Anglicisms in the Romanian language of tourism, sports and recreational activities.
Romanian tourism is a dynamic industry that has grown over the last two decades due to specific political factors such as Schengen-visa waiving and the accession to the European Union. The packages developed by tourism entities made travel more accessible. They provide a wide range of facilities and services catering for customers' needs and consequently new niches have emerged, such as cultural, business, or health tourism. Among them, adventure tourism covers various newly developed activities that are increasingly embraced by tourists, and not only, as a challenging way to spend their vacation besides the more traditional recreational activities. Moreover, the profound social and cultural changes have led to an increase in the number of people that develop a new attitude towards personal development, be they regular tourists or professionals involved in such corporate programs as team building. These segments of population with relatively high levels of income and education tend to adopt cultural models that come primarily from the English-speaking areas. Therefore, the specialized language of tourism targeting new segments of customers is visibly influenced by English.
As adventure tourism products that include new sports activities have become better known in our country, the relevant terminology has been imported as well. The paper focuses on the recent anglicisms and analyzes the degree of integration into Romanian (by 'anglicisms' we understand loans from both British and American English). The examples of borrowings in our corpus are limited to the names of the disciplines practiced as a sport activity or a form of recreation. They are selected from online promotional materials and from informative articles published in mainstream newspapers and magazines or posted on websites by people with an interest in adventure sports (the sites were accessed as of September 2011). The analysis of these occurrences is combined with the consultation of Romanian reference works.
2. Usage-based data
1.ADVENTURE RACING--"Adventure Racing este unul dintre cele mai noi sporturi de echipa, cu o crestere rapida in ultimii 5 ani." (comunicatedepresa.ro)
1. AIRBOARDING--"Activitate de teambuilding pentru iarna, inspirata din noul sport airboarding. Se poate practica pe orice partie." (romanianadventure.com)
2. AIR HOCKEY--"Chiar la intrarea in zona turistica se afla Club Bowling Saturn, unde amatorii de distractii pot juca biliard, air hockey, bowling." (videoguide.ro)
3. AIRSOFT--"Airsoft-ul a inceput <<sa-i prinda>> pe tot mai mulii pasionati ai sporturilor de lupta simulate." (Ad. 26 II 10)
4. APRES-SKI--"[Seefeld] are o excelenta retea de magazine, baruri si cafenele, un superb centru sportiv si multe alte posibilitati de petrecere apres ski." (vacanteaustria.ro)
5. AQUAZORBING)--"Water walking ball este noua modaprintre copiii care vin la mare. Iar jocul cu aceasta bila se numeste Aquazorbing. " (Ad. 6 VII 10)
6. BANANA/BANANA RIDING--"In stafiune ... puteti practica sporturi nautice: jet-ski, parasailing, banana, scufundari." (simcotour.ro) [??] "Printre facilitaflle recreative din apropierea hotelului se numara: parasutism, windsurfing, yachting si banana riding." (1001hoteluri.ro)
7. BEACH-VOLLEY--"De pe plajele din Mamaia si sudul litoralului nu lipsesc arenele special amenajate pentru beach-volley. Voleiul pe plaja este exclusiv de agrement si nu cere foarte multa indemanare sau antrenament>>." (cugetliber.ro)
8. BIRDWATCHING--"Birdwatchingul este o nisa turistica din ce in ce mai cunoscuta si mai apreciata." (ecomagazin.ro)
