Anaplastic large cell lymphoma involving the breast: a clinicopathologic study of 6 cases and review of the literature.
In this study, we describe 6 cases of ALCL involving the breast identified during 21 years at our institution. We show that all types of ALCL as defined in the World Health Organization classification can occur in the breast and report 3 additional cases of ALCL associated with breast implants, including 1 patient with a history of cutaneous ALCL who subsequently developed [ALK.sup.-] ALCL surrounding a breast implant.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The files of The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston) were searched for patients with lymphoid neoplasms involving the breast that were biopsied or excised during the course of their disease. Among all patients with breast lymphoma identified from January 1986 to the time of writing, 6 cases of ALCL involving the breast were identified. These patients were either referred to our institution for treatment, or their slides were submitted for consultation. All cases were reviewed and classified using the criteria of the World Health Organization classification. Clinical data, which included age, sex, side of involvement, clinical stage, treatment, and clinical follow-up were available for all patients, although follow-up was very short for one recently diagnosed patient. The criteria for breast involvement by lymphoma were described previously. (6)
Histologic and Immunohistochemical Techniques
Hematoxylin-eosin--stained slides and unstained slides for immunohistochemical analysis were prepared from fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. Immunohistochemical stains were performed using heat-induced epitope retrieval, an avidin-biotin complex method, and an automated immunostainer (Ventana Medical Systems, Tucson, Arizona) as described previously. (7) The antibody panel used to assess these cases included the following antibodies (and dilutions): CD3 (1:150), CD20 (1:700), CD45 (1:300), CD45RO (1:100), and ALK1 (1:30;all from DAKO, Carpinteria, California); CD43 (1:120; Becton-Dickinson Biosciences, San Jose, California); and CD30 (1:20; Signet, Dedham, Massachusetts).
T-cell receptor--chain gene rearrangement studies were performed using polymerase chain reaction-based methods on DNA extracted from fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. A mixture of 4 family-specific, multicolored, fluorescently labeled variable region primers and 4 unlabeled joining primers was used in a multiplex assay as has been described. (8)
The clinical features are summarized in Table 1. All patients were women, with a median age of 52 years (range, 21-65 years). Complete blood counts at the time of breast tumor diagnosis were available for 4 patients (cases 1-3 and 6). All patients had normal white blood cell and differential counts. Hemoglobin and platelet counts were within normal range, except for one patient (case 3) who had mild anemia and one patient (case 6) who had mild thrombocytosis. All patients had a palpable breast mass. The left breast was involved in 3 patients and the right in 3 patients; no patients had bilateral involvement. The surgical procedures that patients underwent included 3 excisional biopsies, 2 needle-core biopsies, and 1 capsulectomy.
Four patients had [ALK.sup.-] neoplasms (cases 1-4) involving the breast, and 2 patients had [ALK.sup.+] neoplasms (cases 5 and 6) with breast involvement as a part of clinical stage IV disease. The [ALK.sup.-] neoplasms can be further divided into 2 subgroups. Two patients had a history of cutaneous ALCL 1 year and 4 years, respectively, before the diagnosis of ALCL in the breast. One patient (case 1), who also had a history of breast carcinoma 8 years earlier, had cutaneous ALCL involving the wrist, hip, and vagina. The ALCL involving the breast was associated with a breast implant that had been inserted 8 years earlier. The neoplasm also was associated with 80 mL of seroma-like fluid. The second patient (case 2) had cutaneous ALCL with lesions mainly involving the left lower extremity, abdomen, shoulder, and contralateral breast. This patient did not have breast implants.
Two patients (cases 3 and 4) had [ALK.sup.-] ALCL involving the breast and did not have a history of cutaneous ALCL. Both tumors were associated with breast implants. In one patient (case 3), the implant was placed 9 years earlier, and the ALCL was not associated with a seroma. In the other patient (case 4), the length of time the patient had implants is not known, and the neoplasm was associated with 720 mL of seroma-like fluid. One patient (case 3) had a history of focal involvement of an axillary lymph node by a lymphoid tumor that expressed CD15 and CD30 and was initially interpreted as classic nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma. This tumor was diagnosed 2.5 years before breast ALCL. The patient had clinical stage II disease and was treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy. Subsequently, 0.5 years before breast ALCL, the patient had cervical and supraclavicular lymph nodes involved by [ALK.sup.-] ALCL. In retrospect, the initial axillary lymph node was probably also involved by [ALK.sup.-] ALCL, because these tumors can express CD15 in a subset of cases.
