discussion about different treatment styles and investigates oral-motor therapies and linguistic-based approaches to intervention. How treatment approaches presented in this chapter might be applied to children also is discussed.

Chapter Eight, "Language and Dialectal Variations," presents critical information about serving a multicultural society and focuses on the influence of other languages and dialects on phonological disorders. Common dialectical variations found in our society are reviewed, including African-American English, Spanish, Asian-influenced English and Eastern, Southern Appalachian and Ozark English.

Chapter Nine, "Phonological Awareness: Description, Assessment, and Intervention," is concerned with phonological awareness, including its description, assessment and intervention. How to work with children is the primary focus of this chapter.

Discussion questions and a bibliography are included at the end of each chapter. An appendix on "Procedures for Teaching Sounds" also is included as well as an "author index."

Audience: vocalists

Boone, Daniel R. and Stephen C. McFarlane. (2000) The Voice and Voice Therapy. Sixth edition. Pearson Education Company, 160 Gould St., Needham Heights, MA 02494. www.abacon.com. 308 pp. ISBN: 0-205-30843-0.

This comprehensive text focuses on the clinical management of voice disorders. An accompanying audio CD illustrates voice problems in children and adults, offering suggestions for various approaches to different therapies.

This edition divides voice disorders into three causal areas: functional, organic and neorogenic, with a separate chapter on each. Evaluation procedures also are suggested. Other vocal disorders examined include sulcus vocalis, muscle tension dysphonia and paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction.

The text is divided into nine chapters. Chapter One, "The Voice and Voice Therapy," includes information about the diverse functions of the larynx, the different kinds of voice disorders (including organic, neurogenic and functional problems) and the management and therapy of voice disorders. Chapter Two is titled "The Normal Voice." Chapter Three, "Voice Disorders," discusses various kinds of voice disorders, including those related to faulty usage and neurological and organic changes. Chapter Four, "Neurological Voice Disorders," gives a working view of the nervous system and explains various neurological diseases and voice problems. Chapter Five, "Voice Evaluation," examines various approaches to screening the voice. Chapter Six, "Voice Therapy," reviews different therapies for young children, adolescents and adults. More than twenty-five facilitating approaches are discussed. Chapter Seven, "Management and Therapy for Special Problems," reviews a diverse population of people with voice problems (such as aging, transsexuals and so on) and problems arising from faulty usage, both respiratory-based and those with vocal-fold lesions. Chapter Eight is titled "Voice Therapy" and examines treatment for laryngeal cancer. Chapter Nine, "Therapy for Resonance Disorders," explains these disorders and possible treatment for them.

Although the text addresses clinicians, it will serve as a wonderful reference tool for vocal teachers and students. Each chapter is nicely laid out with clear diagrams. A summary is included at the end of each chapter. An extended bibliography is included at the end.

Audience: vocalists

Brill, Peggy W., P.T. with Susan Suffes. (2003) Instant Relief: Tell Me Where It Hurts and I'll Tell You What to Do. Bantam Dell, A Division of Random House, Inc., 1745 Broadway, New York, NY 10019. www.brillpt.com. 93 pp. ISBN: 0-553-38187-3.

Instant Relief is a self-help, home-remedy text about how to find relief from chronic and everyday aches and pains, as well as those stress-related pains that can attack so suddenly. This book provides 100 clearly illustrated, easy-to-do, ten-second exercises that provide immediate therapy for every body part, from head to toe. There are eleven chapters in this manual that discuss the following areas of the body: head, neck, shoulders, elbows, hands, mid-back, lower back, hips, knees, calves and feet.

Peggy Brill is a physical therapist practicing in Manhattan who is interested in the relationship between physical pain and emotional stress. She advocates stopping pain before it becomes chronic and listening to one's body. Although this text is not specifically addressed to musicians with pain, its value to a musician lies in preventative techniques and developing an awareness of common aches and pains that can be managed. No bibliography is included.

Audience: all musicians

Bruckner, Susan. (2004) The Whole Musician: A Multi-Sensory Guide to Practice, Performance and Pedagogy. Second edition. Effey Street Press, 314 Effey St., Santa Cruz, CA 95062. www.effeystreet.com. 244 pp. No ISBN provided.