9. BOULDERING--"Potrivit multor cataratori, boulderingul reprezinta cea mai pura forma de catarare." (funromtour.ro)
10. BUNGEE JUMPING--"Adultii ... se distreaza intr-una din cele patru sali de escalada, fac bungee jumping." (Ad.18 X 11)
11. CANYONING--"In tara noastra canyoningul a fost introdus, pentru prima data, ca activitate de agrement intr-un packet turistic." (canyoning.turismaventura.ro)
12. DARTS--"Probabil ca multi se intreaba cum e darts-ul asta? Pare un sport usor: dai cu trei sageti cat mai aproape de centrul tintei si gata.' (avantaje.ro)
13. ENDURO--"Sibiul, capitala enduro a lumii" (Rl.13 VII 11)
14. FREE DIVING--"Cei mai curajosi pot incerca free diving (scufundarea in apnee)." (yachtexpert.ro)
15. HANG GLIDING--"Se pot practica iarna ... sania, paragliding sau hang gliding (deltaplan)." (aquatravel.ro)
16. HELI-SKI--"Heli-ski-ul a devenit incredibil de popular in anii '60, acum jund practicat in mai toate tarile cu stafiuni naturale de schi." (extremeaddict.ro)
17. HIKING--"Hiking: Fie ca va doriti olimbari lejere sau ture de o zi sau doua pe munte, in ambele situatii veti gasi in pensiunea noastra un placut loc de unde sa porniti si unde sa va intoarceti." (pensiuneahoracubrazi.ro)
18. JET-SKI/JET-SKIING--"In sud se pot practica surfing, wind-surfing, parasutism legat de o barca <<vitezomana>> sau plimbari cu jet-ski." (media.impoedia.ro) [??] "Aici pot fi practicate o serie de sporturi nautice: jetsky-ing, plimbari cu barca, hidrobicicleta, wind-surfing, yachting, sckinautic, parapanta." (infoturism.ro)
19. KAYAKING--"Excursia se desfas]oara cu caiace gonflabile pentru persoanele jara nici un fel de experienta anterioara in white-water kayaking" (caliman.ro)
20. KITEBOARD/KITEBOARDING)--"Vlad este instructor de snowboard la Brasov, iar vara se muta pe litoral si ii invata pe turisti sa faca kiteboard." (Ad. 9 VII 09) [??] "Vorbim in acest moment despre catela sute de romani pasionati de kiteboarding, iar numarul lor va create constant." (G. 12.VII 10)
21. KITESURF/KITESURFING--"Daca va pasioneaza sporturile extreme estivale, la mare va puteti oferi o distractie pe cinste practicand windsurful sau kitesurful". (sfin.ro) [??] "In Romania, pe litoralul nostru, kitesurfing-ul a luat amploare in ultimii trei ani." (videoguide.ro)
22. KITING)--"La nord de statiunea Mamaia ... junctioneaza incepand din 2006 o scoala de kiting." (Rl.9 X 09)
23. LASER COMBAT--"Preferat initial de firme pentru sesiuni de team building, Laser Combat poate fi jucat si de grupuri organizate ad-hoc." (Ad. 22 V 11)
24. LASER TAG--"jocul de laser tag este o alternativa live si originala de a va petrece timpul liber cu prietenii sau a va <<impusca>> seful dupa o zi obositoare la birou." (wall-street.ro)
25. MOUNTAIN-BIKE/MOUNTAIN BIKING--"In Romania mountain bike-ul sau macar ciclismul de oras inca nu se bucura de recunoasterea si valoarea pe care o merita." (travel.descopera.ro) [??] "Mountain biking-ul este un sport palpitant de care se poate bucura oricine stie sa mearga pe bicicleta." (xtrem.ro)
26. MOUNTAINEERING--"Mountaineering-ul, climbingul sau romanescul alpinism, presupune activitatea impatimitului de amestecare om-natura, de forta proprie si vointa." (travelmagazine.ro)
27. NORDIC WALKING--"infrastructura specifica zonei [Vatra Dornei] permite desfasurarea cu succes a acestui tip de agrement--<<nordicwalking>>." (vatradomei.net)
28. PAINTBALL--"Paintball-ul este privit si ca o buna modalitate de sudare e echipelor ce lucreaza in diverse firme, ideal pentru asa numitele teambuilding." (lugojul.ro)
