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Anglicisms and calques in upper social class in pre-revolutionary Cuba (1930-1959): a sociolinguistic analysis.

1. INTRODUCTION

The ascent of English as a "vital international lingua franca" (Cardenas, 1999: 15) has been regarded at times as a threat, a convenience, or just an unquestionable intrusiveness. The anglicization of Spanish lexis and syntax has been tremendously fostered by a new global power: the United States of America, whose degree of influence has been particularly remarkable on neighboring countries such as Puerto Rico, Mexico, or Cuba (Alfaro, 1948; Fasla Fernandez, 2007-2008; Lope Blanch, 1972; Lopez Morales, 1971; Lorenzo, 1995-1996; Medina Lopez, 2004; Valdes, 2007).

The aim of this empirical research article is: 1) to study the degree of both cultural and sociolinguistic influences on Cuban Spanish in the oft-quoted Neocolonial period (19021959) through the revision of periodicals, chiefly society pages' columns and advertising, from a specific historical period (1930-1959); 2) to provide a descriptive analysis of the English-induced units collected, and their semantic or morpho-syntactic changes, based on their etymology, semantic field, and typology; 3) to revise the occurrence of these Neocolonial anglicisms in contemporary Cuban Spanish, and their semantic or morphosyntactic variations, if any.

To have a better understanding of the sociolinguistic penetration of American English into Cuban Spanish, the present study is likewise intended to provide a brief account on the historical and sociological context in which Cuban society was more likely to embrace Americanized social traits.

2. SOCIOLINGUISTIC FRAMEWORK

2.1. American English in Neocolonial Cuba: a historical account

The intervention of the United States in the Cuban-Spanish war (1895-1898) represented a historical turning point as to the influence of the English language on Cuban Spanish. The progressive borrowing and calque processes would be irreversibly raised by the imposition of new extralinguistic features: the absolute economic and political dependence of Cuba on the United States; and the completion of 'invasive' American ways of living, only paralleled with the late-twentieth-century globalization process.

One of the first linguistic impositions carried out by the new American authorities on the island was to issue a decree to enact the learning process of English inasmuch teachers needed to be prepared to teach elementary English, according to the Decreto de las escuelas primarias y superiores de Cuba, published in Gaceta de La Habana on December 6, 1899 (Valdes, 2001: 136). Many Cuban teachers were off to Harvard University and schools in New York to become better acquainted with up-to-date educational methods (Fairford, 1926: 25).

The American political strategies were oriented to guarantee and favor the economic intervention, since annexation was regarded as a threat by many Americans, particularly with regard to competitiveness and price. Consequently, President W. Mckinley (1897-1901) took all the necessary steps to have Cuba be subject to the United States by establishing an 'independent' republic, and thus everyone was satisfied: those who wanted to strengthen American economic dominance on the island, and those who rejected the annexation. By 1907, there were already in Cuba a total of 13,000 American settlers, whose possessions and investments were worth fifty million pesos.

An evident illustration of the Americanization of identity and language is observed on the Isle of Pines (Isla de la Juventud), in which an estimated 4,850 registered US property owners claimed to own more than half of the island. Even new communities were modeled in a physical and toponymic fashion after American towns: Columbia, McKinley, Palm Grove, Westport, San Francisco Heights, Santa Barbara Heights. "English became the dominant language and US currency the medium of exchange (...) Two weekly newspapers, the Isle of Pines News and the Isle of Pines Appeal, were published in English" (Perez, 2008: 110).

The percentages of native English-speakers, chiefly Americans, throughout the first part of the last century were the following ones: 0.46% in 1899, approximately 1.0% in 1917, and 0.36% in 1953. The number of American visitors was also remarkable during the period, reaching the record peak of 356,000 in 1957 (Valdes, 2001: 150). These figures show that American migration was not a meaningful factor in the Anglicization of Cuban Spanish before 1959. Extralinguistic elements were reasonably involved: economic and political reliance, lifestyles, consumerism, etc. These elements were especially copied by an ever-increasing Cuban bourgeoisie, which is why the study of upper social class and English-induced loans is of great importance to comprehend the borrowing process more thoroughly.

2.2. Upper socioeconomic stratum in Neocolonial Cuba

Post-colonial social stratification was highly characterized by the assimilation of American living standards. Following the establishment of a new political and economic order, North-American social values and strata were adopted, entailing an assimilation of the English language and the embracing of progressive social conducts, throughout the unprecedented Republican era (1902-1959). In sum, the ever-increasing Cuban bourgeoisie was utterly lured by the "fetishes of American consumerism", which would have an impact on Cuban Spanish (Lopez Segrera, 1989: 185).

The shaping of the oft-quoted cubania suggested that English was playing an important role in the new social 'hotchpotch'. Cuban residents were becoming more familiar with the English language, and with what it implied: sophistication and la jai (high life). "English-language words entered Spanish as a function of social relationships, particularly unequal power relationships. Use of English words and phrases was to be taken as evidence of acceptance and adaptation, but it also served as proof of sophistication" (Perez, 2008: 377).

Leading periodicals and dailies, such as La Lucha, La Discusion or Diario de la Marina, turned into a predictable showroom of loanwords and calques, through which a significant number of these lexical units were assimilated by Cuban Spanish. Thus, party was preferred over 'fiesta', living room over 'sala' (or 'salon') and market instead of 'mercado' (see Appendix 1 for more examples). Newspapers, especially those aimed at middle and upper social class, necessarily complied with the new trend: English was regarded as the language of classiness and sophistication. Cuban Spanish word-stock was enriched by technological inventions, brands, and pastimes, and therefore, by a major assimilation of anglicisms.

Not surprisingly, English was the means to success. "English was the route to advantage and advancement" (Perez, 2008: 150). Due to an increasing demand of English-speaking personnel, a great deal of language schools or 'academias' increased abruptly, as well as a growing number of 'English spoken here' all over large cities, implying the rising co-relation between speaking English fluently and finding a job. Consequently, education in English was progressively gaining importance in Neocolonial times due to work requirements and social standards.

2.3. Anglicisms: concepts and typology

In general, there is no consensus on the terminology of anglicism, and it is clearly used as an "umbrella label for any sign of interference" (Gottlieb, 2005: 163). Early and formal identifications of anglicisms have been provided; e.g. "a word or idiom that is recognizably English in its form (spelling, pronunciation, morphology, or at least one of the three), but it is accepted as an item in the vocabulary of the receptor language" (Gorlach, 2003: 1). Other scholars have also offered similar definitions in which the identification of anglicism with solely words or idiomatic phraseology is palpable (Lopez Morales, 1987; Stone, 1957).

Consequently, the need to resort to an all-inclusive definition is essential in the light of a study of anglicisms in a given variant of a language. Thus, Gottlieb identifies an anglicism as "any individual or systemic language feature adapted or adopted from English, or inspired or boosted by English models, used in intralingual communication in a language other than English" (2005: 163).

A number of classifications have been provided (Gomez Capuz, 1997; Pratt, 1980; Rodriguez Gonzalez, 2002; Seco, 2000-2001), which have consistently attempted to analyze the process of lexical borrowing in an artificially legible way, and to abridge the theoretical frameworks collected. Nevertheless, Furiassi, Pulcini and Rodriguez Gonzalez (2012) have expounded anglicisms through a state-of-the-art and unifying overview of the most relevant concepts regarding lexical borrowings and calques (Figure 1). Pragmatically, calques and borrowings are occasionally studied as different processes, but they can be equally motivated by graphemic or semantic transference. This feature is key to coin a global terminology encompassing other subcategories, which share similarities in the way linguistic assimilation and transference occur between two languages in contact.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The first distinction is made between direct and indirect borrowings. Direct borrowings from a source language (SL) to a recipient language (RL), or target language, have the tendency of showing evident elements of the SL, i.e. English. These elements are not obviously detected or conveyed in the same manner (loanwords, false loans, hybrid loans). Indirect borrowings (caiques and semantic loans) are not as easy to spot as direct ones: SL models are reproduced by translation in the RL (caiques), or by already-existing elements in RL which acquire new meanings (semantic loan).