Susan Bruckner's text is a unique contribution to the study of different learning styles and pedagogy. Bruckner explores how to uncover a dominant learning style, the tools of rapport building, enhancing learning modalities and the effects of the learning environment on behavior. She also provides tools for evoking excellence on demand, exercises for unlocking limits, new research on developmental stages, a powerful peak performance process and experiences of other teachers around the world. The book is divided into eleven chapters.

Chapter One, "Foundations of Change," is about neurophysiology and creating a more flexible mind and an injury-free body.

Chapter Two, "Learning Style Profiles," gives an overview of learning style resources and examines the visual learner, auditory learner and kinesthetic learner. How to understand one's learning style is explained.

Chapter Three, "Establishing Rapport," describes how to understand a student's skills, how to diagnose them and how to find a flexible way to approach their problems. Different modeling techniques are reviewed.

Chapter Four, "Input-Retrieval Exercise," is an experimental chapter examining (via an exercise) one's preferred mode of input. The exercise takes about forty minutes to complete.

Chapter Five, "Increasing the Visual Modality," gives practice and performance techniques, focusing on visual learning. How to develop the left and right sides of the brain also is discussed. In addition, internal imagery and sight reading are examined.

Chapter Six, "Increasing the Auditory Modality," is about developing auditory skills and reviews such topics as developing relative or perfect pitch.

Chapter Seven, "Increasing the Kinesthetic Modality," describes making music with one's whole body, including gaining emotional depth as a performer so one is able to communicate clearly to a listener. Whole body listening, breathing and specifics about different problems for singers and instrumentalists are explored.

Chapter Eight, "Psychogeography," discusses practice and performing space, routine activities, lighting and peak performances.

Chapter Nine, "Creating Excellence with Personal Anchors," relates different types of kinesthetic associations. Chapter Ten, "Developmental Stages: Conscious and Unconscious," is about degrees of competence in the learning process. Developmental stages from childhood through adulthood also are explained. In addition, the importance of the teacher/ student relationship is examined.

Chapter Eleven, "The Peak Performance Process," describes the performer's personal belief system. Bruckner examines this via neurolinguistic programming interventions.

The text addresses all musicians and is an excellent research tool that self-examines learning styles and issues. An extended bibliography is included with a list of educational resources.

Audience: all musicians

Bunch, Meribeth and Cynthia Vaughn. (2004) The Singing Book. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 5th Ave., New York, NY 10110. www.wwnorton.com. 339 pp. ISBN: 0-393-97994-6.

Although this book is essentially a class voice text with an anthology of seventy songs--including folk music from around the world, jazz, classical, pop, film and musical theater songs--there are chapters in this text that deal with wellness issues for all singers, regardless of singing level. The book is based on a multi-dimensional approach that includes a balanced use of mental, physical and imaginative methods for performance. Mental approaches include techniques for visualization, focusing for success and basic knowledge of how the voice works. The physical approaches include mind/body exercises, posture and physical awareness of the voice.

Part One, "The First Steps To Singing Easily," includes six basic chapters about healthy singing, preparing to sing, how to select music to sing, learning music efficiently, practice habits and performing.

Part Two is an anthology of songs. Part Three is titled "How The Voice Works" and contains six chapters about muscles and physical alignment, breathing, making sound, voice quality and resonance, articulation and expression, and maintaining a healthy voice.

There are five appendices at the end of the text that include practice techniques, pronunciation, vocal exercises, making sense of a music manuscript and classification of songs. A bibliography is included with a list of recommended websites. A two-CD set (ISBN: 0-393-10596-2) provides accompaniments for the songs in the anthology. There also is a student website: wwnorton.com/web/singing.

Audience: vocalists, vocal pedagogues

Cameron, Julia. (2002) Walking in This World. Penguin Putnam, Inc., P.O. Box 12289, Dept. B, Newark, NJ 07101-5289. (800) 788-6262. www.penguinputnam.com. 288 pp. ISBN: 1-58542-183-9.

For those readers who read The Artist's Way by Julia Cameron, Walking in This World is a sequel to this text. The book consists of a twelve-week course in creative discovery and is considered to be the "intermediate level" of her overall program.