Two patients had [ALK.sup.+] ALCL (cases 5 and 6). In both, breast involvement occurred as a part of clinical stage IV disease. Neither patient had breast implants.
Clinical follow-up (Tables 2 and 3) after diagnosis of the breast ALCL was available for all patients, but one patient (case 4) was diagnosed recently. The follow-up interval for 5 patients ranged from 1.2 to 9 years (mean, 3.5 years). Four patients are alive. One patient (case 1) with a history of cutaneous ALCL and subsequent [ALK.sup.-] ALCL in breast was treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) and is disease free 10 years after diagnosis of skin lesions and 9 years after diagnosis of breast ALCL. The other patient (case 2) with a history of cutaneous ALCL and subsequent [ALK.sup.-] ALCL involving the breast was treated with rituximab (R)-CHOP and subsequently anti-CD30 antibody, and she went into partial remission. R-CHOP was employed because a biopsy specimen of a skin lesion showed T-cell lineage with aberrant expression of CD20. This patient is alive with disease 5.5 years after diagnosis of skin disease and 2 years after diagnosis of breast ALCL, but she developed contralateral breast carcinoma. For the 2 patients with ALKALCL without a history of cutaneous ALCL, one patient (case 3) was treated with a number of chemotherapy regimens and is disease free at 4 years. The recently diagnosed patient (case 4) has had only 1 month of follow-up at time of writing, and details of the chemotherapy plan are unknown.
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For the 2 patients with [ALK.sup.+] ALCL, one patient (case 5) died with disease 1.2 years after diagnosis, despite being treated with various chemotherapeutic regimens. The other patient (case 6) is alive with disease 9.5 years after initial diagnosis of [ALK.sup.+] ALCL and 1.5 years after biopsy showed breast involvement. She has been treated with local radiation and multiple chemotherapy regimens.
Histologic and Immunohistochemical Features
Cases 1 and 2 occurred in patients with a history of cutaneous ALCL who subsequently developed [ALK.sup.-] ALCL of the breast. In case 1, the breast neoplasm was a 1-cm mass around the breast implant that was associated with fluid. Aspiration and cytologic examination of the fluid revealed neoplastic cells. The biopsy specimen showed a monotonous infiltrate of pleomorphic cells with rare hallmark cells admixed with neutrophils, eosinophils, and a background of sclerosis and necrosis. In case 2, the neoplasm was a 1.2-cm mass composed of a monotonous, diffuse infiltrate of large cells with prominent central nucleoli (immunoblastic morphology) and a background of sclerosis (Figure 1). Both cases were positive for CD3 and CD30 and were negative for ALK. Case 1 was granzyme [B.sup.+]. Previous skin lesions but not the breast ALCL of case 2 coexpressed CD20. Molecular studies showed monoclonal T-cell receptor [gamma]-chain gene rearrangements in both neoplasms.
Cases 3 and 4 were denovo [ALK.sup.-] ALCL. Case 3 was a 1.5-cm mass around a breast implant that was composed of a monotonous infiltrate of pleomorphic cells with frequent hallmark cells and sclerosis. Necrosis as well as neutrophils and eosinophils were present (Figure 2). In case 4, no distinct tumor was identified grossly. Histologically, the neoplasm appeared to lie within a fibrinous exudate and penetrate or become trapped in a thick fibrous capsule (Figure 3, A). The neoplastic cells were large and pleomorphic with vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and numerous mitoses. The neoplastic cells were focally admixed with abundant neutrophils when surrounded by the fibrinous exudate (Figure 3, B), or they were distributed in large clusters when immersed in the fibrous capsule (Figure 3, C). Chronic inflammation was present at the periphery of the fibrous capsule. In both cases, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD30 (Figure 3, D) and negative for CD20 and ALK. In case 3, the neoplastic cells were also positive for CD4, CD43 (Figure 4), EMA, and granzyme B.