29. PARAGLIDING--"[C.S.] considera ca Oludeniz din Turcia este, fara indoiala, raiul iubitorilor de paragliding." (wall-street.ro)
30. PARASAILING--"Turistii din statiune se pot plimba pe mare cu bananele si cu hidroscuterele sau pot face parasailing. " (Ad.18 VI 09)
31. ROCK CLIMBING--" Rock-climbingul se poate practica in Malta pe totparcursul anului." (Evz. 30 X 08)
32. ROPE COURSE--"Conacul Bunicilor dispune de un parc propriu de Rope Course, al doilea ca marime din tara, format din 11 platforme." (conaculbunicilor.ro)
33. SCUBA DIVING--"Scuba diving-ul e un sport calculat si relaxant, de care te poti bucura la maxim daca cunosti si respecti regulile de siguranta." (vacanta-ta.ro)
34. SHUFFLEBOARD--"Gym, mese de tenis, shuiileboard, volei pe plaja, darts, mini-fotbal si multe alte facilitati sunt la dispozitia oaspetilor." (beachbulgaria.ro)
35. SKELETON--"Un sport foarte asemanator cu bobul este si skeletonul, practicat, de asemenea, pe o partie de gheatu aescendenta." (unica.ro)
36. SKIBOARDING--"Absolut tofi schiorii care au incercat doar o data skiboardurile au renuntat instantaneu la schiurile clasice si au trecut la skiboarding." (pensiuneacristina.ro)
37. SKYDIVING--"Intamplarea face ca farile cu tradifia cea mai indelungata in skydiving sa fie si cele mai pufin accesibile pentru romani." (sfin.ro)
38. SNORKELING--"Cei mai multi dintre noi, atunci cand ne gandim la scuba diving si snorkeling, ne vin in minte locatii tropicale:' (travel.descopera.ro)
39. SNOWBIKING--"Coborarea in sa pe zapada (sau snowbikingulj este un alt sport extrem deschis maselo.' (Evz. 21 XII 08)
40. SNOWBOARDING--"Statiunea este situata la circa 1300-1400 m altitudine si este potrivita atat iubitorilor de schi cat si celor care practica snowboarding." (turism-360.ro)
41.SNOWKITING--" Snowkiting-ul este un sport de iarna care combina puterea vantului si tehnicile kitesurfului cu echipamentul de snowboard." (cugetliber.ro)
42. SNOWMOBILE/SNOWMOBILING--"se poate face ... o plimbare cu snowmobilele in padurea intunecataT (businessmagazin.ro) [??] "snowmobiling-ul imbina placerea vitezei si atracfla pentru peisajeie splendide.' (unica.ro)
43. SNOW RAFTING--"De zapada pot profita si amatorii de snowrafting --nu au nevoie decat de o barca pneumatica sau o camera de la cauciucul unui tractor si isi pot da drumul la vale". (Evz 30 X 08)
44. TEAM BUILDING--"Adventures4all a ajuns in prezent sa desfasoare actiuni de mare amploare cu o multime de activitati diferite ..., ceea ce se numeste Multi activity programs, sau Team-building in cazul turismului de afaceri.' (adventures4all.ro)
45. TREASURE HUNT--"in prezent oferim servicii complexe de Teambuilding cu Treasure hunt, perfect integrate contextului deltaic." (deltatour.ro)
46. TREKKING--"Drumetiile montane, asa zisul <<trekking>>, se pot efectua pe totparcursul anului, indiferent de anotimp.' (turism.paralpin.ro)
47. TUBING--"Ultima moda o reprezinta tubing-ul si plimbarile cu snowmobilurile pe crestele muntilor.' (citynews.ro)
48. WAKEBOARD/WAKEBOARDING--"Un pic de skateboard, un pic de snowboard, ceva schi nautic si o completare optionala de parapanta toate au fost aduse sub <<umbrela>> wakeboard-ului." (xtrem.ro) [??] "Fara sa nasca o isterie de masa, o moda internationala sau sa adune o avalansa de fani, wakeboarding-ul a generat, totusi, o cultura proprie.' (sfin.ro)
49. WATER SKI/WATER SKIING--"Pasiunile sale sunt sporturile, precum water-skiul, inotul, skiul." (Ad. 28 X 08) [??] "Water Skiing-ul este practicat in Romania de ani buni, iar motoarele dezvolta din ce in ce mai multi cai putere.' (timp-liber.acasa.ro) [water-ski is recorded in DN, MDN]