It is divided into twelve sections/twelve weeks. Each chapter (or week) begins with a discovery of a sense, beginning with a sense of origin, proportion, perspective, adventure, personal territory, boundaries, momentum, discernment, resiliency, camaraderie, authenticity and dignity. Within each chapter are several sections (titled tasks), activities for readers to do, quotes from different authors and a section titled "check-in," with a list of four to five questions for readers to ponder, answer and/or work on.

Like The Artist's Way, this book is intended for those interested in the spirituality of creativity. A list of suggested readings is included.

Audience: musicians interested in spirituality and creativity

Campos, Frank Gabriel. (2005) Trumpet Technique. Oxford University Press, Inc., 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. www.oup.com. 188 pp. ISBN: 0-19-516692-2.

Much of the information in this book applies to many performing artists, not just trumpet players. There are seven chapters in this text. The first chapter, "The Nature of Skill," about skill acquisition, examines three different models of skill development. The first model is by a researcher named Harry W. Johnson. He concludes that skill can be judged by observing speed, accuracy, form and adaptability. Another model discussed is by a psychologist named Donald A. Norman, who states there are five variables that separate the performance of a skilled performer from a lesser-skilled performer. These variables are smoothness, automaticity, little or no mental effort, no significant deterioration of skill due to stress and the ability to attend to a variety of tasks while focusing on a single goal or objective. A researcher named John A. Sloboda discusses another skill development model. He proposes that the characteristics of skilled performance include fluency, rapidity, automaticity, simultaneity and knowledge. Talent, efficiency refinement, learning, imitation, musical interpretation, trial and error, different practice techniques and replacing bad habits also are reviewed in this chapter.

Chapter Two, "The Breath," discusses breathing, breath support, relaxation, air compression, blowing exercises, the diaphragm, the lungs, inhaling and exhaling air, circular breathing, the relaxed throat, the glottis, warm-up exercises and excessive tension. Chapter Three, "The Embouchure," is about tone production, the muscles and nerves that control the embouchure and other related issues about the embouchure. Pedagogical issues about teaching beginners an embouchure or correcting embouchure problems also are examined in this chapter.

Chapter Four, "The Oral Cavity, Tongue, and Jaw," describes the use of vocal syllables, whistling, oral cavity size, tonguing (including placement, speed and attack), breath attack, articulation, teeth and dental problems, mouthpiece pressure and vibrato. Chapter Five, "Body Use," examines the physical use of the body to obtain efficient performance; both posture and tension are examined. The author also reviews the use of the Alexander Technique, Feldenkrais, yoga, tai chi chuan and the pilates method. Common injuries trumpet players may develop also are discussed.

Chapter Six, "Performance Psychology," examines the mental aspects of performing. Psychological techniques used by musicians to help reduce anxiety in performance also are discussed. In Chapter Seven, "A Letter To My Students," the author shares ideas presented to him by his past teachers. An extended bibliography is included.

Audience: trumpet players

Cutietta, Robert A. (2001) Raising Musical Kids: A Guide for Parents. Oxford University Press, Inc., 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. www.oup.com. 242 pp. ISBN: 0195129229.

Robert A. Cutietta examines the challenges of raising musical children. This book is specifically addressed to parents of musical children and answers many questions they may have. The author clearly explains in the introduction that his perspective is based on his own background as a parent, a music teacher of middle and high school children, a college professor, a professional musician and researcher.

There are eighteen chapters in the text. Chapter One, "The Ground Rules," explains the meaning of being musical. Chapter Two, "What Does Music Study Do for Your Child?", discusses many of the current theories, such as the Mozart effect, Gardner's theory and so on, and explains that the real reason one studies music is to develop musical intelligence as an equal component of overall intelligence. Chapter Three reviews "What Age to Begin Music Lessons," and Chapter Four, "Measuring Musical Talent," examines the difficulties of measuring talent and the types of available tests.

Chapter Five, "Creating a Musical Home Environment," is about keeping music making and listening a part of family life. Chapter Six is about "Finding a Good Private Teacher." Chapter Seven is titled "Choosing the Right Instrument for Your Child to Play." Chapter Eight, "Getting Kids to Practice," examines ways to elevate children to the level of practicing that is rewarding in and of itself (ideally by the early teen years). Intrinsic versus extrinsic rewards are discussed.

