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Angiosperm and fern range extensions for Mills County, Texas.

In order to make better decisions for plant conservation and restoration ecology, the basic knowledge of species composition in an area must be thoroughly established. The goal of this research was to report range extensions and new county records for the flora of Mills County, located in the Lampasas Cut Plain ecoregion of Texas (Fig. 1), which is composed of Holocene alluvium and Holocene or Pleistocene fluviatile terrace deposits (TWDB, 1986). The majority of Mills County is private property dominated by ranches and farms. A number of noteworthy specimens were collected from the southwestern corner of Mills County at Timberlake Ranch while performing community classification studies of the Colorado River bottomland. The majority of the specimens collected were from the bottomlands, although adjacent uplands were also collected when plants were encountered in bloom.

Voucher specimens from the field work were deposited in the Tarleton State University (TSU) Herbarium (Thiers 2013; Index Herbariorum acronym, TAC). Standard herbarium procedures were utilized at TAC, and identification was completed using Shinners and Mahler's Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas (Diggs et al. 1999) and Wetland Plants of Texas Volumes I and II (Chadde, 2012). All range comparisons were made using distributions illustrated in Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Texas (Turner et al. 2003a; 2003b). Major range extensions are defined as taxa newly collected in Mills County that are not recorded as existing in bordering counties. These are discussed below. New Mills County plant records that have also been recorded from bordering counties are listed in Table 1.

Species Accounts

Major range extensions:

EUPHORBIACEAE

Acalypha virginica L. [Virginia Copperleaf] (TAC 5918) is a native spurge that occurs in sandy open woods and low areas (Diggs et al. 1999) It has mostly been reported from northeastern Texas with the closest two localities to Mills County being from Bell and Wise counties (Turner et al. 2003a).

POACEAE

Eragrostis hirsuta (Michx.) Nees [Stout Love Grass] (TAC 5917) is a native grass that occurs in sandy woods and riverbottoms (Diggs et al. 1999). It is mostly reported from east Texas but has been collected in Tarrant County (Turner et al. 2003b).

Muhlenbergia schreberi J.F. Gmel. [Satin Grass] (TAC 5964) is a native grass adapted to woods and thickets (Diggs et al. 1999). It is mainly reported from central and northeastern Texas but has been collected in Llano and Burnet counties to the south of Mills County (Turner et al. 2003b).

SCROPHULARIACEAE

Gratiola neglecta Torr. [Yellow-Seed Hedge-Hyssop] (TAC 5960) is a native herb that occurs in shallow water, muddy shores or damp ground (Diggs et al. 1999). It has mainly been reported from northeastern Texas but has been collected in Bell County (Turner et al. 2003a)

Summary.--Four major range extensions and 45 county records were reported from Mills County, for a total of 49 plant species that are new to the county. Five species were introduced, and the other 40 species were all natives. No specimens representing rare species were collected (Poole et al. 2007). None of the species are listed as noxious weeds (USDA 2015). None of the species collected are listed at the state or federal level as threatened or endangered species (TPWD 2015).

Acknowledgments

We thank Carlos Gamez and Rebecca Nelson for field assistance as well as Dr. Lamar and Marilynn Johanson for allowing us to perform research at Timberlake Ranch. We appreciate Jeff Brister and Bob Lonard for improving the manuscript by providing helpful reviews.

Literature Cited

Chadde, S. W. 2012. Wetland plants of Texas: A complete guide to the wetland and aquatic plants of the Lone Star State: Volume 1. 360 pp.

Chadde, S. W. 2012. Wetland plants of Texas: A complete guide to the wetland and aquatic plants of the Lone Star State: Volume 2. 506 pp.

Diggs, G. M., Jr.. B. L. Lipscomb. & R. J. O'Kennon. 1999. Shinners' & Mahler's illustrated flora of north central Texas. Fort Worth, Texas, USA: Center for Environmental Studies and Department of Biology, Austin College, Sherman and Botanical Research Institute of Texas. Fort Worth. 1626 pp.

Poole, J. M., W. R. Carr. D. M. Price, & J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. 640 pp.

Thiers, B. 2015. Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium, http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/ (Accessed September 1, 2015.)

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 2015. Nongame and Rare Species Program: Federal/State Threatened and Endangered Species. Austin, Texas. Available http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/endang/plants/index.phtml (Accessed: September 1, 2015).

TPWD: Texas Water Development Board. 1986. Geologic Atlas of Texas, Brownwood Sheet. Austin, Texas: Bureau of Economic Geology. Available http://www.twdb.texas.gov/groundwater/aquifer/GAT/brownwood.htm (Accessed: September 1, 2015).

Turner, B. L., H. Nichols, G. Denny, & O. Doron. 2003a. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas, Volume I. Fort Worth, Texas: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 648 pp.