In the case of loanwords, and based on the degree of integration of the units in the RL, anglicisms are divided into two types: non-adapted and adapted. A non-adapted loanword is a word or multi-word unit "without or with minor formal and semantic integration, so that it remains recognizably English in the RL" (Furiassi et al., 2012: 6). By and large, phonological integration takes place due to evident differences between the phonological systems of RL and SL (bowling, brass, baby). An adapted borrowing is a word or multi-word unit borrowed with orthographic, phonological and/or morphological integration into the systemic structures (accepted by the system of the language) of the RL. Semantically, RL and SL's meanings are related {panque < pancake, cloche < clutch, yersi < jersey).

False or pseudo loans are not exclusively examples of the arbitrary nature of the linguistic sign. They are SL-induced units, whose meanings differ fully with their English forms but they are clearly influenced by the English semantic structure: pulover (< pullover) does not convey the meaning of a T-shirt in English, but there exists an undeniable transference of semantic traits from the SL into the RL (Cuban Spanish).

As to caiques, there are three global forms that call for additional clarification: loan translation, loan rendition, and loan creation. A loan translation is a caique par excellence', it is a word or a multi-word unit which translates a SL unit into a RL one, i.e. from English to Spanish {queso crema < cheese cream). A loan rendition is a one-word unit or multi-word unit which translates an English element only partially and provides a slightly equivalent item in the RL: arbol del pan < breadfruit tree, linea de foul < foul line. Finally, a loan creation is a new word or multi-word unit in the RL which freely renders the English pattern word in Spanish. It is, in short, "defined as a free loan translation that bears no formal and structural resemblance to the foreign model" (Gomez Capuz, 1997: 93): jardinero < fielder, lanzarse de barriga < to slide onto base. These forms are chiefly motivated by the referents they signify. Though equal in referential grounds, the signifiers or lexical structures differ in both languages, which is owing to intra-linguistic peculiarities. The examples provided above of loan rendition and loan creation are not in our corpus but they are widely used in Cuban Spanish.

A semantic loan mostly depends on the type of motivation induced by other linguistic levels. All semantic loans or loan shifts have in common the semantic extension (homonymy or polysemy) of already-existing units in the RL: introducir ('to make (someone) known to someone else by name' < to introduce). In Cuban Spanish, other examples of this type may be found, whose degree of morphological accommodation can vary from highly-camouflaged (cana 'prison' < can) to clearly-detectable (aplicador < applicator).

3. CORPUS-DRIVEN ANALYSIS AND METHODOLOGY

3.1. Decoding a sociolect through text-samples

The present study of sociolinguistic variations is based on English-induced lexical units, and American-centered cultural elements. Social strata are responsible for language variations in terms of English linguistic patterns and American cultural standards acquisition. Along with the sociolinguistic variation targeted, other categories are likely to partake: spatial variations, gender, sex, level of educational attainment, etc.

The existence of a system of "orderly heterogeneity" within a speech community's language (Weinreich, Labov & Herzog, 1968: 100) implies the non-random nature of such variations, constrained by multiple social factors. The ultimate challenge is to find quantitative mechanisms for tracking synchronic data sets, which "tell us much about how language change is embedded in social structures, i.e. the social mechanisms, motivations, and constraints on it" (Bayley & Lucas, 2007: 118). The empirical analysis of written texts, especially journalistic materials whose readership has been identified as high class members, stands out as a hands-on methodological approach: Diario de la Marina and El Mundo's column headings for social news were known "for representing the social world of the Cuban middle class" (Perez, 2008: 372). Particularly, Diario de la Marina was becoming a showroom of social events and parties, in which 'cronistas sociales' (society pages' writers) devoted long columns to publicize family names, restaurants, clothing shops, party attendants, etc. (cf. Marrero, 2013). This material revision is therefore accompanied by the setting-up of a corpus, in which text-samples could be easily described and labeled.

Nevertheless, a number of sociolinguists have questioned the purely social stratification analysis of sociolects, and have proposed further theoretical bases such as "linguistic market" and "social reticulation" (Gimeno Menendez, 1990: 57). The former attempts to convey the dynamics of society and history with reference to the importance such a sociolect has in their socioeconomic life, and the latter implies the characterization of the group members through a "normative consensus" (Gimeno Menendez, 1990: 57). Others have described the phenomenon of language change as a bidirectional transition whereby changes from above, i.e. highest status social class, tend to represent loans from other high-prestige speech (Labov, 1994: 78). Milroy and Milroy (1992) have also attempted to study linguistic change by understanding the role of social class and network. According to their findings (1992:4), "the level of integration of any given group into the wider society is likely to be inversely related to the extent to which it maintains a distinctive vernacular", and all the shifts occurring "will be constrained by variations in political, economic, and social structures that are specific to these different localities".

This is perhaps what makes historical sociolinguistics' models less uniform and precise: they are based on the intentionality of text producers, readership, and socio-geographic backgrounds. Jakobson's communicative functions (1960) and Grice's communication maxims (1975) denote a direct link between addresser and addressee through a common metalinguistic function or code. Both participants in a given communicative situation share a mutual encoding and decoding process, which entails a relatively plausible means of spotting distinguishable lexical units of a specific sociolect in a synchronic manner. In other words, by studying the encoding system addressers (writers) resort to, the decoding system of addressees (readers) is exposed. And if addressees convey shared social features, not only are their linguistic traits revealed to us, but also the sociolinguistic shifting parameters (register, diastratic and/or diaphasic traits) of the sociolect in question. A number of studies have demonstrated "a strong and systematic association between status and newspaper readership" (Chan & Goldthorpe, 2007: 1125).

Thus, one of the ultimate intentions of the present research paper is to describe Englishinduced loanwords, and the impact of the borrowing process on a specific sociolect. This is why the issue of motivation and functions of anglicisms should not be overlooked. In accordance with this premise, Rodriguez Gonzalez (1996: 111) relates the interpersonal function, proposed by Halliday, of anglicisms to the foreign nature conveyed, which develops "an 'expressive' meaning, i.e. a meaning that expresses feelings or attitudes on the part of speaker: irony, contempt, snobbery or affection (prestige), etc.".

The analysis of linguistic variation, sociolects, or sociolinguistic prestige is most likely possible through a corpus of texts or text-samples. "In constructing a corpus, the researcher identifies, describes, and selects texts or text-samples and the people who produced them" (Bayley & Lucas, 2007: 120). Thus, large amounts of data lead to more precision in our quantitative description and in our attempt to provide both an accurate depiction of the linguistic forms used and an appropriate identification of language users.

3.2. Revision and analysis of text-samples (1930-1959): methodology

As commented earlier, the ultimate intention of this article is to conduct a linguistic analysis of Neocolonial Cuban periodicals (1930-1959), which would indicate a joint communicative intentionality of both addresser and addressee, and serve as a lens reflecting society diachronically (Vazquez-Amador, 2015: 1). By identifying those English-induced lexical units in the dailies, we would be clearly collecting valuable corpus-driven data, which would not only provide us with quantitative evidence of the use of loanwords and calques, but also convey adopted cultural features.