Chapter Nine, "What is Good Practicing?", examines what a child does with his or her time practicing. Also included in this chapter are pointers on planning effective practice time, fixing a specific mistake, whole versus parts, mental practice, eliminating distractions, learning how to hear mistakes and the role of parents. An excellent practice summary appears at the end of this chapter.

Chapter Ten is about "Music in the Public Schools." Chapter Eleven reviews "Music in the Elementary School," and Chapter Twelve is titled "Music in the Secondary School."

Chapter Thirteen discusses "Musical Competitions." Chapter Fourteen, "Music, Teenagers and the Home," discusses what types of music children listen to. Chapter Fifteen is titled "Computers and Music Learning and How this Enhances Learning."

Chapter Sixteen, "Finding (and Using) Community Musical Resources," discusses how to find places and venues to perform and hear music. Chapter Seventeen is titled "Careers in Music," and Chapter Eighteen serves as a concluding chapter, titled "Da Capo al Fine."

A bibliography is included. Appendices include Resources for Parents, Songs that Americans of All Ages Should know and Can Sing, National Standards for Music Education and Suggestions for Listening.

Audience: all music educators

Kempter, Susan. (2003) How Muscles Learn: Teaching the Violin with the Body in Mind. Summy-Birchard, Inc., Distributed by Warner Brothers Publications, 15800 N.W. 48th Ave., Miami, FL 33014. 97 pp. ISBN: 54979-05928.

This text is about teaching the body to learn and interact with the brain before teaching a student the music. Students then become "physical learners." Susan Kempter states that "by concentrating on teaching the body first, a foundation and internal structure can be constructed onto which rhythm, tone production, phrasing, shifting, vibrato and advanced bow strokes can be successfully attached." A "well-balanced" body emerges from this physical foundation. Intonation and rhythm skill also are developed.

The text is divided into four sections with five main principles. Principle one is "The Importance of Good Posture," principles two and three, which are combined, are titled, "Range of Motion and Movement," principle four is "Muscles Have Memory: How Movement Patterns are Acquired" and principle five is "Proactive Interference: Its Issues and Effects."

Principle one reviews proper posture, sizing the violin and angles of the head and violin Principles two and three discuss right and left hands, arms and wrists and different movements, Reducing ulnar deviation in both hands also is examined. Principle four explains different movements, such as closed-loop and ballistic movements. Principle five is about the mind-body duo and the body learning a posture or movement well, then changing or re-configuring it.

Each section of the text ends with a subsection titled "Things to Think About." A short bibliography is included at the end.

Audience: violinists and string pedagogues

Miller, Richard. (2004) Solutions for Singers: Tools for Performers and Teachers. Oxford University Press, Inc., 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. www.oup.com. 286 pp. ISBN: 0-19-516005-3.

Solutions for Singers is addressed to all vocalists. The text contains ten chapters on breath management, posture, laryngeal and intralaryngeal function, resonance balancing, nasal continuants and nonnasal consonants, the phenomenon of vibrato, registration, healthy singing, pedagogical issues and performance concerns.

Wellness issues permeate throughout this text. The sections of each chapter are organized in a "question-comment" format. Richard Miller presents more than 200 questions under the ten topics mentioned above. It is a comprehensive text that covers all aspects of teaching and performance.

The book includes a glossary of vocal terms. There are four appendices: Appendix I: "AI Pitch Designations," Appendix II: "AI IPA Symbols for Vowels, Semivowels and French Nasal Vowel Sounds, "Appendix III: "IPA Symbols for Consonant Sounds" and Appendix IV: "Repertoire for Younger or Beginning Singers." An extended bibliography is included.

Audience: vocalists

Pecina, Marko and Ivan Bojanic. (2004) Overuse Injuries of the Musculoskeletal System. Second edition. CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, FL 33431. www.crcpress.com. 421 pp. ISBN: 0-8493-1428-3.