Cases 5 and 6 were [ALK.sup.+] ALCL. Case 5 was a 1.5-cm tumor that infiltrated breast parenchyma, and the neoplastic cells were monotonous with centroblast-like nuclei. No hallmark cells were identified (Figure 5). Case 6 was a 4.0-cm mass. A needle-core biopsy showed neoplastic cells arranged in a nested pattern, and the cells were large and pleomorphic, including hallmark cells (Figure 6, A). Mitotic figures were numerous. Both tumors were positive for CD30, granzyme B, and ALK (Figure 6, B), and were negative for CD3. Both neoplasms had a nuclear and cytoplasmic pattern of ALK expression, consistent with the t(2;5)(p23;q35). Case 5 was [CD43.sup.+], and case 6 was [EMA.sup.+].
We report 6 cases of ALCL involving the breast. Four cases were [ALK.sup.-], including 2 patients who had a history of cutaneous ALCL, and 2 cases were [ALK.sup.+]. Three patients, all with [ALK.sup.-] ALCL, including one patient with a history of cutaneous ALCL, had tumors associated with breast implants. Two implant-associated tumors had fluid accumulation or "seromas."
ALCL rarely involves the breast (Tables 2 and 3). Including the 6 cases of breast ALCL we report, 21 cases have been reported in the literature, and these cases are heterogeneous. Seventeen cases were [ALK.sup.-], or ALK status was not reported, (4,5,9-12) including 4 cases occurring in patients with a history of cutaneous ALCL. (9,10) A review of several case series of breast lymphomas published within the past 10 years (13-18) did not disclose additional cases of ALCL.
A total of 15 cases of ALCL associated with breast implants are now reported in the literature, of which 10 had seromas or concomitant fluid accumulation. (5,9,19-21) The association between breast implants and lymphoma involving the breast has been reported rarely, not only associated with ALCL, but rarely with other lymphomas, such as follicular lymphoma and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. (9,19,22,23) However, it is intriguing that ALCL, a relatively uncommon type of lymphoma representing approximately 2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas in North America, seems to be particularly associated with breast implants. If chance alone were the explanation, one would expect to observe more cases of common lymphoma types, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or follicular lymphoma, to be associated with implants. The frequency of [ALK.sup.-] ALCL in this clinical setting suggests a pathogenetic relationship with implants, as has been suggested by others. (5)
Clinically, reported cases of ALCL associated with a breast implant have arisen from 3 to 19 years (median, 8 years) after implant, placed for either cosmetic or reconstructive surgery reasons in 7 cases each. The reason for implant is unknown for one patient. Seroma or fluid accumulation is commonly but not invariably associated with these neoplasms. The amount of fluid has ranged from 80 to 720 mL. Fluid obtained via fine-needle aspiration was analyzed in 7 cases; 6 were diagnosed as positive for malignant cells, and 1 was diagnosed as suspicious for malignancy. Thirteen patients had clinical stage IE and 2 had clinical stage IIE disease. Ten patients received therapy: 6 patients received local radiation and chemotherapy (most often the CHOP regimen), 3 patients received chemotherapy alone, and 1 patient received local radiation only. Two patients did not receive therapy, and the status is unknown in 3 patients. Adequate clinical follow-up was reported for 9 patients and ranged from 0.8 to 9 years (median, 1 year). No lymphadenopathy or systemic disease developed during the follow-up interval.