The analytic stage consists of two main steps:

1. Extraction of anglicisms and calques produced in a specific historical period: 1930-1959. Relying on a 30-year span of the second half of this period seems timely adequate to ascertain how the lexical borrowing was perceived; besides, the choice of a thirty-year time-span is intended to avoid a single-style writer and publicist. As commented earlier, the newspaper selected is Diario de la Marina. Founded in 1844, it was known for its highly conservative articles, and condemned by Fidel Castro after the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, leading to its imminent closure in 1960 (cf. Guerra, 2012). This newspaper is relevant to support our research for three reasons: 1) it was published non-stop during the period allotted (1930-1959); 2) its readership has consistently been identified as middle-upper socioeconomic class of a well-defined conservative stance (Guerra, 2012; Luis, 2001); 3) its availability online: it is the only pre-revolutionary Cuban newspaper in digital format. (1)

Fourteen newspaper issues have been chosen in a random manner (see Appendix 2), and only publicity and 'cronicas sociales' (society pages) have been sampled as corpus-feeders. Even though print publicity and society pages have slightly different communicative functions, they share a common stereotype of readers: middle-upper social class, eager to both embrace consumerism and feel identified among the socialites described in the society columns. The linkage between newspaper readers and texts has been widely studied (Fairclough, 2005; Richardson, 2010), especially in terms of reciprocal influence and discourse analysis: "Texts generate their publics, publics generate their texts" (Blommaert, 1999: 5-6). These two text types are highly descriptive: print advertising publicizes products and establishments whereas social pages' columns publicize elite lifestyles and social events. By narrowing these text forms, readership typology is guaranteed, and thus the linguistic level could be assertively examined.

2. Analysis of the text samples and corpus annotations (typology of anglicism, spelling variations, etymology). The information gathered (see table in Appendix 1) has helped us draw a necessary comparison of the lexical units registered, not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. This stage is primarily aimed to identify contextualized Neocolonial anglicisms and calques, and to describe them diasynchronically. The collection of these units is of vital importance to comprehend: 1) the degree of anglicization this sociolect has been embedded with in such a historical period; 2) the etymology of contemporary systemic anglicisms, i.e. units compiled in dictionaries/glossaries; 3) the cultural and linguistic traits Cuban upper class was characterized by in accordance with Neocolonial social stratification. These measurable values could be outstanding to track down English-induced cultural traits and their significant impact on the language in future research.

4. RESULTS

A total of fourteen newspapers were examined, from the following years: 1930, 1947, 1948, 1952, 1954, 1955, and 1958 (see Appendix 2). Unfortunately, digital newspaper issues from 1931 to 1946 were not available, and as previously commented, not only was the choice of specific issues random, but it was also linked with the quality of the scanned documents, and understandably, the availability of the materials. The number of anglicisms/calques extracted totaled 174. Obviously, this number represents the full amount of the units identified, not the number of occasions they are used, i.e. lexical frequency. This variable might be of great interest in future studies of Cuban sociolects to examine the degree of linguistic variations these borrowings are more likely to undergo. Nevertheless, the present research only focuses on the extraction and description of upper sociolect loans, and their corresponding labeling in terms of semantic field, typology, and systemic variations in contemporary Cuban Spanish. Consequently, each of the units collected is accompanied with a brief context, encompassing relevant pragmatic information. Trademarks and proper names were not taken into consideration or registered, unless they were culturally pertinent (Santa Claus, Queen Mary).

One of the earliest results indicates a surprisingly high number of English loanwords in society columns and advertising, especially in the former, related with weddings, birthdays, and christenings (eighteen loanwords, over 10% of the total). Some of these lexical units were fresher cultural referents in Neocolonial Cuban Spanish (flower girl, ring boy), whilst others simply replaced already-existing units in the language (baby as in bebe, or wedding cake as in tarta nupcial/de boda). Most of the anglicisms extracted were expectedly found on society pages (nearly 60%) since these text forms noticeably rely on a higher word count. This fact reveals that publicity, along with the English proper names and toponyms Cuban Spanish is fraught with (Andy, Hershey, Sia < Sears, Tony, William), has played a significant role in the anglicization process of the Cuban Spanish variant, chiefly throughout the Neocolonial period.

According to the aforementioned classification of lexical borrowings (Figure 1), most of the anglicisms extracted are direct borrowings (nearly 95%). Of this group, the number of non-adapted anglicisms is dramatically higher than the other categories (82.7%): at home, baby, baby shower, barbecue, bill, birthday cake, book, boy-scout, bowling, brass, bride maid, bridge, broadcloth, buffet supper, bunch, business meeting, cake, cambric, camp fire, charcoal, chassis, chauffeur, clipper, clubman, club house, club room, clutch, cocktail party, cocoa, community college, corduroy, crash, creche, crepe, dial, doily, dollar, dry cleaning, easter lilies, ferry, ferry boat, film, flower girl, fraternity, french poodle, fruit cake, galalith, grand dinner, hand-printed, heatherspun, high-ball, hit, impromptu, jack pot, jacket, jazz-band, jersey, junior, junior bride maid, keno, kindergarten, kitchen shower, leader, linin, living room, long cloth, lunch, maid of honor, mayor, minimum, mink, money order, moss, movietone, Mr., Mrs., night, night club, nylon, orange, pantry, panty, party, peach, penthouse, periwinkle, picnic, pique, polo-shirt, poplin, privet, pump, push-pull, Queen Mary, reporter, resort, restaurant, revue, ring boy, river breeze, role, roof, roof garden, sandwich, Santa Claus, sharkskin, shorts, show, skating rink, sketch, slack, smocking, soda, soldier blue, splash party, spun, stadium, staff, staff meeting, steward, stewardess, stock, supermarket, sweet heart rose, sweet peas, team, teen-age, ticket, town hall, T-strap, twisttill, vinyl, wash and wear, wedding cake, young gentleman, zipper.

As per adapted loanwords, 18 cases were found: chantung < shantung, dril < drill, elevador < elevator, galon < gallon, guarandol < warandol, guingham < gingham, jaibolear < high-ball, linolan < linoleum, miting < meeting, organdi < organdy, panque < pancake, plomero < plumber, silka < silk, skiador < skier, sueter < sweater, velveta < velvet, yarda < yard, yersi < jersey. Only 3 examples of false anglicisms were listed (pig < pigskin, pulover < pullover, sport 'casual'). The second case, pulover, is an adapted false loan, whereas pig results from a shortening process. Only one case of hybrid borrowing is provided: babyto 'little baby' < baby, whereby a non-adapted foreign base is attached to a native morpheme. This derivational process of combining the diminutive suffix--ito(a) has become particularly productive in Cuban Spanish with regard to clothing-related bases: blumito < bloomers, blusita < blouse, pulovito < pullover, shorcito < shorts.

Indirect borrowings were significantly lower in number (6.3%). There were 7 cases of loan translation (calques par excellence) extracted: cobre 'coin' < copper, nuevo plan 'payment plan' < new plan, pie 'measurement unit' < foot, pulgada < inch, queso crema < cheese cream, reservacion 'booking' < reservation, venta < sale; and 4 semantic loans: arena 'a sphere of interest, activity, or competition', departamento < department store, introducir 'to make (someone) known to someone else by name' < to introduce, utilidades < utilities.

The existence of cultural loans (Bloomfield, 2005; Gomez Capuz, 1997; Hoffer, 2002) is clearly observed: Santa Claus, Queen Mary and easter lillies (types of flowers), fraternity, soda (soft drink), boy-scouts. Cultural borrowings are not precisely an isolated category of borrowings. These are forms characterized by the introduction into a given linguistic group of "a previously unknown datum or phenomenon", which will "predictably entail devising an appropriate means of referring to it in the corresponding language, whether it be in the form of a new label, a series of labels, or a new pattern for producing such within the existing grammatical apparatus" (Fleischmann, 1976: 2). In other words, a number of anglicisms are potentially cultural loans in the sense that not only are these forms linguistically assimilated into the recipient language, but they also add cultural novelty and innovation. Whilst Santa Claus and boy-scouts (also non-adapted loanwords) denote transference of American cultural traits, miting and leader are merely linguistic borrowings, because their referents are known to Cuban speakers. The concept of cultural loan is most noticeable in necessarily paired collocates: bill, Mr. or Mrs. are solely seen in the corpus preceding English proper nouns as in la bill MacKinley, Mr. and Mrs. Noble Brandon Judah (see contexts in Appendix 1). This is utterly relevant when relating linguistic loans, syntax, and more importantly, pragmatic meaning of collocates.

The corpus also encompasses metric system units, which were widely assimilated, and occasionally calqued (libra < pound, pie < foot, pulgada < inch, yarda < yard). Curiously, they all became obsolete after 1959, except for libra, which still co-exists with kilogramo.