Turner, B. L.. H. Nichols, G. Denny, & O. Doron. 2003b. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas, Volume II. Fort Worth. Texas: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 240 pp.

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service. 2014. Texas: Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants. The PLANTS Database, National Plant Data Center. Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Available http://plants.usda.gov/java/noxious?rptType=Stateastatefips=48. (Accessed September 1, 2015).

KMG at: gamezkm@gmail.com

Kimberly M. Gamez (1), Allan D. Nelson (2), A. Keagan Lowey (3) and Randall Rosiere (4)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Geosciences, and Physics

(2) Department of Biological Sciences

(3) Department of Wildlife, Sustainability and Ecosystem Science

(4)Department of Animal Science and Veterinary Technology Box T-0100, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas 76402

Caption: Figure 1. The vegetational areas of North Central Texas (Diggs et al. 1999), with Mills County outlined and the approximate location of Timberlake Ranch starred.
Table 1. Floral records have also been included for counties
surrounding Mills County (Turner et al. 2003a: 2003b), with
the following abbreviations: Brown (B), Comanche (C), Hamilton
(II). Lampasas (L) and San Saba (S). Common names are included in
brackets. Plants are listed with categorization in Texas (USDA 2010):
native (N) or introduced (I). Tarleton State University Herbarium (TAC)
accession numbers are included as well.

                                                Bordering
Family/Species/Common name                          Counties

Acanthaceac

Ruellia nudiflora (Engelm. & A. Gray)               B
Urb. var. nudiflora [Purple Ruellia]

Anacardaceae

Rhus copallinum var. latifolia Engl.                I
[Flame-Leaf Sumac]

Asteraceae
Aster suhulatus Michx. var. ligulatus               B
Shinners [Slim Aster]

Baccharis neglecta Britton                          B
[Roosevelt-Weed]

Sonchus oleraceus L.                                B
[Common Sow-Thistle]

Eupatorium serotinum Michx.                         B
[Fall Boneset]

Iva annua L.                                        B, C, S
[Marsh-Elder]

Solidago gigantea Aiton                             B, S
[Giant Goldenrod]

Verhesina virginica L.                              B, C, S
[Frostweed]

Cactaceae

Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck                       L
var. lindheimeri (Engelm.) B.D. Parfitt & Pinkava
[Texas Prickly-Pear]

Opuntia leptocaulis DC.                             B, L, S
[Pencil Cactus]

Cyperaceae

Care.x emoryi Dewey                                 B, S
[William Emory's Caric Sedge]

Cyperus strigosus L.                                B
[False Nut-Grass]

Ebenaceae

Diospyros texana Scheele                            B. S
[Texas Persimmon]

Euphorbiaceac

Tragia betonicifolia Nutt.                          B
[Betony Noseburn]

Fabaceae

Sesbania herbacea (Mill.) McVaugh                   S
[Colorado River-Hemp]

Sophora affinis Torr. & A. Gray                     B, S
[Eve's necklace]

Lythraceae

Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne                         S
[Toothcup]

Malvaceae

Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr.                  S
[Pelotazo]

Marsileaceae

Marsilea vestita subsp. vestita Hook & Grev.        C, S
[Water Clover]

Meliaceae

Melia azedarach L.                                  B, S
[China-Berry]

Oleaceae

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall                     S
[Green ash]

Onagraceae

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) P.H. Raven               S
[Water-Primrose]

Poaceae

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.                         c
[Bermuda Grass]

Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vignalo ex Jaunch.    L, S
[Stink Grass]

Panicum virgatum L.                                 B, L, S
[Switch Grass]

Paspalum distichum L.                               S
[Knot Grass]

Setaria scheelei (Steud.) Hitchc.                   B
[Southwestern Bristle Grass]

Tridens flavus (L.) Hitchc.                         B, H, L, S
[Purpletop]

Polygonaceae

Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.                    S
[Swamp Smartweed]

Pontederiaceae

Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacMill.                 S
[Water Star-Grass]

H. limosa (Sw.) Willd.                              S
[Blue Mud-Plantain]

Potamogetonaceae

Potamogeton nodosus Poir.                           B, C
(Long-Leaf Pondweed]

Salicaceac

Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall               S
subsp. deltoides [Cottonwood]

Salix nigra Marshall                                B, C, H, S
[Black Willow]

Sapotaceae

Sideroxylon lanuginosum Michx.                      B, C, S
subsp. oblongifolium (Nutt.)
T.D. Penn. [Chittamwood]

Scrophulariaceae

Bacopa rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst.                S
(Disc Water-Hyssop]

Smilacaceae

Smilax bona-nox L.                                  S
[Saw Greenbriar]

Solanaceae

Physalis cinerascens (Dunal) Hitchc.                B, L, S
[Beach Ground-Cherry]