Grossly, a tumor mass was identified in only 6 cases and ranged from 1 to 3 cm. In the remaining 9 cases, the tumors were contained in fibrous tissue, not identified grossly, and presented as thickening or nodularity in the capsule around the breast implant. In these cases, the tumor was only identified by histologic examination of extracted fibrous capsule. Seven implants were filled with saline, and 7 were filled with silicone; the type of implant is unknown in one case. In all cases, these tumors have been composed of large and pleomorphic cells. Twelve cases had a T-cell immunophenotype, and 3 had a null-cell immunophenotype. (20) When performed, monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangements have been identified. In aggregate, these clinical and pathologic findings suggest that ALCL associated with breast implants is a distinctive entity, associated with clinically indolent behavior and a good prognosis, as has been suggested previously by others. (5)
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Including 2 cases we report, there are 4 cases of cutaneous ALCL with secondary involvement of the breast parenchyma (Table 2) reported in the literature. (9,10) All patients were women, with an age range of 50 to 72 years (median, 61 years). In the 2 cases we report, the skin biopsy specimens were initially interpreted as cutaneous [CD30.sup.+] T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, to be correlated with clinical data. In retrospect, the skin lesions were involved by cutaneous ALCL that disseminated to the breast after 1 and 4 years, respectively. Three patients reported receiving chemotherapy; the one patient who did not receive chemotherapy was lost to follow-up. (10) A 63-year-old patient with breast mass and fluid accumulation is alive and is disease free 9 years after diagnosis of the breast tumor; the other 2 patients were alive with disease at 1 and 2 years of follow-up (Table 2). Cutaneous ALCLs are [ALK.sup.-], and many affected patients have a protracted course or even spontaneous regression. (24) It is reported that cutaneous ALCLs may occasionally progress and rarely affect viscera, (25) but cutaneous ALCL cases disseminating to breast have been described rarely in the literature. The 63-year-old patient associated with breast implant and fluid accumulation we report is alive 10 years after initial diagnosis of cutaneous ALCL. This case is similar to the other cases with breast implants, and ALCL associated with fluid accumulation in that the tumor mass was small, [ALK.sup.-], and was associated with an excellent outcome. (5,9,19-21) Roden and colleagues5 have suggested that [ALK.sup.-] ALCL associated with breast implants, which they refer to as seroma-associated ALCL, may be closely related to cutaneous ALCL based on its clinicopathologic features. The 2 patients with a history of cutaneous ALCL we report, as well as the other 2 cases reported in the literature, provide support for the suggestion of Roden and colleagues. (5)
[ALK.sup.+] ALCL results from cytogenetic abnormalities involving ALK, of which the t(2;5)(p23;q35) is most common. (26) The t(2;5) fuses the ALK gene on 2p23 to the nucleophosmin (NPM) gene on 5q35, resulting in the constitutive activation of ALK kinase. (26-28) Including the 2 cases we report, 4 cases of [ALK.sup.+] ALCL involving breast (Table 3) are reported in the literature. (29,30) All patients were women, with an age range of 13 to 36 years (mean, 26 years). All presented with a breast mass ranging from 1.5 to 6 cm (mean, 3.5 cm); one tumor was partially cystic. (30) All patients had extramammary involvement, and only one patient (30) had localized disease involving breast and regional lymph nodes (stage IIE). The 2 patients we report received chemotherapy (Table 3). Therapy is not reported for the other 2 cases in the literature. In 3 cases with follow-up, 2 died of disease at 0.5 and 1.2 years; one is alive with disease 9.5 years after initial diagnosis of ALCL and 1.5 years after diagnosis of breast ALCL. Thus, it is apparent that [ALK.sup.+] ALCL involving the breast usually occurs as a part of disseminated disease and with a variable outcome, similar to what is described for patients affected by [ALK.sup.+] ALCL involving other anatomic sites. (26)
In summary, we describe 6 cases of ALCL involving the breast. Our cases, in addition to 15 cases described in the literature, highlight the clinical and pathologic spectrum of ALCL affecting the breast. This study also highlights 3 distinct groups. The first group includes patients with a history of cutaneous ALCL who subsequently develop [ALK.sup.-] ALCL of the breast. Although we have not sequenced the neoplasms in the skin and breast, presumably the cutaneous and breast lesions are related. The second group includes cases of [ALK.sup.-] ALCL associated with breast implants. The first and second groups are not mutually exclusive, because patients with a history of cutaneous ALCL can subsequently develop implant-associated ALCL of the breast. The association of [ALK.sup.-] ALCL, an uncommon lymphoma type, with breast implants suggests an etiologic relationship. These lesions are commonly but not invariably associated with seromas. The third and last group includes patients with [ALK.sup.+] ALCL involving the breast. Patients with [ALK.sup.+] ALCL usually have widespread systemic disease, of which breast involvement is only one site of dissemination.