Since our study only involves society pages and print advertising, it is not unexpected to find a number of English-induced loanwords related to the semantic field of clothing and fabric types (37 loanwords identified, accounting for nearly 21% of the total number compiled). Most fabric names remain as technical terms within the clothing industry (broadcloth, galalith, guingham, heatherspun, etc.), whilst others have been thoroughly assimilated into the vernacular, which is somehow noticeable in spelling shifts (chantung < shantung, guarandol < warandol, linin < linen, linolan < linoleum, yersi < jersey). Clothing items have been more easily adapted into the Cuban variant: jacket (or yaqui), pullover, sueter < sweater.

Regarding the semantic field of fashion and clothing, the wide range of colors is likewise worth mentioning. The borrowing of English-induced colors both entails a detailed knowledge of the terminology and adds sophistication to the item or event described: charcoal, cocoa, orange, periwinkle, river breeze, soldier blue. These lexical units are all direct borrowing forms, thus consolidating the notion that non-adapted loanwords heighten semic traits of classiness and upper-stratum.

As expected, the coinage of technology-related loans is also perceived: chassis, clipper, clutch, ferry, ferry boat, money order, movietone, pump, push-pull. They are related to a variety of fields: banking, transport, or film-making; and due to their novelty, they are clearly non-adapted loanwords. This trend has obviously changed with the passage of time, and some of them have been adapted graphemically and phonemically into Spanish: chase < chassis, ferri < ferry, cloche < clutch (Haensch & Werner, 2000).

The coexistence of paronymic duplets, belonging to different borrowing types but conveying a similar lexical meaning is also noticed: fraternity/fraternidad; high-ball/ jaibolear; jersey/yersi. Due to the graphemic and phonemic adaptation of loanwords, both forms remain in the language, and eventually the adapted form logically prevails: fraternidad, jaibolear, yersi (Haensch & Werner, 2000). These duplets are highly productive in Cuban Spanish, especially in baseball jargon: home-run/jonron, dug-out/dogao, fielder/fildeador, etc.

Once these English-induced units are attested, they are conveniently checked in present-day dictionaries and glossaries to revise their contemporary usage and form. Two Cuban Spanish dictionaries (Haensch & Werner, 2000; Sanchez-Boudy, 1999) and a linguistic corpus (Gonzalez Mafud, 2010) have been used in this final analysis. The findings show that 35 anglicisms are currently compiled, and they can be grouped according to the variations undergone: 1) those keeping their original (Neocolonial) morphological and semantic structures (cake, crash, dial, doily, elevador, film, galon, hit, jacket, jaibolear, panque, pantry, pulover, queso crema, resort, restaurant, roof, sandwich, shorts, smoking, soda, sport, stock, sueter, yersi); 2) those with spelling changes (cloche < clutch, corduroi < corduroy, dolar < dollar, guarandol < warandol, lider < leader, living < living room, mitin < miting < meeting, nailon < nylon, panti < panty, reportero < reporter, vinil < vinyl, ziper < zipper); 3) those whose semantic structure is modified (creche 'a group of children', party 'an informal gathering'). Curiously, most loanwords related to social events are not compiled, and certainly, unused.

Another convenience of a corpus-driven analysis of this kind is that the units compiled could provide us with etymological data, in particular those units whose semantic structure has been modified. For instance, bunch was found in a number of contexts with the meaning of 'a group of; this meaning is no longer in use. However, bonche (< bunch), which means 'a noisy gathering in which people have fun' (Haensch & Werner, 2000: 81), in contemporary Cuban Spanish denotes a clear-cut extension of meaning and negative connotation, as opposed to bunch.

As to gender shifts, it would be interesting to continue studying the rather arbitrary nature of gender assimilation. Most loanwords and calques, coexisting with their 'native' Spanish counterparts, compliantly adopt the gender of the Spanish word with which they are associated (la barbecue, un bunch, el lounge), or simply because Spanish suffixed word requires it (la reservacion); but at times the rule does not apply (un dinner, el jacket). As expected, new lexical units in the system are arbitrarily assigned a phonological-induced gender: el bridge, el corduroy, el keno.

The transition of the non-adapted loanword party (see above) is of a curious nature. In pre-1959 times, the word adopted the masculine gender whereas it is currently used with a feminine gender. This gender shift goes hand in hand with a semantic clashing occurring after 1959, in which the latter was mostly used in lower class sociolect, depicting negative prestige. The Neocolonial loanword party (see Appendix 1) clearly conveys a meaning of refined gathering (positive prestige). Party, in sum, could be an accurate metaphor to describe the evolution of anglicisms in Cuban Spanish, and the tip of the iceberg of a significant semantic shifting occurring after 1959, pertaining to borrowing and calquing.

A number of Gallicisms were also found (chassis, creche, crepe), which might impel lexicographers to do further research on the coexistence of these two borrowing processes throughout the varying period under study. The fact that some French-induced units, e.g. fiance(e), paillet, and role, were first used in English in the seventeenth century (role) or nineteenth century (fiance(e), paillet) implies that these words might have entered the Cuban variant of Spanish indirectly through American English, or directly from French by means of books and literature in general (Seco, 2000-2001: 254). Therefore, due to the lack of etymological data, most of these entries of French origin have been left out. Nevertheless, originally French words, e.g. chassis, chauffeur, creche, privet, which are arguably thought to have been assimilated from American English during the Neocolonial period, are attested in our corpus. These forms were not found in nineteenth or early twentieth century dictionaries or glossaries (Dihigo, 1915; Marinello, 1996; Pichardo y Tapia, 1875) so they were seemingly borrowed from American English, given that the influx of French after 1902 was dramatically lower than the influx of American English (Valdes, 2001: 142).

5. CONCLUSIONS

The number of anglicisms compiled indicates a direct link between upper socioeconomic stratum and English-induced units as far as positive prestige is concerned, given that the texts analyzed are particularly aimed at this type of readership. The usage of these units in highsociolect texts implies favorable conditions for the anglicization of lexis. Publicity, possibly due to the novelty of many of the products advertised, has proved to be an accurate means of borrowing and cultural assimilation.

What seems obvious is that social events (weddings, birthday parties, cocktails, christenings) underwent a transition: from 'Cuban conventionalism' into 'American sophistication'. Society pages' columns show that upper social class members did feel comfortable with the cultural shifting, and were more disposed to embrace it. Anglicized publicity indicates a 'pre-equipped' idiosyncrasy and linguistic attitude of the readership. Utterances such as "Oasis Hotel: Barbecues, Cine, splash parties, camp fires en la playa (...), y bridge cocktail parties de luna de miel" (Diario de la Marina, 8 July, 1958) (see Appendices 1 and 2) implied a recognized predisposition and knowledge of the sociolect used.

As to the typology used (see Figure 1 above), the predominant category observed is non-adapted loanwords (82.7%), with a total of 145 units collected. The foremost semantic fields are, in this order, clothing, social events (weddings, birthdays, christenings), and technology. Of the total of 174 anglicisms compiled, 35 units have been found in contemporary Cuban Spanish dictionaries and/or glossaries, that is to say, over 20% of the listed elements. This figure solely specifies systemic loanwords, but the list is presumably higher if the vernacular or technical speeches are revised. None of the present-day anglicisms collected belongs to the semantic field of social events, which is necessarily linked to the newer socioeconomic and political context occurring after 1959. It is, in fact, a clear evidence of how extralinguistic features influence word-building and semantic structures of lexis.

The fact that a number of Gallicisms were also noticed, but not compiled, shows that both types of borrowing coexisted in the same sociolect (corbeille, mademoiselle, monsieur, table, toilette). This is a distinct indication of: 1) the socioeconomic position of addressees (readers), whose cultural level concurred with their exposure to these French-induced borrowings (cf. Bonne & Causse Cathcart, 2014); 2) the fact that El Diario de la Marina was a correct choice to approach this kind of sociolect due to its aforementioned highly conservative stance; 3) the sameness of both English-induced and French-induced loanwords pertaining to their sociolinguistic traits. This conclusion suggests that further research might be necessary to study present-day Cuban sociolects, and more importantly, their attitude towards anglicized language and culture.