Ulmaceae

Ulmus americana L.                                  B, S
[American Elm]

Ulmus crassifolia Nutt.                             B, S
[Cedar Elm]

Verbenaceae

Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.)                B, S
Tronc, var. gratissima [Common Beebush]

Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx.                        B, S
[Frogfruit]

Vitex agnus-castus L. var. agnus-castus             B
[Monk's Pepper-Tree]

Vitaceae

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.            B, S
[Virginia-Creeper]

Family/Species/Common name                           N/I/     TAC

Acanthaceac

Ruellia nudiflora (Engelm. & A. Gray)                 N       5974
Urb. var. nudiflora [Purple Ruellia]

Anacardaceae

Rhus copallinum var. latifolia Engl.                  N       5951
[Flame-Leaf Sumac]

Asteraceae
Aster suhulatus Michx. var. ligulatus                 N       5921
Shinners [Slim Aster]

Baccharis neglecta Britton                            N       5911
[Roosevelt-Weed]

Sonchus oleraceus L.                                  I       5989
[Common Sow-Thistle]

Eupatorium serotinum Michx.                           N       5976
[Fall Boneset]

Iva annua L.                                          N       5935
[Marsh-Elder]

Solidago gigantea Aiton                               N       5981
[Giant Goldenrod]

Verhesina virginica L.                                N       5966
[Frostweed]

Cactaceae

Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck                         N       5920
var. lindheimeri (Engelm.) B.D. Parfitt & Pinkava
[Texas Prickly-Pear]

Opuntia leptocaulis DC.                               N       5952
[Pencil Cactus]

Cyperaceae

Care.x emoryi Dewey                                   N       5990
[William Emory's Caric Sedge]

Cyperus strigosus L.                                  N       5912
[False Nut-Grass]

Ebenaceae

Diospyros texana Scheele                              N       5988
[Texas Persimmon]

Euphorbiaceac

Tragia betonicifolia Nutt.                            N       5979
[Betony Noseburn]

Fabaceae

Sesbania herbacea (Mill.) McVaugh                     N       5978
[Colorado River-Hemp]

Sophora affinis Torr. & A. Gray                       N       5923
[Eve's necklace]

Lythraceae

Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne                           N       5958
[Toothcup]

Malvaceae

Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr.                    N       5975
[Pelotazo]

Marsileaceae

Marsilea vestita subsp. vestita Hook & Grev.          N       5945
[Water Clover]

Meliaceae

Melia azedarach L.                                    I       5930
[China-Berry]

Oleaceae

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall                       N       5948
[Green ash]

Onagraceae

Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) P.H. Raven                 N       5931
[Water-Primrose]

Poaceae

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.                           I       5953
[Bermuda Grass]

Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vignalo ex Jaunch.      I       5913
[Stink Grass]

Panicum virgatum L.                                   N       5987
[Switch Grass]

Paspalum distichum L.                                 N       5939
[Knot Grass]

Setaria scheelei (Steud.) Hitchc.                     N       5962
[Southwestern Bristle Grass]

Tridens flavus (L.) Hitchc.                           N       5910
[Purpletop]

Polygonaceae

Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.                      N       5957
[Swamp Smartweed]

Pontederiaceae

Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacMill.                   N       5986
[Water Star-Grass]

H. limosa (Sw.) Willd.                                N       5959
[Blue Mud-Plantain]

Potamogetonaceae

Potamogeton nodosus Poir.                             N       5961
(Long-Leaf Pondweed]

Salicaceac

Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall                 N       5967
subsp. deltoides [Cottonwood]

Salix nigra Marshall                                  N       5968
[Black Willow]

Sapotaceae

Sideroxylon lanuginosum Michx.                        N       5927
subsp. oblongifolium (Nutt.)
T.D. Penn. [Chittamwood]

Scrophulariaceae

Bacopa rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst.                  N       5980
(Disc Water-Hyssop]

Smilacaceae

Smilax bona-nox L.                                    N       5971
[Saw Greenbriar]

Solanaceae

Physalis cinerascens (Dunal) Hitchc.                  N       5946
[Beach Ground-Cherry]

Ulmaceae

Ulmus americana L.                                    N       5965
[American Elm]

Ulmus crassifolia Nutt.                               N       5915
[Cedar Elm]

Verbenaceae

Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.)                  N       5963
Tronc, var. gratissima [Common Beebush]

Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx.                          N       5977
[Frogfruit]

Vitex agnus-castus L. var. agnus-castus               I       5926
[Monk's Pepper-Tree]

Vitaceae

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.              N       5940
[Virginia-Creeper]
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Title Annotation:General Notes
Author:Gamez, Kimberly M.; Nelson, Allan D.; Lowey, A. Keagan; Rosiere, Randall
Publication:The Texas Journal of Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Feb 1, 2016
Words:1819
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