This text presents a complete overview of the methods for diagnosing and treating overuse injuries. The authors are physicians who deal with overuse injuries on a regular basis. There are five parts to the manual.

Part One, "Overview," contains two chapters that provide introductory explanations about the significance of overuse injuries, clinical diagnosis and treatment. Part Two, "Upper Extremities," contains three chapters and examines injuries in the shoulder, the elbow, the forearm and hand. Part Three, "Spine," includes a chapter that discusses spinal injuries. Part Four, "Lower Extremities," with four chapters, reviews injuries in the hips and thighs, the knee, leg, foot and ankle. Part Five, "Other Overuse Injuries," contains five chapters that examine bursitis, stress fractures, nerve entrapment syndromes and overuse injuries in young athletes and female athletes. Extended list of references are included at the end of each chapter.

Audience: musicians with overuse problems

Williamon, Aaron. (2004) Musical Excellence: Strategies and Techniques to Enhance Performance. Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon St., Oxford, UK OX2 6DP. www.oup.com. 300 pp. ISBN: 0-19-8525346/hardback; 0-19-8525354/paperback.

This text, addressed to performers, teachers and researchers, offers new perspectives about performance and managing stress during performance. There are twenty-three contributors to this text from around the world and from different disciplines. The purpose of the text is to examine ways musicians can make the most of their practice, training and experience for greater performance enhancement.

Part One, "Prospects and Limits," contains four chapters and reviews the fundamental principles of performance that musicians should consider. Innate talent versus environmental influences and hard work is examined. Managing the physical demands of musical performance also is reviewed. Common physical problems of musicians and the sources of these problems are discussed, as well as how to prevent them, in addition to musical and psychological factors affecting the quality of performance.

Part Two, "Practice Strategies," examines the quality of one's practice as an integral part of performing. Effective and efficient practice techniques and rehearsal strategies are presented for both individual and ensemble practice. How to evaluate practice and rehearsal strategies is discussed. Memorizing, sight reading and improvising music are reviewed. There are four chapters in this section.

Part Three, "Techniques and Interventions," examines the physical and psychological aspects of musical performance. Physical fitness, the Alexander Technique, biofeedback and neurofeedback, mental skills training, drugs and musical performance are discussed. There are six chapters in part three.

Each chapter ends with a concluding section. An extended bibliography is included at the end of each chapter.

Audience: all musicians

WEBSITES

http://voicedisorders.upmc.com

This website, from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, presents clearly written patient education information about a variety of voice disorders, including many that often affect vocalists. Disorders ranging from simple, temporary laryngitis to various types of vocal chord lesions and growths are described in terms of common symptoms, diagnostic techniques and treatment options. The material is carefully written in language that manages to be straightforward without being alarming or intimidating.

Clinical photographs help explain the written material throughout. The discussion of each condition includes a "Resources" link that leads to additional information from the websites of health organizations, medical associations and research centers. Overall, this is a well-designed and user-friendly website. Its one drawback is that, at present, several of the conditions that might be of particular interest to vocalists, for example, spasmodic dysphonia, are merely listed without any explanatory material. However, their inclusion in the menu list suggests the intent is to provide educational material for each of these at a later time. This site is highly recommended for anyone suffering from occasional or chronic voice problems.

Audience: choral musicians, vocalists

www.entnet.org/about/index.cfm

This page was created by the American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) to provide accurate professional information for the public. The 10,000 doctors who make up this organization are specialists in treating disorders of the ear, nose, throat and related structures of the head and neck. Information on each disorder, as well as on many related topics, is presented in a series of "Fact Sheets" that can be located easily from the sidebar menu. Many of the Fact Sheets have self-help information that will be of particular interest to musicians. These include a list of commonly used medications that can affect the voice, tips on maintaining a healthy voice, methods of judging safe levels of sound exposure and ways to combat hoarseness. These Fact Sheets have a frames-free print function, and many are available in PDF format, making them easy to print and download. This site also features a searchable database of clinical trials worldwide.