NOTES

(1) Sources: Biblioteca Digital del Caribe (University of Florida) and Cuban Heritage Collection (University of Miami).

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APPENDIX 1: LIST OF LOANWORDS AND THEIR CORRESPONDING CONTEXTS

The anglicisms in this Appendix (first column) are followed by
a superscript number which refers to the newspapers consulted
(see Appendix 2).

ANGLICISM                        CONTEXT

arena (1) (p. 10)                "La seccion de recreo y Adorno
                                 de la Asociacion de
                                 Dependientes vuelve a la arena
                                 donde tantos y tan resonantes
                                 triunfos ha sabido
                                 conquistar."

at home (12) (p. 5)              "Elegante comida en el Yacht
                                 Club "at home" la senora de
                                 Menocal: esta comida (...) se
                                 desarrollo en el comedor del
                                 piso principal en un ambiente
                                 de alto refinamiento." "el
                                 exito del festival hipico
                                 verificado el viernes ultimo
                                 en el Stadium La Tropical."
                                 "Para tan agradable fiesta
                                 quedo engalanada la gran casa
                                 por los artistas de Casa
                                 Alonso, con gladiolos en el
                                 vestibulo, claveles amarillos
                                 en el living room ..."

baby (1) (p. 9)                  "Alegrias de un hogar: Un baby
                                 en el que cifran todo su
                                 carino ha venido a completar
                                 su carino. "

baby shower (10) (p. 13)         "Animado Baby Shower a la Sra.
                                 Siomara Martin de Etcheverry
                                 celebrado en el Vedado
                                 Tennis."

babyto (5) (p. 19)               "Anselmo Luis: El pasado
                                 domingo recibio las
                                 regeneradoras aguas del
                                 Jordan, en la quinta senorial
                                 de sus abuelos, el gracioso
                                 babyto."

barbecue (13) (p. 11)            "Oasis Hotel: Barbecues, Cine,
                                 splash parties, camp fires en
                                 la playa (...), y bridge
                                 cocktail parties de luna de
                                 miel." (Hotel Ad)

bill1 (p. 12)                    "Tampa y la Industria
                                 tabacalera: los efectos del
                                 bill MacKinley por un lado, y
                                 por otro los persistentes
                                 movimientos huelguisticos. "

birthday cake (12) (p. 38)       "Fiesta de quince anos: junto
                                 al birthday cake aparece la
                                 festejada con sus padres."

book (1) (p. 21)                 "remita 50 centavos money
                                 order (no sellos) para
                                 enviarle mis caddies books
                                 ..." (Classified Ad)

boy-scout (5) (p. 7)             "Excelsior Music Co.: Solicite
                                 nuestra lista de precios
                                 especiales de todos los
                                 instrumentos para Bandas
                                 ritmicas, Bandas Escolares,
                                 Sociedades Deportivas y Boy-
                                 Scouts." (Music Shop Ad)

bowling (14) (p. 22)             "Brunswick: cuando hay calor
                                 fuera, disfrute el bowling
                                 dentro." (Air Conditioner Ad)

brass (12) (p. 9)                "Sanchez Mola: en el moderno
                                 acabado brass y en gran
                                 variedad de disenos." "En
                                 cinco modelos diferentes, de
                                 linea estrecha y de linea
                                 ancha (...) en los lindos
                                 colores charcoal, verde olivo,
                                 carmelita, terracota y
                                 periwinkle." (Department Store
                                 Ad)

bride maid (5) (p. 7)            "La boda de hoy: Igualmente
                                 llevara la etiqueta de este
                                 eden, el bouquet de la novia,
                                 y los de la bride maid, la
                                 graciosa senorita Carmita
                                 Brando, y de la flower girl,
                                 la linda nina Edelmira Mendez,
                                 completandose la corte con el
                                 ring boy, el nino Juan Jose
                                 Fernandez."

bridge (1) (p. 11)               "Almanaque del mes: los
                                 eventos del mes, los
                                 cumplimientos, mah-jong,
                                 bridge, croniquilla
                                 gastronomica, codigo social."

broadcloth (9) (p.17)            "Premier: Waldorf de finisimo
                                 broadcloth cuello peco propias
                                 para traje blanco." (Shirt
                                 Shop Ad)

buffet supper (7) (p. 22)        "En el liceo: en horas de la
                                 tarde de manana, la directiva
                                 del liceo (...) ofrecera un
                                 buffet supper a las directivas
                                 y asociados."

bunch (1) (4) (p. 2)             "Tendremos aqui a los esposos
                                 Ramirez de Olivella-Parodi, a
                                 Ernestina Trelles, a Berta
                                 Pina, y Humberto de Cardenas,
                                 y a un gentilisimo bunch de
                                 mademoiselles."

bunch (2) (9) (p. 9)             See privet

business meeting10               "Del Lyceum: manana,
(p. 15)                          miercoles, a las 3 p.m. se
                                 celebrara el Business Meeting
                                 del English Book Club, seguido
                                 de merienda y tarde de juego."

cake (2) (p. 8)                  "Panchito Camps: un gran cake
                                 al centro."

cambric (4) (p. 5)               See nuevo plan

camp fire (13) (p. 15)           See barbecue

chantung (2) (p. 11)             "Ya tenemos el nuevo chantung
< shantung                       en todos los colores.crepes
                                 mongol" (Clothing Shop Ad)

charcoal (12) (p. 5)             "Fin de Siglo: Tiene un amplio
                                 colorido donde escoger: rojo
                                 charcoal, verde, orange,
                                 turquesa, royal, azul acero,
                                 soldier blue" (Fabric Ad)

chassis (4) (p. 25)              "Chassis para guagua: Marca
                                 Studebaker, de 128 pulgadas,
                                 gomas nuevas, dobles las
                                 traseras."

chauffeur (3) (p. 1)             "Procesado Ramon Rodriguez :
                                 Hoy ha sido procesado con
                                 exclusion de fianza por el
                                 Juez de Instruccion (.) el
                                 soldado Juan Garcia, como
                                 autor material del asesinato
                                 del chauffeur Victoriano Perez
                                 Aquino"

clipper (6) (p. 5)               "Cubana de Aviacion: Especial
                                 atencion se dispensa a bordo
                                 de sus modernos y veloces
                                 clippers a las damas,
                                 ancianos, y los ninos."
                                 (Airways Company Ad)

clubman (8) (p. 5)               "La festividad de hoy: El
                                 conde de casa Romero, Felipe
                                 Romero y Arango, joven clubman
                                 que disfruta de muchos afectos
                                 en sociedad."

club room (9) (p. 6)             "Montmartre: Manana viernes
                                 (.) no habra musica ni show en
                                 Montmartre, solamente
                                 permaneceran abiertos el bar y
                                 el club room."

clutch (5) (p. 5)                "Hudson: el exclusivo Drive-
                                 Master que permite guiar sin
                                 clutch" (Car Ad)

cobre (3) (p. 17)                "por ahorrarme un cobre no voy
                                 a arriesgar nuestra salud."
                                 (Aspirin Ad)

cocktail lounge (8) (p. 5)       "Miami Beach Hotel: cocktail
                                 lounge." (Hotel Ad)

cocktail party (6) (p. 5)        "Cocktail Party: un simpatico
                                 cocktail party tuvieron ayer
                                 tarde en su nueva y preciosa
                                 casa de Miramar, el conocido
                                 odontologo Luis Amado Bianco y
                                 su esposa."

cocoa1 (4) (p. 21)               "La casa cofino: tonos
                                 jaspeados de gris, azul,
                                 cocoa, y Prusia." (Clothing
                                 Shop Ad)

community college (7) (p. 3      "Cronicas Habaneras: aqui
supplement)                      vemos a las senoritas Rusela
                                 Martinez Villena, Miriam
                                 Suarez, y Gladys Menendez, que
                                 ejecutaron un interesante
                                 numero musical durante la
                                 fiesta celebrada el sabado en
                                 el community house."

