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Anatomical study of copulatory organ in male rabbit.

Introduction

Rabbit penis of vascular or musculocavernos and formed from the three part, root, body and free part [2,3,8]. It many male species, the main vessel of blood supply of the penis is the penile artery. It arises from the internal pudendal artery [4,9]. The artery of the bulb(the penile artery)the profund artery of the penis and the dorsal artery of the penis[5,12]. The artery of the bulb, supplies the bulb and then runs distally within the organ to supply the corpus spongiosum about the urethra and later on approaching the apex of the penis[12,14]. The profund artery of the penis passes through the tunica albuginea at the root of the penis and ramifies in the corpus cavernosum [13,7]. Dorsal artery of the penis travels along the dorsal surface of the penis [14,11]. Blood drainage from the penis is done by external pudendal vein and internal pudendal vein [12,13,14]. The purpose of this paper was to observe the origin and distributional pattern of the penile artery and vein in the rabbit.

Materials and Methods

A total of 10 apparently healthy adult male rabbit, obtained from animal market, were used. The live body weight of rabbits were varied from 3000g-4000g. Animals were euthanized by the methods of Flecknell et al. [6]. Animal were bled by cutting the jugular vein. Latex colored with red ink was injected through the abdominal aorta artery. The animal cadavers were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution for 24 h at room temperature. The main vessel of the penile were studied by gross and microscopic dissection, using streomicroscope and photographed by means of a digital camera. In one sample after anesthetized by rabbit between anus and penis gently cut and crura identified and the amount 5ml meglumine compound 60% into crura were injected, quickly radiograph was obtained in lateral and ventral position was observed with injection of contrast material in the crura, erection in the penis and drainage vessels in the penis was determined by X-ray and veins were identified.

Results:

The main vessel of the penile blood supply in the rabbit was observed to be penile artery. This artery was determined to be a branch coming from the internal pudendal artery(Fig1,2). The penile artery was divided into three branches before 4-5mm from the ischiatic arch(Fig3).Among these branches, one division and the most thin branch entered and supplied blood to the urethra. The second, the deep artery of the penis, supplied blood to the corpus cavernosus penis. The third, the dorsal surface of the penis.(Fig4).The deep artery of the penis was determined to enter the cavernosus body of the penis by passing through the ischiocavernosus muscle and penetrating to the tunica albuginea, and finally showing a spiral type shape. The dorsal artery of the penis was observed to pass coudally through the body of the penis in a groove formed by the right and left bulbocavernosus muscle after the leaving arteria pudenda interna, and later running along the dorsum penis, each side of the retractor penis muscle. The other penile arteries was observed to be extension of the external iliac artery. The pudendoepigastric artery arised from the arteria pudenda externa and divided into two branches(Fig5). The rami preaputialis as one of these branches extended up to preaputium and the other also divided into two further branches. (Fig6). The one branch supplied blood to the ischiocavernosus muscle, rectum and surrounding muscle layers and the remaining branch extended up to the root of the penis.(Fig6). Blood drainage from the penis is done by external pudendal vein and internal pudendal vein and venous blood in deep vein penis, bulbar vein and dorsal penile vein enter to internal pudendal vein and then internal iliac and finally coudal vena cava, and the external pudendal vein blood prepuce, skin, corpus spongiosum penis and ischiocavernosus, bulbospongiosus and retractor muscles and free part penis through dorsal vein drainage (Fig7,8).

Discussion:

The penis of rabbit, as with other species of mammals, supply the penile artery. The origin of the penile arteries from pudenda interna to be branch of the internal iliac artery in male laboratory rodents varies according to species. According to the some literature reported that the artery of the penis divided into three branches, the artery of the bulb of the penis, the deep artery of the penis, and the dorsal artery of the penis. Ozgel et al. revealed that the penile artery divided into the deep artery of the penis at the level of the ischiatic arch [10]. In rabbit we showed that it was divided into three branches before 4-5mm from the ischiatic arch,one division and the most thin branch entered and supplied the urethrae, the second, the deep artery of the penis, which supplied corpus cavernosus penis, the third the dorsal penile artery travelled along the dorsal surface of the penis. The deep artery of the penis entered and supplied the corpus cavernous penis by penetrating the tunica albuginea and the present study determined the same finding. Tewari and parakash indicated an H-shaped anastomosis between the right and left dorsal arteries of the penis [11], however this was not the case in our study since we showed that the anastomosis was a web-shape appearance. Ozgel et al. reported that the dorsal artery of the penis passed coudally through the body of the penis in a groove formed by the right and left ischiocavernosus muscle, and lied on each side of the sub ischiocavernosus muscles [10].