Audience: choral musicians, vocalists

www.hopkinsmedicine.org/voice

This site was created by the Center for Laryngeal and Voice Disorders at Johns Hopkins University. Recognized worldwide for excellence in teaching, treatment and research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine has created this website to provide educational information about all types of voice disorders and to help patients make informed choices about their care and treatment. A simple menu directs users to a detailed overview of the anatomy and physiology of the voice, with high-quality illustrations of anatomical parts, as well as discussions of major voice disorders. Advice on symptoms that require medical evaluation is a particularly useful feature of the disorders descriptions. This also is one of the few resources for the non-specialist that addresses the problems of the aging voice, which obviously is a concern for career vocalists. However, in its attempt to provide precise and detailed information, this site often uses terms and expressions that may be too advanced for those who do not have some basic familiarity with medical terminology. It is perhaps most suitable for adults and could be an excellent resource for discussing diagnosis and treatment with a health care professional.

Audience: adult students, choral musicians, health care, medical professionals, opera, teachers, vocalists

www.uwec.edu/counsel/pubs/musicanxiety.htm

Created by Robin Abraham, M.A. and Katherine Schneider, Ph.D., at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Clair, this online article, titled "Coping with Music Performance Anxiety," gives friendly and practical advice about dealing with the effects of stage fright. The authors begin by demonstrating that stage fright, or performance anxiety, is really based in cognitive distortions, that is, self-defeating thinking patterns. They list tips for dealing with anxiety before and during the performance, plus advice on self-evaluation and psychological preparation for the next performance. All the material is written in a friendly, positive tone using brief step-by-step statements so a student will not be overwhelmed. The article concludes with a list of books, media and Web resources for further study. Although this page is designed as a self-help resource for upper-level students, it also could be used as an excellent teaching tool for classroom or individual instruction.

Audience: adult students, all musicians, psychology, students

www.pianomap.com

Thomas Mark, author of What Every Pianist Needs to Know about the Body, reviewed elsewhere in this bibliography, maintains this website, which introduces the concept of body mapping along with basic information about common injuries and preventive techniques. As readers of the book will know, Mark is a certified Andover Educator, now studying body mapping and the Alexander Technique with Barbara Conable, founder of Andover Educators and author of What Every Musician Needs to Know about the Body (also reviewed elsewhere in this bibliography).

This website is an excellent beginning point for any pianist who is seeking a better understanding of how the body's interaction with the instrument determines not only the quality of performance, but also the potential for injury. Articles linked from this website include a brief overview of pianists' injuries and a summary of the scientific findings that support the concept of body mapping. Other articles describe the Alexander Technique and the Taubman Technique, briefly explaining the origins, applications and limitations of each. Mark also provides descriptions of tendonitis, carpal tunnel syndrome and dystonias specifically from the pianist's perspective. Suggestions for additional reading accompany each article. In addition to these introductory articles, Mark offers substantial excerpts from his book. For those who have read either Mark's or Conable's book, this website offers a refresher course that summarizes the main points, while for those who have not yet read either book, this site provides background information that will prepare them to explore the books more easily.

Audience: pedagogy, teachers, pianists

www.mindtools.com/stress/ PerformanceStress/IntroPage.htm

This page represents one section in a series of stress management aids from Mind Tools, Ltd. Although the website mostly addresses the kinds of stress experienced in the business world, this particular section, "Managing Performance Stress," targets the kinds of stress typically experienced by musicians and other performing artists who are under stress due to the demands of public performance. The material is presented in a series of short articles, designed to be read in sequence, that take the reader through a step-by-step process of identifying and understanding the causes of anxiety about public performance and learning ways to overcome negative thinking and gain control of one's emotional response.

Suggestions are given for how to prepare mentally for the performance and how to lessen the fear of mistakes by putting them in proper perspective. The final article outlines a "post-performance review" technique, in which the performer evaluates his or her experience to build self-confidence and learn to avoid future problems. Each article in the series also is available for download and printing in PDF format. This site's straightforward approach, solid advice and easy navigation make it an excellent resource for all musicians, whether they experience only occasional tension and anxiety or more severe, disabling levels of stress when facing an audience.

Audience: all musicians, psychology

www.ninds.nih.gov/index.htm

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) first came to the attention of the musical world due to its much-publicized success in treating pianist Leon Fleisher, whose performing career was interrupted when his right hand became disabled by focal dystonia. At first glance, this site may appear overwhelming because of the vast amount of information included. However, finding information about a particular disorder can be easily achieved by simply clicking on the link labeled "Browse All Disorders" and scrolling down the alphabetical list.