50. WHITEWATER RAFTING--"Rafting-ul (lb. engleza--whitewater rafting--rafting de apa alba) este una dintre cele mai rapid dezvoltate activitati sportive si de agrement in aer liber.' (gurahumorului.info/ro)
51. WINDSURF/WINDSURFING--"Celor sportitvi, pentru care sa stai ... pe marginea unei piscine este pierdere de timp, le sunt propuse wind surful, parasailinguF" (cariereonline.ro) [??] "In sud se pot practica surfing, windsurfing, parasutism legat de o barca <<vitezomana>> sau plimbari cu jet-ski." (tvtravel.ro)
52. WRECK DIVING--"Obiectivul specific alproiectului este promovarea unui nou produs turistic: wreck diving--explorarea epavelor scufundate din Marea Neagra." (Rl.24 VIII 10)
53. YACHTING--"Portul din Mangalia (Marina) a devenit <<punctul zero>> al yachtingului romanesc si un nou pol de atractie pentru turisti si localnici." (foodandbar.ro)
54. ZORBING -"Zorbing. Ideal si binevenit in cadrul programelor de teambuilding, dar si ca activitate de sine statatoare." (pensiuneasara.ro)
3. From adoption to adaptation
Starting from the examples above, our analysis aims to outline any tendencies regarding the main aspects of borrowing sports anglicisms into Romanian, from adoption to adaptation, from foreignization to nativization. For the beginning, we have to decide on a definition for anglicisms. As Pergnier (1989 :29) remarks, "il y a de nombreuses facons de distinguer et de classer les laits de langue auxquels on applique le nom d'anglicismes: domaines d'emploi, frequence, degre d'integration, type d'interference (lexical, syntaxique, idiomatique, etc." Therefore, we rely on the definition given by Aariana Stoichitoiu-Ichim: "a recent borrowing from British and American English, incompletely adapted or unmodified at all (as such, it is spelt and pronounced very closely to or identically with the manner in the original language" (Stoichitoiu, 2005:83--my translation).
Historically, sports terms of English origin are the first anglicisms to be studied by Romanian linguists (Badea, 2009: 241). As back as 1947, Iorgu Iordan analyzed the sports anglicisms known at that time and established that the greatest part of them were indirect borrowings, via French. Subsequent research (Ghetie, 1957; Seche, 1959) was dedicated to this terminology as well, since sports terms were virtually the only instance of the English influence on Romanian in a period when there were few contacts with the West. Due to the spread of sports among the masses, English borrowings underwent accelerated adaptation to such an extent that sometimes their original form could barely be recognized in their phonetic orthography, e.g. aut (< out), baschet (< basketball), gol (< goal), hent (< hands), meci (< match), ofsaid (, offside). After 1990, English sports terms were studied within the context of the massive influx of anglicisms (Avram, 1997; Ciobanu, 2004; Stoichitoiu, 2006).
The currently dominant influence of English is also manifest in the widespread import of sports terms. Most of them are non-integrated words, spelt as is, e.g. airsoft, darts, paintball. The others, compounds in particular, show oscillations in spelling: they may be written in one word, in two words or hyphenated, e.g. teambuilding, Team Building, Team-building. Generally, there are preferred the solutions that emphasize the component meaning, grammar value and synthetic relations (Lyutakova, 2003:115). Team Building also illustrates the manner of adopting the English rules of capitalization. The use of majuscules with common names for terms similar to trade names (e.g. Adventure Racing, Aquazorbing, Laser Combat, Treasure hunt) is a form of foreignization.