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Roberto N. Miranda, MD; Lin Lin, MBBS; Sameer S. Talwalkar, MD; John T. Manning, MD; L. Jeffrey Medeiros, MD
Accepted for publication November 19, 2008.
From the Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.
The authors have no relevant financial interest in the products or companies described in this article.
Reprints: Roberto N. Miranda, MD, Department of Hematopathology, Unit 072, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (e-mail: roberto.miranda@ mdanderson.org).
Table 1. Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) Involving the Breast: Clinical Features Diagnosis Age y Clinical Presentation Cutaneous ALCL Case 1 63 Skin lesions in hip, wrist, and vagina Case 2 61 Skin lesions in leg, shoulder, and abdomen ALK- ALCL Case 3 40 Supraclavicular and neck ALCL 6 mo before "Seroma"-associated ALK-ALCL Case 4 65 Breast swollen ALK+ ALCL Case 5 21 Nodal inguinal, mediastinal, and lung Case 6 35 Shoulder soft tissue, axillary and pleural mass Diagnosis History Cutaneous ALCL Case 1 Breast cancer T1N1M0. Chemotherapy and mastectomy. Implant after surgery. Smoker x 10 y. Case 2 Left breast reduction. Family history of breast cancer. Smoker x 48 y. ALK- ALCL Case 3 ALK- ALCL 2 y before. Chemotherapy and radiation. Implant, cosmetic, 9 y before. "Seroma"-associated ALK-ALCL Case 4 NA ALK+ ALCL Case 5 NA Case 6 ALCL 8 y before. Astrocytoma 16 y before. Seizures. Diagnosis Breast Presentation Tumor Size Cutaneous ALCL Case 1 Mass effect. Fluid around 1 cm implant. Case 2 Mass effect. Contralateral 1.2 cm breast cancer. ALK- ALCL Case 3 Pain and swelling. Scar; 1.5 cm no fluid. "Seroma"-associated ALK-ALCL Case 4 Swelling. Fluid around NA implant. ALK+ ALCL Case 5 Mass effect. 1.5 cm Case 6 Swelling. 4 cm Diagnosis Side Specimen Implant Stage (a) Cutaneous ALCL Case 1 Right Excision Yes T1a Case 2 Left Core No T3b ALK- ALCL Case 3 Left Excision Yes IIE "Seroma"-associated ALK-ALCL Case 4 Left Capsule Yes NA ALK+ ALCL Case 5 Right Excision No IV Case 6 Right Core No IV Diagnosis Therapy Outcome (b) Cutaneous ALCL Case 1 Chemotherapy DFS 9 y Case 2 Chemotherapy AWD 2 y, Breast cancer 2 y later. ALK- ALCL Case 3 Chemotherapy, radiation DFS 4 y "Seroma"-associated ALK-ALCL Case 4 None NA ALK+ ALCL Case 5 Chemotherapy DOD 1.2 y Case 6 Chemotherapy, radiation AWD 1.5 y Abbreviations: ALK, anaplastic lymphoma kinase; AWD, alive with disease; DFS, disease-free survival; DOD, dead of disease; NA, not available. (a) TNM staging for cutaneous lymphomas; Ann Arbor staging for nodal or extranodal lymphomas. (b) Here, y indicates years after diagnosis of breast tumor. Table 2. Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) and Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Negative ([ALK.sup.