Each disorder is accompanied by a brief description of the problem and its symptoms, as well as a discussion of treatment options and usual prognosis, plus a list of links to additional resources. There also is information about current clinical trials. Due to the alphabetical approach, this site is probably most useful for musicians who already have received an actual or tentative diagnosis of a neurological disorder.

At present the main page also contains a link to information about Fleisher's treatment, including a video of his appearance at the grand opening of a new research and treatment facility at the Institute in December 2004. Fleisher speaks about his ongoing treatment at NINDS and then demonstrates his recovery by performing Bach and Chopin selections taken from his new CD Two Hands. Anyone interested in Fleisher's story or any musician seeking encouragement about potential recovery from a debilitating disorder should view this video soon, since it is part of a press release that may not remain on the website indefinitely. The medical information, however, will continue to provide users with up-to-date and authoritative information to help them understand and find help for a variety of neurological impairments.

Audience: all musicians, pianists

www.medicinenet.com/script/main/ hp.asp

MedicineNet.com is a website created by a network of U.S. Board Certified physicians and allied health professionals for the purpose of providing the public with reliable and up-to-date health information in nontechnical language. This site is well-organized and easy to use, with both alphabetical directories and online searching capabilities to help users locate the desired information quickly and conveniently. Each disorder is described with clear and simple anatomical drawings, along with information about the symptoms, causes and treatment options.

Searching is possible by specific disorders or by symptoms, such as "neck and back pain," in addition to a simple keyword search. Another approach to the information is through the "Focused Topics" index on the sidebar, which leads the users to a collection of short articles about each disorder, its causes and diagnosis, treatments, typical medications and therapies and self-help and prevention strategies, plus links to related topics on the site. Musicians and other performing artists will find a wealth of information about their particular concerns; in fact, some articles are specifically directed toward musicians. This is, for example, one of the few places to find information about the various skin allergies and irritations that can affect musicians due to their close physical contact with musical instruments. The article titled "Musical Allergy, A Sour Note," discusses allergic reactions to rosin or to the nickel found in woodwind and brass instruments, as well as other dermatological conditions caused by prolonged contact with a musical instrument, for example, the perplexing skin condition commonly known as "fiddler's neck."

Musicians who have been diagnosed or those who suspect a health problem will find this site very helpful in understanding their conditions and finding appropriate treatments. Because all the material on this site is created or supervised by licensed medical specialists, it can be considered reliable and trustworthy. The medical professionals, all of whom are specialists, are clearly identified in each article, and most of the material shows the date of writing, making this one of the best sites for users to educate themselves about almost any medical disorder or condition.

Audience: all musicians

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

A special thanks to Rebecca Shockley, NCTM, professor of piano pedagogy and class piano coordinator at the University of Minnesota and chair of MTNA's Pedagogy Saturday Committee; Rebecca G. Johnson, NCTM, associate professor and director, Community Music School and Conservatory Keyboard Pedagogy at Capital University and former chair of MTNA's Pedagogy Saturday Committee; Gail Berenson, NCTM, professor of piano and chair of the keyboard division at Ohio University, Athens; and the late Margaret Lorince, NCTM, who all have supported this project and helped keep it an ongoing endeavor. This research has been assisted by Kathryn Kalmanson, head of reference at Blackwell Library at Salisbury University. She continues to do the research necessary for this bibliography and has taken on the full responsibility for the websites, including writing the annotations and making sure sites are still active.

Linda Cockey, professor and chair of the Department of Music at Salisbury University in Maryland, teaches piano, music history and a wellness in performance course. She holds a D.M.A. degree from The Catholic University of America, where she studied piano with Thomas Mastroianni and pedagogy with Barbara English Maris. She has authored numerous publications on musical topics, presented papers for several national organizations and is an active performer.
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Title Annotation:Musician Wellness
Author:Kalmanson, Kathryn
Publication:American Music Teacher
Article Type:Bibliography
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jun 1, 2005
Words:6615
Previous Article:A sword for battle.
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