In a morphological system as Romanian, the partial suspension of inflection is another form of foreignization. For instance, the definite article is sometimes removed under the influence of English, although the context requires articulation. In the phrase: "plimbari cu jet-ski " (52)/"tours by jetski"? the noun "jet-ski" should have received the definite article as required by the preposition "cu", unlike English, where "by" takes zero article. In another example, "asa numitele teambuilding' (29)/"the so-called teambuilding [programs]"?the invariant -ing form is likely to be thought unsuitable to morphological adjustment. Thus, "teambuilding" is not inflected for plural, although the agreement noun-adjective would have required it. In order to circumvent inflection, this foreign word is sometimes used as an invariable modifier to a semantically suitable noun: e.g. "activitati" (2), "programe" (55), "sesiuni" (24). These examples reflect a tendency towards invariability as regards nouns and adjectives by following the English pattern.
At the same time, there is an interesting phenomenon of 'anglicisation'? the already nativized loan words with phonetic spelling revert to the etymological orthography (e.g. kayaking instead of caiac, yachting instead of iaht), as a symptom of gradual supersession of French influence. The trend is seen as a sign of linguistic snobbery (Stoichitoiu, 2008:97). Parallel spelling, both etymological and phonetic, is more frequent when the respective word is included in an English compound (e.g. the doublets hochei but air hockey, schi but jet-ski, volei but beach-volley). Such variations may even occur in the same sentence, e.g. (17) and (20).
The influence of English sometimes leads to a form of 'hyper-foreignization' (Hock & Joseph, 1996: 25/). The occurrence jet-sky-ing instead of jet-skiing, for instance, results from the wrong perception of what English spelling should look like: the grapheme 'y' is considered to be 'more English' than 'i' and thus it is used hypercorrectly.
3.2 Lexical borrowing
Lexical borrowing is usually accompanied by orthographic and phonetic nativization. However, as they have been recently introduced into Romanian, the anglicisms in the analyzed corpus have not been exposed to the assimilating process long enough. As a result, they are poorly integrated in the linguistic structure. The only occurrence of a nativized loan word in our corpus is snowmobil. By analogy with the Romanian "mobil", the loan word dropped the final-e. As for phonetic assimilation, the foreign words are generally pronounced as close as possible to the original.
The process of borrowing English words in Romanian is restricted by the divergence between the analytical/synthetic nature of the two languages belonging to different linguistic families, the less restrictive word order of Romanian and the complex inflection system. The basic form of adaptation is the morphological adaptation to the linguistic system of the recipient language, which usually has three stages of transformation: zero, compromise and complete assimilation. In the analyzed corpus, adaption is limited to nouns, adjectives and the definite article that are inflected for gender, number and case.
Since they express concepts and objects, the terms analyzed are assigned to the neuter gender (with the plural '-uri'). An exception is again the term snowmobil that takes both the '-uri' and the '-e' morphemes: e.g. snowmobile (43) and snowmobiluri (48) modeled by the Romanian "mobil" -1. pl. mobile/2. pl. mobiluri (DOOM2). The gender assignment in Romanian and English is convergent, as in both languages neuter is the 'natural' gender for 'inanimate objects' (semantic criterion). The fact that neuter nouns generally end in a consonant (formal criterion) facilitates the fusion of the definite article and genitive case morphemes, indicative of the gender (e.g. birdwatchingul, skiboardurile, kitesurjului). The alternative hyphenated forms (e.g. heli-ski-ul, mountain biking-ul) indicate that they are still perceived as 'foreign', although they are undergoing an adaptation process. Strictly speaking, the application of the inflective pattern of Romanian onto invariable English borrowings results in hybrid anglicisms (Onysko, 2004: 55).
A great part of sports anglicisms are invariable since they are expressed by verbal nouns in ing-form. The compound anglicisms formed with the nouns board, ski have plural form, however. If the original English plural is retained, then contradictory forms may result; e.g. darts-ul, where the singular definite article is attached to a plural noun. When the borrowed word is inflected, its original form is preserved but linked by hyphen to enclitic morphemes to individualize and mark it as 'foreign', e.g. Bungee-Jumping-ul, mountain-bike-ul.