corduroy (6) (p. 7)              See jacket

crash (5) (p. 14)                See doily

creche (2) (p. 15)               "La creche "Berta Machado"
                                 cuenta ya con 42 ninos, todos
                                 de la localidad: (....) dicho
                                 creche tiene capacidad para
                                 cincuenta ninos, y se
                                 encuentran ya 42,
                                 pertenecientes todos a esta
                                 localidad, que son atendidos
                                 admirablemente, y los de edad
                                 escolar son llevados al
                                 kindergarten."

crepe1 (2) (p. 11)               See moss

departamento (4) (p. 16) <       "El Encanto: cincuenta
department store                 departamentos, donde se puede
                                 encontrar al precio deseado,
                                 el articulo deseado para hacer
                                 un obsequio." (Department
                                 Store Ad)

dial (13) (p. 20)                "El Encanto: pesa para el
                                 bano, con mecanismo de gran
                                 precision y dial de aumento
                                 que facilita la lectura."
                                 (Department Store Ad)

doily (5) (p. 14)                "El Encanto: Preciosos juegos
                                 de manteles y doilies." "Satin
                                 para sobrecamas y cortinas.
                                 Colores: verde, fresa, peach,
                                 oro, crema y blanco."
                                 "Gabardinas con modernas
                                 estampaciones (hand-
                                 printed)." "Crash color entero
                                 en mate". (Department Store
                                 Ad)

dollar (1) (p. 21)               "Perdido: alfiler de senora en
                                 forma de corazon.La persona
                                 que lo encontrare al
                                 devolverlo se le entregaran
                                 cuatrocientos dollars"

dril (4) (p. 12)                 "Linker: driles crudos desde
                                 $4.50. Yacht Club desde $2.50"
                                 (Shop Ad)

dry cleaning (7) (p. 20)         "Pantex Manufacturing
                                 Corporation: A los duenos de
                                 lavanderias, plantas de dry
                                 cleaning" (Classified Ad)

easter lilies (1) (p. 11)        "Para el dia de las Ofelias:
                                 entre las flores importadas,
                                 expondra el aristocratico
                                 Milagros una coleccion
                                 admirable riquisima, de
                                 claveles rosados y rojos,
                                 tulipanes en los mismos
                                 colores, easter lillies,
                                 callas, etc."

elevador (3) (p. 5) < elevator   "elevador a todas horas;
                                 cocinero de primer orden."

ferry (11) (p. 7)                "Proyectan establecer servicio
                                 de ferries entre Cuba y
                                 Mexico: el ferryboat que
                                 operaria entre Florida, Cuba y
                                 (...) y Mexico, conducira 50
                                 automoviles."

ferryboat (11) (p. 7)            See ferry

film (4) (p. 12)                 "Una interesante film
                                 educativa: despues de la
                                 exhibicion el profesor doctor
                                 Pardo Castello pronunciara una
                                 conferencia."

flower girl (5) (p. 5)           See bride maid

fraternity (5) (p. 11)           "Tambien se recordara el
                                 primer Team Varsity (...)
                                 primera fraternity que se
                                 iniciara por elementos
                                 entusiastas."

french poodle (11) (p. 5)        "Fin de Siglo: medias de
                                 fieltro rojo o blanco,
                                 adornadas con french poodles."
                                 (Department Store Ad)

fruit cake (12) (p. 38)          "El 1005 de San Lazaro: fruit
                                 cakes, frutas abrillantadas."
                                 (Grocery Store Ad)

galalith (7) (p. 5)              "Fin de Siglo: bolsa de piel
                                 imitada, con cierre de metal
                                 dorado y detalles imitando
                                 galalith." "Bolsa modelo
                                 alargado en piel sintetica
                                 imitando pig." "Panuelo de
                                 linolan blanco." (Department
                                 Store Ad)

galon (5) (p. 21) < gallon       "C. Falcon y Cia: Recibimos
                                 calentadores de gas Standard
                                 (...) de 5 y 10 galones"
                                 (Water Heater Ad)

grand dinner (4) (p. 2)          "Grand Dinner: chez Bretos.
                                 Ofrecen el dia tres la comida
                                 que suspendieron el pasado
                                 sabado en consideracion al
                                 duelo de las familias Luque y
                                 Echemendia."

guarandol (1) (p. 11) <          "Casa Life: Sabanas cameras,
warandol                         de guarandol muy fino, sin
                                 apresto, de 72 x 90 pulgadas,
                                 a 1$." (Bedding Shop Ad)

guingham (13) (p. 3)             See linin

hand-printed (5) (p. 14)         See doily

heatherspun (7) (p. 7)           See river breeze

high-ball (7) (p. 3)             "Dictador de Garvey: Para
                                 tomar solo o en highball."

hit (7) (p. 14)                  See night club

impromptu (12) (p. 5)            "En honor de Noel Coward: La
                                 hermosa sede de la embajada
                                 abrio sus puertas para un
                                 buffet impromptu."

introducir (1) (p. 12) < to      "El consul cubano Guillermo
introduce                        Espinosa: despues de los
                                 saludos de cortesia, se
                                 introdujo Espinosa en el
                                 brindis con estas palabras que
                                 fueron ovacionadas por los
                                 comensales ... "

jack pot (13) (p. 17)            "Los exitos de Tropicana: a
                                 las nueve, se jugo el popular
                                 Bingo de la fortuna, con los
                                 importantes premios, entre los
                                 que se cuenta el jack pot de
                                 10 mil pesos."

jacket (6) (p. 7)                "Almacenes Inclan: Ahora
                                 magnificos jackets muy
                                 rebajados." "Novisimo jacket
                                 de corduroy" (Department Store
                                 Ad)

jaibolear (14) (p. 18) <         "Balcon Habanero: por eso nos
highball                         reunimos con nuestros amigos y
                                 nos jaiboleamos bien con un
                                 whisky Ancestor o con un White
                                 Label ligado con agua La
                                 Cotorra."

jazz-band (1) (p. 10)            "Felipe Valdes, el mago del
                                 piano, Romeu, el Jazz-Band
                                 diplomatico,..."

jersey (3) (p. 8)                "Casa Harris: juegos de
                                 jersey (camisa y pantalon)"
                                 (Department Store Ad)

junior (2) (p. 5)                "Ofelia Andre, linda esposa
                                 del doctor Enroque Anglada,
                                 junior, a cuyas amigas dire
                                 que no recibe."

junior bride maid (11) (p. 11)   "La boda Castroverde-Lopez:
                                 Lydia Hortensia, como junior
                                 bride maid."

keno (4) (p. 2)                  "Summer Casino: bacara, keno,
                                 y otros nuevos
                                 entretenimientos (...)
                                 magnifico show (...) comida y
                                 baile en el roof todas las
                                 noches" (Casino Ad)

kindergarten (2) (p. 15)         See creche

kitchen shower (6) (p. 11)       "Despedida de soltera:
                                 procedio a dicha merienda un
                                 kitchen shower."

leader (3) (p. 12)               "Recibo elegante: Lila Hidalgo
                                 de Conill, figura prominente
                                 de nuestra mas encumbrada
                                 sociedad y una de sus leaders
                                 recibia con esa sencillez y
                                 amabilidad que le es
                                 caracteristica."

linin (13) (p. 3)                "La Epoca: piques, linins, y
                                 guinghams en calidades
                                 magnificas." "Silka en
                                 bellisimos dibujos."
                                 (Department Store Ad)

linolan (7) (p. 5) < linoleum    See galalith

living room (12) (p. 5)          See at home

longcloth (4) (p. 5)             See nuevo plan

lunch (7) (p. 14)                See night club

maid of honor (10) (p. 9)        See privet

mayor (1) (p. 9)                 "Los estudiantes de medicina
                                 se quejan al mayor: Expusieron
                                 los estudiantes al alcalde su
                                 disgusto por el desenlace
                                 fatal de su companero senor
                                 Raul Moreno."

minimum (4) (p. 5)               See nuevo plan

mink (14) (p. 15)                "Luxor: estolas de zafiro
                                 mink" (Fur Shop Ad)

miting (6) (p. 10) < meeting     "Gran Miting: Siendo las ocho
                                 y media de la noche, toda la
                                 concurrencia se dirigio al
                                 parque local y frente a la
                                 casa rectoral se realizo el
                                 miting, que fue amenizado por
                                 la banda de Torrens."

money order (1) (p. 21)          "remita 50 centavos money
                                 order (no sellos) para
                                 enviarle mis caddies books ...
                                 " (Classified Ad)

moss (12) (p. 11)                "La Filosofia: moss crepe y
                                 foulard." "polo-shirt estilo
                                 italiano." (Department Store
                                 Ad)

movietone (1) (p. 8)             "una copia nueva sincronizada
                                 al movietone ..."