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Conclusion:

Arterial vascularization of the penis in the rabbit was demonstrated to be supplied by the penile artery wich arised from the internal pudendal artery which possessed two branches such as the deep artery of the penis, the dorsal artery of the penis, whereas the ramus praeputialis arised from the external pudendal artery and blood drainage from the penis is done by external pudendal vein and internal pudendal vein and venous blood in deep vein, bulbar vein and dorsal vein enter to internal pudendal vein and then internal iliac and finally coudal vena cava and the external pudendal vein blood prepuce, skin, corpus spongiosum and muscles and free part penis through dorsal vein drainage.

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References

[1.] Burnett, A., 2007. General use of animal models for investigation of the physiology of erection. In import Res., 13: 135-139.

[2.] Cruz, Y., R. Hudson, P. Pacheco, R.A. Lucio, 2002. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of perineal muscles in the male rabbit. Physiol. Behav., 75(1-2): 33-40.

[3.] Mclaughlin, C.A. and R.B. Chiasson, 1990. Laboratory anatomy of the rabbit. Briston. Mc Graw Hill.

[4.] Orsi, A.M., E. Pinto, D. Fernandes, S. Mello Dias, 1979. Pelvic visceral arteries of rabbits (Oryctolagus Cuniculus). Acta Anat (Basel), 104: 72-78.

[5.] Okolokulak, E., D. Volchkevich, 2004. Vascularization of the male penis. Rocz. Akad. Med. Bialy. mst., 49: 285-291.

[6.] Flecknell, P.A., 1980. Laboratory animal anesthesia. Academic press limited. London, pp: 137.

[7.] Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 2005. International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature, 5th ed.Copyright by the world Association of veterinary Anatomists.

[8.] Barone, R., C. Pavaux, P.C. Blin, 1973. Atlas D'Anatomie Du lapin Atlas of rabbit Anatomy. Bolevard Saint Germain, Paris.

[9.] Lopez-Fuster, M.J., J. Ventura, E. Gispert, 1993. The arterial system of the wood mouse. Apodemus Sylvaticus. The pelvic region. Anat Histol Embryol., 22: 279-289.

[10.] Ozgel, O., N. Dursun, A. Cengelci, S. Ates, 2003. Arterial supply of the penis in the Newzeland rabbit.Anat Histol Embryol., 32: 6-8.

[11.] Tewari, A.N., P. Parakash, 1998. Studies on the arterial network in the male genital system of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Indian Vet J., 65: 66-70.

[12.] Dyce, K.M., W.O. Sack, C.J. Wensing, 1987. Text book of Veterinary Anatomy. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc.

[13.] Nickel, R.A., A. Schummer, E. Seiferie, 1981. The Anatomy of the domestic Animals, 3. New York, veriag paul parey.

[14.] Pasquini, C., T. Spurgeon, 1995. Anatomy of Domestic Animals Systemic and Regional Approach. 8th ed. Sudz Publishing, USA.

(1) Mohammad Ali Dadkhah and (2) Hassan Gilanpour

(1) Ph.D. Graduate, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

(2) Department of Veterinary Medicine, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Mohammad Ali Dadkhah and Hassan Gilanpour; Anatomical Study of Copulatory Organ in Male Rabbit

Corresponding Author

Dr.Mohammad Ali Dadkhah, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail:dadkhahvet@gmail.com

Tel:+98 914 3310 401
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Dadkhah, Mohammad Ali; Gilanpour, Hassan
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Sep 1, 2011
Words:1454
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