-]) ALCL Involving the Breast: Clinicopathologic Features and Review of the Literature Diagnosis Age, y Presentation Cutaneous ALCL Case 1 63 Mass effect. Seroma 80 mL. Case 2 61 Mass effect. Contralateral breast CA. Gaudet et al, (9) 2002 50 Subcutaneous nodules. Fritzche et al, (10) 2006 72 Skin ulcer. ALK-ALCL Case 3 40 Pain and swelling. Scar; no fluid. Pereira et al, (11) 2002 92 Mass. Keech and Creech, (12) 1997 41 Mass. No fluid. Wong et al, (4) 2008 40 Scarring. No fluid. Diagnosis Tumor Size Side Implant Cutaneous ALCL Case 1 1 cm Right Yes Case 2 1.2 cm Left No Gaudet et al, (9) 2002 NA Right Yes Fritzche et al, (10) 2006 2.5 cm Left Yes ALK-ALCL Case 3 1.5 cm Left Yes Pereira et al, (11) 2002 2.7 cm Left No Keech and Creech, (12) 1997 2 cm Right Yes Wong et al, (4) 2008 0.2 cm Right Yes Reason for Material of Diagnosis Implant Implant Cutaneous ALCL Case 1 CA Saline Case 2 NA NA Gaudet et al, (9) 2002 CA Silicone Fritzche et al, (10) 2006 CA Silicone ALK- ALCL Case 3 Cosmetic Silicone Pereira et al, (11) 2002 NA NA Keech and Creech, (12) 1997 Cosmetic Saline Wong et al, (4) 2008 Cosmetic Silicone Time implant Type of Diagnosis to ALCL, y (a) Stage (b) Specimen Cutaneous ALCL Case 1 8 T1a/IE Positive Case 2 NA T3b/IE NA Gaudet et al, (9) 2002 9 IE NA Fritzche et al, (10) 2006 16 T1a NA ALK- ALCL Case 3 9 IIE NA Pereira et al, (11) 2002 NA IIIE NA Keech and Creech, (12) 5 Excision NA 1997 Wong et al, (4) 2008 19 Capsule NA Diagnosis Immunophenotype PCR (c) Cutaneous ALCL Case 1 T-cell Clonal Case 2 T-cell Clonal Gaudet et al, (9) 2002 T-cell NA Fritzche et al, (10) 2006 T-cell NA ALK- ALCL Case 3 T-cell NA Pereira et al, (11) 2002 T-cell NA Keech and Creech, (12) T-cell NA 1997 Wong et al, (4) 2008 T-cell Clonal Diagnosis Therapy Outcome (d) Cutaneous ALCL Case 1 Chemotherapy DFS 9y Case 2 Chemotherapy AWD 2 y Breast CA 2 y later Gaudet et al, (9) 2002 Chemotherapy AWD 1 y Fritzche et al, (10) 2006 Chemotherapy NA ALK- ALCL Case 3 Chemotherapy, radiation DFS 4y Pereira et al, (11) 2002 Chemotherapy DOD 0.3 y Keech and Creech, (12) Chemotherapy, radiation DFS, unknown 1997 Wong et al, (4) 2008 Chemotherapy, radiation NA Abbreviations: AWD, alive with disease; CA, breast cancer; DFS, disease-free survival; DOD, dead of disease; NA, not available. (a) Here, y indicates years after initial diagnosis of lymphoma. (b) TNM Staging for cutaneous lymphomas; Ann Arbor staging for nodal or extranodal lymphomas. (c) PCR indicates polymerase chain reaction for T-cell receptor--chain gene rearrangement. (d) Here, y indicates years of follow-up after diagnosis. Table 3. Breast Implant Associated With Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) and Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive ([ALK.sup.+]) ALCL Involving the Breast: Clinicopathologic Features and Review of the Literature Breast Diagnosis Age, y Presentation Tumor Size Breast implant and "seroma"-associated ALCL Case 4 65 Seroma 720 mL Not detected Roden et al, (5) 2008 45 Seroma Not detected Roden et al, (5) 2008 59 Seroma NA Roden et al, (5) 2008 34 Seroma 700 mL NA Roden et al, (5) 2008 44 Seroma NA Sahoo et al, (19) 2003 33 Seroma 1 mm Gaudet et al, (9) 2002 87 Seroma NA Newman et al, (21) 2008 52 Seroma 200 mL 3 cm Olack et al, (20) 2007 64 Seroma NA [ALK.sup.