Mr. (3) (p. 5)                   "Preparativos de viaje para
                                 regresar al norte. Vienen
                                 realizandolos despues de grata
                                 estancia en esta capital, Mr.
                                 y Mrs. Noble Brandon Judah."

Mrs. (3) (p. 5)                  See Mr.

night (6) (p. 5)                 "Los jueves del casino
                                 nacional: coincide con su gala
                                 night del dia, la presentacion
                                 del nuevo y magnifico show"

night club (7) (p. 14)           "Una bolera: (...) se han
                                 asociado al senor Guillermo
                                 Pedreira para dotar de
                                 Matanzas de algo tan anorado
                                 como un night club, en nuestra
                                 playa, han comenzado tambien
                                 esos senores la edificacion de
                                 una bolera, restaurant, cafe,
                                 bar y lunch." "En proximas
                                 correspondencias ofreceremos
                                 interesantisimos detalles
                                 sobre el bohio Bellamar, el
                                 hit de esta temporada
                                 veraniega de 1947."

nuevo plan (4) (p. 5) < new      "Fin de Siglo: Todos estos
plan                             precios del nuevo plan estan
                                 fijados al minimum." "Cambric
                                 ingles" "Longcloth"
                                 (Department Store Ad)

nylon (6) (p. 3)                 "La epoca: bufandas de nylon.
                                 Panuelos de sport" (Department
                                 Store Ad)

orange (12) (p. 5)               See charcoal

organdi (5) (p. 7)               "Almacenes Inclan: Bieses de
                                 organdi rematan y adornan la
                                 blusa." (Clothing Shop Ad)

panque (4) (p. 11) < pancake     See restaurant

pantry (10) (p. 9)               "Plasticrom: juegos de
                                 comedor, pantry, terraza."
                                 (Furniture Shop Ad)

panty (8) (p. 7)                 "El Encanto: fajas y panties
                                 de cuti y elastico."
                                 (Department Store Ad)

party (5) (p. 9)                 "Jueves de Tropicana: Otra
                                 brillante fiesta de la
                                 esplendida temporada que viene
                                 ofreciendo este teatro-
                                 restaurant." "En su poetica
                                 terraza al aire libre un
                                 precioso marco de fiesta, se
                                 multiplicaran desde las nueve
                                 los parties elegantes."

peach (5) (p. 14)                See doily

penthouse (13) (p. 9)            "Con una alegre fiesta juvenil
                                 fue agasajada el domingo Lucy
                                 Sanchez y del Amo: tuvo lugar
                                 el sabado ultimo en el
                                 penthouse del edificio de
                                 primera y B."

periwinkle (12) (p. 9)           See brass

picnic (2) (p. 5)                "Ofelia Bernal, una
                                 encantadora nina, que
                                 celebrara su santo con un pic-
                                 nic en la finca el Kuco."

pie (6) (p. 26)                  "Motores Diesel y Tractores:
                                 Concreteras de 4 a 13 pies."
                                 (Spare Parts Ad)

pig (7) (p. 5) < pigskin         See galalith

pique (8) (p. 11)                "La Casa Sanchez: Un amplisimo
                                 surtido en sobrecamas de
                                 pique, crash, enguatadas,
                                 mallas, tul, etc." (Bedding
                                 Shop Ad)

plomero (5) (p. 19) < plomber    "La Frecuencia: Precios
                                 especiales a arquitectos-
                                 contratistas y plomeros."
                                 (Plumbing Shop Ad)

polo-shirt (12) (p. 11)          See moss

poplin (7) (p. 16)               "El Encanto: camisas de sport
                                 de manga corta, de excelente
                                 poplin blanco." "pulover de
                                 algodon, de listas
                                 horizontales." "shorts de
                                 sports, de excelente gabardina
                                 de algodon." (Department Store
                                 Ad)

privet (10) (p. 9)               "Una boda muy lucida tuvo
                                 lugar el domingo en la capilla
                                 La Salle: los muros de privet,
                                 sobre los cuales se
                                 dispusieron de trecho en
                                 trecho unos finisimos bunches
                                 de gladiolos amarillos."
                                 "Procediala en su camino en
                                 calidad de maid of honor la
                                 senorita Elsa Soro." "(...) en
                                 el reparto de Miramar,
                                 sirviendose alli un esplendido
                                 buffet."

pulgada (2) (p. 11) < inch       "el mencionado vehiculo tiene
                                 133 pulgadas de distancia
                                 entre el centro de sus ejes"

pulover (7) (p. 16) < pullover   See poplin

pump (12) (p. 6)                 "Ultra: nuevo pump abierto en
                                 charol." "Nueva sandalia T-
                                 strap" (Department Store Ad)

push-pull (5) (p. 26)            "RCA Victor: Salida en push-
                                 pull de 3.7 vatios. Bocina de
                                 alta sensibilidad." (Radio Ad)

Queen Mary (6) (p. 5)            "Mario Almagro y Hernandez:
                                 muy lindo el ramo, todo de
                                 rosas Queen Mary, tejido para
                                 ella en el favorito jardin
                                 Milagros entre Prado y Colon."

queso crema (9) (p. 9) <         "Otero: cualquiera que sea el
cheese cream                     dulce, la combinacion perfecta
                                 es con queso crema Otero."
                                 (Cream Cheese Ad)

reporter (2) (p. 15)             "Un bautizo: eterna felicidad
                                 al cristianito y a sus padres
                                 desea el que suscribe,
                                 particularmente a su padre,
                                 reporter grafico de Diario de
                                 la Marina."

reservacion (6) (p. 7)           "Fiesta de carnaval en el
<reservation                     Biltmore: Las reservaciones de
                                 mesas alcanzan ya un crecido
                                 numero"

resort (7) (p. 14)               "Valiosos premios: el palacial
                                 balneario del licenciado
                                 Manuel Abril Ochoa (...) ha
                                 ofrecido para que se sorteen
                                 como premios (...) dias de
                                 estancia en esos
                                 establecimientos de los dos
                                 mas aristocraticos resorts de
                                 la Republica."

restaurant (4) (p. 11)           "Grandioso festival: Abierto
                                 todo el dia el restaurant, se
                                 venderan a los precios
                                 corrientes, tamales,
                                 bocaditos, arroz con pollo,
                                 lechon tostado, sandwichs,
                                 dulces, helados, panques,
                                 etc." "Con un skating rink,
                                 entre otros muchos alicientes,
                                 podran contar los muchachos."

revue (1) (p. 8)                 "Hollywood Revue: Abril 5 al
                                 14"

ring boy (5) (p. 7)              See bride maid

river breeze (7) (p. 7)          "Ultra: pantalones de tropical
                                 y river breeze verde."
                                 "Camisas de sports, de manga
                                 larga, en heatherspun a
                                 cuadros." (Department Store
                                 Ad)

role (2) (p. 8)                  "Sam Hardy, actor de impecable
                                 diccion, hace con eficacia y
                                 sobriedad, el role del
                                 empresario infortunado"

roof (3) (p. 9)                  "en el roof del Hotel
                                 Inglaterra se efectuara el
                                 Baile de Primavera."