During the process of assimilation, anglicisms may have one of their parts reduced, e.g. the truncated form banana [boat], [whitewater] rafting. The clipped form beach-volley[ball] is used by analogy with volei <volleyball). The two lexical units of a compound may get inverted, e.g. ski-jet /schi-jet, instead of jet-ski/jet-schi; in this case there is semantic specialization; ski-jet/schi-jet denotes the vehicle, while jet-ski/jet-schi is used to express the activity.
3.3 Semantic borrowing
From the point of view of meaning (which is actually the main reason for borrowing foreign words), it is not the lexical item that is imported but rather its sense. The meaning is transferred either to an indigenous word which accommodates the meaning of the foreign word (loan shift), or to a novel expression that conveys the same meaning (and structure) as the foreign expression and its component parts (loan translation).
3.3.1 Loan shift. The borrowing of anglicisms includes not only phonetic and morphological alterations, but also semantic changes in the indigenous words of the recipient language. For example, marina, an international word, was originally borrowed from French (< It., Sp. marina), with the meanings "navy" (DN) and "painting of seascape" (DOLR). The etymon is used in English to denote "a small harbor for pleasure boats". The same meaning has passed into the Romanian word, in relation to touristic facilities (54). The process of (polysemous) words developing new meanings is called extension. Another example of semantic loan is banana (<Fr.), meaning 1. "fruit", and 2. "electrical connector, plug" (DEX'98, DN, MDN, DLRM). The meaning of the word is now extended to include that of "inflatable recreational boat". Given that banana is well established in common usage, we may say that the latest meaning has also passed into the mainstream language. Polysemy signals a process of determinologization: namely "terminological usage and meaning can 'loosen' when a term captures the interest of the general public" (Meyer and Mackintosh, 2000). The loan shift may also be marked orthographically. For example, apreschi (<Fr. 'apres-ski')?meaning 'footwear used after skiing' (MDN, DCR2), has acquired the new meaning of 'social activity following a day's skiing' and is spelt apres-ski.
3.3.2 Loan translations. In the analyzed corpus of sports terms, there is one example of literal translation of the foreign expression white water rafting = railing de apa alba" (51). However, the result of the word-for-word translation (or calque) does not convey the meaning of the original. Literally, "apa alba" means 'white water', lacking the additional meaning of 'frothy water', 'rapids', i.e. the aspect of part of a river where the current is very fast and turbulent. Thus, the result is no longer the Romanian correspondent of the English term; moreover, it is utterly meaningless in the context.
Most of the English sports terms in the analyzed corpus are expressed by an -ing form, making them not only difficult to inflect, but also difficult to convey their meanings. Therefore, they are frequently rendered by a hybrid equivalent of the type [Ro. verb/deverbal noun + En. noun expressing the equipment/sport]. The 'phraseological meaning' of actions can be rendered by the Romanian correspondent of "to practice", "to do", "to ride/to take a ride on", "to tour/to take a tour/trip", 11,16,19, 21,22, 31,41,52). The substitution may also be used for stylistic reasons when the -ing form is considered too 'foreign' (for instance, compare snowmobiling with 'riding the snowmobile' or 'a ride on the snowmobile'). Not all the terms designating sports and leisure activities are expressed by verbal nouns. In some cases, a synecdoche allows the name of the equipment used to practice the respective sport to replace the discipline itself (examples include terms formed with the elements -bike, -board, -ski, -surf).
4. From terms to words
The corpus we analyzed contains a large number of anglicisms, to which we could add many more other related loans, derived words and technicalities, since such borrowings tend to appear in clusters. This profusion of English sports terms follows the tendency of general and special terminology to turn to Anglo-American sources. Technical terms are imported alongside novel notions and phenomena they designate, belonging to material and cultural innovations. More specifically, the sports terms we analyzed have been borrowed in conjunction with the new disciplines merged as spin-offs from some more basic sports. They are "need-based borrowings", 'necessary borrowings'), monosemic (thus, they lack ambiguity) and denotative. Conse-quently, they either tend to preserve their original form as foreign words ('xenisms')?or to be translated, in which case the calque retains its specialized nature (Pana-Dindelegan, 2002: 31-41). In addition to providing names for new concepts and objects, English loans feature intrinsic linguistic characteristics that represent a comparative advantage: brevity, clear and transparent structure, laconism (compare, for instance, wreck diving with the Romanian loan translation "explorarea epavelor scufundate").