+] ALCL Case 5 21 Mass effect 1.5 cm Case 6 35 Swelling 4 cm Aguilera et al, (29) 2000 13 Fungating mass 6 cm Iyengar et al, (30) 2006 36 Mass cystic 3.5 cm Reason for Diagnosis Side Implant Implant Material Breast implant and "seroma"-associated ALCL Case 4 Left Yes NA NA Roden et al, (5) 2008 Right Yes CA Saline Roden et al, (5) 2008 Left Yes CA Silicone Roden et al, (5) 2008 Left Yes Cosmetic Saline Roden et al, (5) 2008 Left Yes Cosmetic Saline Sahoo et al, (19) 2003 Left Yes Cosmetic Silicone Gaudet et al, (9) 2002 Right Yes CA Saline Newman et al, (21) 2008 Right Yes Cosmetic Silicone Olack et al, (20) 2007 Right Yes CA Saline [ALK.sup.+] ALCL Case 5 Right No NA NA Case 6 Right No NA NA Aguilera et al, (29) 2000 Left No NA NA Iyengar et al, (30) 2006 Left No NA NA Time Implant Diagnosis to ALCL, y Stage Specimen Breast implant and "seroma"-associated ALCL Case 4 NA IE Capsule Roden et al, (5) 2008 7 IE Capsule Roden et al, (5) 2008 3 IE Capsule Roden et al, (5) 2008 4 IE Capsule Roden et al, (5) 2008 NA IE Capsule Sahoo et al, (19) 2003 9 IE Capsule Gaudet et al, (9) 2002 8 IE NA Newman et al, (21) 2008 14 IE Core Olack et al, (20) 2007 7 IE Capsule [ALK.sup.+] ALCL Case 5 NA IV Excision Case 6 NA IV Core Aguilera et al, (29) 2000 NA IV Excision Iyengar et al, (30) 2006 NA IIE Core Diagnosis Cytology Immunophenotype PCR (a) Breast implant and "seroma"-associated ALCL Case 4 Positive T-cell NA Roden et al, (5) 2008 Positive T-cell Clonal Roden et al, (5) 2008 Positive T-cell Negative Roden et al, (5) 2008 NA T-cell Clonal Roden et al, (5) 2008 Positive T-cell Clonal Sahoo et al, (19) 2003 NA T-cell Clonal Gaudet et al, (9) 2002 NA T-cell Clonal Newman et al, (21) 2008 Suspicious NA NA Olack et al, (20) 2007 Positive T-cell NA [ALK.sup.+] ALCL Case 5 NA T-cell NA Case 6 NA Null-cell NA Aguilera et al, (29) 2000 NA T-cell Clonal Iyengar et al, (30) 2006 Positive T-cell NA Diagnosis Therapy (b) Outcome (c) Breast implant and "seroma"-associated ALCL Case 4 None NA Roden et al, (5) 2008 None DFS 1.7 y Roden et al, (5) 2008 Radiation DFS 0.8 y Roden et al, (5) 2008 Chemotherapy, radiation DFS 0.8 y Roden et al, (5) 2008 NA NA Sahoo et al, (19) 2003 Chemotherapy, radiation DFS 1 y Gaudet et al, (9) 2002 NA NA Newman et al, (21) 2008 Chemotherapy DFS 1.5 y Olack et al, (20) 2007 Chemotherapy, radiation DFS 1 y [ALK.sup.+] ALCL Case 5 Chemotherapy DOD 1.2 y Case 6 Chemotherapy, radiation AWD 1.5 y Aguilera et al, (29) 2000 NA DOD 0.5 y Iyengar et al, (30) 2006 NA NA Abbreviations: AWD, alive with disease; DFS, disease-free survival; DOD, dead of disease; CA, breast cancer; NA, not applicable or not available. (a) PCR indicates polymerase chain reaction for T-cell receptor [gamma]-chain gene rearrangement. (b) None indicates no therapy in addition to surgery. (c) Here, y indicates years of follow-up after diagnosis.
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|Title Annotation:||Original Articles|
|Author:||Miranda, Roberto N.; Lin, Lin; Talwalkar, Sameer S.; Manning, John T.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey|
|Publication:||Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2009|
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