roof garden (2) (p. 11)          "El baile de los cadetes: urge
                                 la construccion de un roof
                                 garden en la escuela de
                                 cadetes del Morro"

sandwich (4) (p. 11)             See restaurant

Santa Claus (11) (p. 18)         "El Encanto: Entre los nuevos
                                 juguetes que Santa Claus nos
                                 ha traido." (Department Store
                                 Ad)

sharkskin (5) (p. 3)             "El Encanto: en sharkskin con
                                 botones finos de nacar."
                                 (Department Store Ad)

shorts (7) (p. 16)               See poplin

show (4) (p. 2)                  "Summer Casino: bacara, keno,
                                 y otros nuevos
                                 entretenimientos (...)
                                 magnifico show (...) comida y
                                 baile en el roof todas las
                                 noches" (Casino Ad)

silka (13) (p. 3) < silk         See linin

skating rink (4) (p. 11)         See restaurant

sketch (2) (p. 8)                "De la escena y de la
                                 pantalla: es el asalto de la
                                 lampara de mercurio a la
                                 bombilla de bambu, de la
                                 dislocacion pintoresca y
                                 alegre al argumento romantico
                                 y sentimental, de la sintesis
                                 agresiva del sketch al
                                 procedimiento ortodoxo de la
                                 exposicion."

smoking (5) (p. 7)               "El acontecimiento de manana:
                                 se agradecera que las damas
                                 vayan con traje de noche y los
                                 caballeros con smoking." "Y
                                 ahora nuevos nombres de
                                 personas que han adquirido
                                 tickets."

soda (4) (p. 5)                  "Refrescos y bocaditos: El
                                 lugar mas concurrido e ideal
                                 para merendar o refrescar, es
                                 la fuente de soda del gran
                                 almacen de viveres." (Shop Ad)

soldier blue (12) (p. 5)         See charcoal

slack (6) (p. 13)                "El Encanto: una gran
                                 temporada de slacks." "Slack
                                 de rayon gris o beige con
                                 zipper a un lado." (Department
                                 Store Ad)

splash party (13) (p. 15)        See barbecue

sport (2) (p. 5)                 "Vestidos de chiffon y
                                 georgette estampados, en
                                 estilos para sport y para
                                 calle ..."

spun (5) (p. 11)                 "J. Valles: Para sentirse
                                 comodo, fresco una de estas
                                 camisas en delicioso spun."
                                 (Shirt Shop Ad)

squiador (13) (p. 27) < ski      "Johnson V-50: es el motor que
(skier)                          levanta al squiador." (Engine
                                 Ad)

stadium (12) (p. 5)              See at home

staff (11) (p. 6)                "Aeropuerto: vendra al mando
                                 el capitan-piloto William
                                 Cook, uno de los mas antiguos
                                 staff de vuelo de la Cubana."
                                 "Viene un team de pilotos y
                                 mecanicos cubanos que
                                 recibieron un curso de
                                 familiarizacion con este tipo
                                 de aeronave."

staff meeting (8) (p. 16)        "Se celebrara un staff meeting
                                 en el hospital de la policia
                                 nacional."

steward(ess) (6) (p. 11)         "Pan American World Airways:
                                 El steward o stewardess estan
                                 a bordo para asegurar su
                                 comodidad y conveniencia."
                                 (Airways Company Ad)

stock (13) (p. 11)               See wedding cake

sueter (11) (p. 3) < sweater     "La Epoca: los sueters mas
                                 lindos." (Department Store Ad)

supermarket (9) (p. 8)           "Minimax Supermarket: bistecs,
                                 asados, carne molida."
                                 (Spermarket Ad)

sweet heart rose (8) (p. 11)     "Ante el ara: la monisima
                                 nina, Esperanza Silva y Perez
                                 Caceres, que hizo de flower
                                 girl, portaba un delicado
                                 ramito colonial de sweet heart
                                 roses."

sweet peas (3) (p. 12)           "Recibo elegante: por los
                                 jardines se hallaban
                                 distribuidas pequenas mesitas
                                 donde se servian ponches y
                                 refrescos de toda clase." "Una
                                 caja de gladiolos y sweet peas
                                 de Marta y Carmen Miranda"

team (10) (p. 6)                 See staff

teen-age (14) (p. 20)            "El Encanto: vestidos del
                                 salon joven y del departamento
                                 teen-age en practicos y
                                 elegantes estilos."
                                 (Department Store Ad)

ticket (5) (p. 5)                See smoking

town hall (9) (p. 6)             "Recital de Grace Costagnetta
                                 en el Town Hall"

T-strap (12) (p. 6)              See pump

twist-till (14) (p. 9)           "Ultra: Super pantalon, en
                                 excelente twist-twill."
                                 (Depatment Store Ad)

utilidades (1) (p. 10)           "The first National Bank of
<utilities                       Boston: Capital, Reserva y
                                 Utilidades ..."

velveta (3) (p. 12) < velvet     "Para ellos y para ellas: la
                                 piel llamada actualmente
                                 velveta y que es una gamuza,
                                 en todos colores, pero sobre
                                 todo negra, es la ultima
                                 expresion de la moda."

venta (4) (p. 15) < sale         "El Gallo: Esta gran venta se
                                 iniciara el dia 2 de mayo
                                 continuando hasta finalizar
                                 dicho mes." (Shop Ad)

vinyl (12) (p. 2)                "Poly-Tex: la nueva pintura de
                                 latex de vinyl para
                                 exteriores." (Paint Ad)

wash and wear (14) (p. 15)       "J. Valles: camisas de selecto
                                 poplin blanco con acabado wash
                                 and wear." (Shirt Shop Ad)

wedding cake (13) (p. 11)        "Una doble ceremonia nupcial:
                                 El wedding cake, decorado con
                                 figuras de porcelana." "En su
                                 stock cuenta 'Milagros'
                                 orquideas, gardenias,
                                 crisantemos, ..."

yarda (1) (p. 7) < yard          "la primera que empezo a
                                 vender por yardas."

yersi (1) (p. 7) < jersey        "La Casa de Granados: juegos
                                 de yersi a la mejor calidad
                                 ..." (Clothing Shop Ad)

young gentleman7                 "De viajeros: Hacen sus
                                 preparativos de viaje (...) el
                                 joven pintor

(p. 14)                          Francisco Coro y el simpatico
zipper (6) (p. 13)               young gentleman Carlos Miguel
                                 Perez." See slack


APPENDIX 2: NEWSPAPERS CONSULTED

(1) Diario de la Marina. 1 April, 1930.

(2) Diario de la Marina. 2 April, 1930.

(3) Diario de la Marina. 29 April, 1930.

(4) Diario de la Marina. 30 April, 1930.

(5) Diario de la Marina. 16 January, 1947.

(6) Diario de la Marina. 20 February, 1947.

(7) Diario de la Marina. 25 June, 1947.

(8) Diario de la Marina. 26 May, 1948.

(9) Diario de la Marina. 10 April, 1952.

(10) Diario de la Marina. 10 November, 1952.

(11) Diario de la marina. 16 November, 1954.

(12) Diario de la Marina. 14 December, 1955.

(13) Diario de la Marina. 8 July, 1958.

(14) Diario de la Marina. 27 December, 1958.

Jose Antonio Sanchez Fajardo *

Universidad de Alicante

Received: 3/10/2015. Accepted: 31/01/2016.

* Address for correspondence: Jose A. Sanchez Fajardo. Universidad de Alicante, Departamento de Filologia Inglesa, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras I, Carretera de San Vicente del Raspeig s/n, 03690 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain; e-mail: jasanchez@ua.es.
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Author:Sanchez Fajardo, Jose Antonio
Publication:International Journal of English Studies
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:5CUBA
Date:Jan 1, 2016
Words:10160
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