The extensive use of anglicisms is explained not only by linguistic aspects, but also by various extralinguistic factors. The terminology and cultural background of many subject fields originate from Anglophone countries and therefore English is the lingua franca. The socio-political dynamics influences the domains where English is spreading as well as the ways and the motivation to acquire it. Some of the anglicisms that are well established at European level are attested by Gorlach (DEA, 2005): beach-volley, bungee jumping, jet-ski, hang gliding, mountain biking, paintball, paragliding, snowboarding, surfing, trekking. Whereas the great majority of English foreign words meet the need to fill 'empty boxes' in the receiving language, those adopted under the pervasive influence of English meet different needs--they are "trendy prestige borrowings" (Hock & Joseph, 1996: 264). If need-based borrowings are denotative, prestige borrowings are connotative. Prestige can be related not only to the language, but also to the sports and recreation activities. The anglicisms used by the practitioners thereof hold connotations of membership to an exclusivist group of dynamic, cosmopolitan, mostly young people sharing a 'movement culture'. For the providers of such activities, anglicisms hold connotations of state-of-the-art, professionalism, competitiveness.
The distinction between the technical, denotative need-based borrowings and the cultural, connotative prestige borrowings can also be viewed from a pragmatic perspective. Onysko & Winter-Froemel (2011) draw a distinction between I-implicatures (of informativeness) and M-implicatures (of manner) as marked lexical choices.
In a normative perspective, the prestige loans are generally considered to be 'useless' as long as the receiving language has the correspondent words and phrases, either indigenous words or loan translations. For instance, why saying beach-volley, water-skiing, jet-ski when "volei pe plaja", "schi nautic" and "hidroscuter" will just do? Viewed as "luxury borrowings', such loans may express negative connotations: snobbery, negligence, haste and insufficient knowledge of the borrowing language, being perceived as symptoms of "Anglomania" (Stoichifoiu, 2008: 94-95).
A technical term that is given a precise usage among the practitioners of a subject field can remain opaque for those not acquainted with the specialized language. That is why technical terms have to be popularized/ 'domesticated' by specialists to familiarize the large public with their usage. It is a 'preparatory' phase (Mladin, 2004:6) of determinologization, a process through which terms from technical subject fields gradually enter common language through 'banalization' and through loss or gain in meaning as compared to the original term. In this first phase, foreign technical terms are individualized orthographically to 'stand out' from the context (by means of quotation marks, italics, colon, brackets, dash) and/or by metadiscourse markers--features that writers add to help readers decode the meaning. The corpus analyzed offers a wide variety of such devices. Most of them are code glosses that define, explain or paraphrase textual material (the following examples are given in my translation):
-- synonyms or Romanian correspondent words/phrases: '"Mountaineering, climbing or the Romanian alpinism"? "free diving (<<scufundarea in apnee>>)"; sometimes, the anglicism alternates with its Romanian correspondent in the same sentence or text (8);
-- explanation: "[darts] seems to be easy: you throw 3 pointed arrows as close as possible at the bull eye and that's if (13);
-- definition or partial definition: '"Water walking ball is the latest fashion among the children visiting the seaside. The game with this ball is called Aquazorbing" (6); in some cases, only genus proximum is supplied: "bouldering is the purest form of climbing"' (10);
-- reformulation: "mountain journeys, the so-called <<trekkingg>>' (47);
-- paraphrase: "[snow rafting] fas only need an inflatable boat or a tractor tire to slide down the hill' (44)
Here is an example of hyper-explanation that combines several metadiscourse markers: "?afing fEn. -- whitewater rafting -- <<rafting de apa alba>>) is one of the fastest-developing outdoor sports and leisure activities."
As the popularity of such tourism activities grows, the specific lexicon will spread and the today terms will find their ways into common language.
The paper has focused on the linguistic and extralinguistic aspects of borrowing English terms in the sports and recreations subject field. The analysis of our corpus of anglicisms has revealed various degrees of adaptation to the Romanian language system achieved by lexemic and morpho-semantic routines. The tendency towards foreignization is manifest, however, in the limited inflection of nouns and the capitalization of common names. The motivation and normative aspects of recently borrowed English words have been analyzed from a socio-linguistic perspective. Technical, denotative need-based borrowings, as well as cultural, connotative prestige borrowings account for the massive influx of anglicisms. The perceived prestige level can influence not only the level of lexical borrowing but also changes to the overall structure of the language. The significant presence of anglicisms in Romanian has to be viewed as a means to enrich and update vocabulary, to increase terminological precision and enhance international communication.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
DCR2--Dictionar de cuvinte recente (1997), 2nd ed., Florica Dimitrescu, ClujNapoca: Logos
DEA--A Dictionary of European Anglicisms. A Usage Dictionary of Anglicisms in Sixteen European Languages (2005), Gorlach, M., OUP
DEX,98--Dictionarul explicativ al limbii romane (1998), 2nd ed., Bucuresti : Editura Univers Enciclopedic
DLRM--Dictionarul limbii romane moderne (1958), Bucuresti : Editura Academiei DN--Dictionar de neologisme (1986), Marcu, F., Maneca, C., Bucuresti: Editura Academiei
DOLR--Dictionar ortografic al limbii romane (2002), Bucuresti: Litera
GA--Glosar aviatic (2001), Lucian Miclauc, Timisoara: Marineasa
MDN--Marele dictionar de neologisme (2000), Marcu, F., Bucuresti: Saeculum
NODEX--Noul dictionar explicativ al limbii romane (2002), Bucuresti : Litera
(1.) Avram, M.(1997), Anglicismele in limba romana actuala, Bucuresti: Editura Academiei Romane.
(2.) Badea O. (2009), "Privire bibliograiica asupra anglicismelor in limba romana"?Annals of the University of Craiova. Series Philology. Linguistics 1-2: 241-250.
(3.) Ciobanu, G. (2004), Romanian Words of English, Timisoara: Mirton.
(4.) Ghecie, I. (1957), "Observatii asupra limbii folosite in <<Sportul popular>>"?in Limba Romana, 4:19-25.
(5.) Hock, H.H., Joseph B.D. (1996), Language history, language change, and language relationship: an introduction to historical and comparative linguistics, Walter de Gruyter.
(6.) Iordan, I. (1947), Limba romana actuala. O gramatica a "greselilor". Bucuresti: Socec&Co.
(7.) Lyutakova, R. (2003), "Adaptarea graiica a anglicismelor in limbile romana si bulgara", Romanoslavica, 39:109-130.
(8.) Mladin, C.I. (2004), "Note despre raportul dintre lexical comun si terminologiile speciale. (Imprumutul), UniTerm, (electronic version), Timisoara: Universitatea de Vest 2,1-8.
(9.) Onysko, Al. (2007), Anglicisms in German: borrowing, lexical productivity, and written codeswitching. Berlin: Gruytere.
(10.) Onysko, Al., Winter-Froemel, E. (2011), "Necessary loans-luxury loans? Exploring the pragmatic dimension of borrowing", Journal of pragmatics, 6:1550-1567.
(11.) Pana-Dindelegan, G. (2002), "Formatii substantivale recente si rolul <clasificatorilor> in actualizarea lor contextuala", in Pana-Dindelegan, G. (ed.), Aspecte ale dinamicii limba romane actuale, Bucuresti: Editura Universitatii, 31-41.
(12.) Seche, M.(1959): "Despre stilul sportiv"?in Limba Romana, 2:80-98.
(13.) Stoichitoiu-Ichim, A. (2005), Vocabularul limbii romane actuale, Bucuresti: ALL.
(14.) Stoichitoiu-Ichim, A. (2006), Aspecte ale influengi engleze in romana actuala, Bucuresti: Editura Universitatii.
Spiru Haret University
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|Publication:||Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2014|
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