Analytical study of clinical and etiological profile of patients presenting with pleural effusions to a tertiary hospital.
Diagnosing the etiology of pleural effusions clinically with certainty is a challenging task for physicians.
The advancements in the field of medicine and with the advent of various diagnostic aids like pleural fluid analysis, pleural fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, ultrasonography, bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy, serological tests like ANA, ADA, Rheumatoid factor, CT thorax help the physician to arrive at the diagnosis at an earlier course of the disease.
Determining the aetiological & clinical profile of PE helps in adoption of regionally optimized diagnosis & therapeutic approach. Here I have made an attempt to arrive at the etiological diagnosis of 100 cases of pleural effusion by collecting relevant clinical as well as laboratory data using the recent modalities avaliable in our hospital.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Study Place: ASRAM Medical College and Hospital, Department of Pulmonary Medicine.
Study Duration: Study was done from November 2013 to July 2015.
Study Population: The study was carried out on 100 patients with pleural effusion.
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
1. Any case of Pleural effusion.
2. Age 18-85 years.
1. Age < 18 years.
2. Hemodynamically unstable patients.
3. Pregnant women.
4. Patients with bleeding disorders or diathesis.
METHODS: Patients admitted in ASRAM Medical College with pleural effusion fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken into study after obtaining written informed consent. In all these patients, detailed clinical history regarding their presenting complaints, other symptoms like breathlessness, chest pain, cough with sputum production, fever, weight loss, loss of appetite were enquired. Other symptoms of cardiac, liver or renal failure like swelling of feet, abdominal distension, oliguria were also enquired. Past history of any pulmonary tuberculosis, any history of previous intake of anti-tuberculosis treatment, history of diabetes or any other significant illnesses, contact history with tuberculosis patients were obtained. Detailed clinical examination was carried out and routine investigations were done for all patients. Chest X ray PA view, Lateral decubitus view were also taken. If the size of the effusion was less than 2/3rd it was considered as not large and if it was more than 2/3rds the size was considered as large effusion respectively in chest x-ray PA view. All the patients were subjected to Diagnostic Thoracentesis. Under aseptic precautions about 50 ml of fluid was aspirated and subjected to pleural fluid analysis -Biochemical, Microbiological, Pathological analyses were done. Pleural fluid cell count, cell type, Sugar, Protein, ADA, LDH and AFB stain and sputum AFB were done for all patients. Pleural fluid gram staining and Culture were carried in necessary patients. For inconclusive cases and in some diagnosed cases for futher confirmation, Pleural biopsy was done and histopathological analysis was carried out. Prior informed consent was obtained for all the invasive procedures. Pleural Biopsy and Thoracoscopy was done for few patients only, due to practical difficulties and also many patients deferred to give the consent. In our series we used Abram's pleural biopsy needle for obtaining the pleural tissue. Chest ultrasound was used if the effusion was very small, loculated and difficult to aspirate. Patients with clinical suspicion of parenchymal lesions or other associated diseases of the lung, CT scan of thorax was taken for those who could afford the cost. Other Investigations like Echocardiography, Ultra sonogram abdomen were done in relevant cases only. All the patients were evaluated thoroughly and an appropriate etiological diagnosis was made out in a systematic way
Demographic Data: 100 consecutive patients with pleural effusions were studied from December 2013 to July 2015. There were 78 males and 22 females. The mean age was 40.55 [+ or -] 11.33 years. The mean age among men was 40.43 [+ or -] 10.76 years and in women was 40.95 [+ or -] 13.41 years. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 21-40 years (table 1). The male to female ratio was 3.54:1.
Pleural fluid glucose : Level Majority of the empyemas had pleural fluid glucose level less than 40mg/dl (83.3 %). 100% of parapneumonic effusion, 95% of Tubercular effusion had pleural fluid glucose between than 40-100 mg/dl.
Pleural Fluid Adenosine Deaminase (ADA): Pleural fluid ADA was >70 IU/L in 27 patients which is definitive of tubercular effusion, 30-70 IU/L along with clinico-radiological findings in 33 patients of tubercular effusion. Only in 14.3%, 27.3%, 41.7 % of patients with malignant effusion, parapneumonic effusion and empyema respectively had ADA levels of 30-40 IU/L.
Age Distribution: The present study comprised of patients aged from 18 years to 70 years (Mean age: 40.55 [+ or -] 11.33 years). The mean age in case of tuberculous effusion was 36.33 [+ or -] 8.72 years consistent with Luis Valdes et al (34 years). (2) and S. K. Sharma et al (33 years). (3) and Subhakar. k et al (31 years). Earlier studies done in United States by Epstein et al and Aho K et al showed a mean age of 54 and 28 years respectively.
Patients in our study with malignant pleural effusion were older, around 60 years (mean 62 years) compared to study by Sharma et al. (3) (mean age 47 years) and Subhakar et al. (4) (mean age 51 years) but consistent with reports from the West (65 years). (2) It is how ever well known that Indian patients with malignancy are 15 years younger as compared to the West observed by Pathak et al. (5)
The mean age in case of Transudative effusions was 54 [+ or -] 7.36 years in comparison to Subhakar et al. (4) (48.15+6.92 ).The mean ages in case of parapneumonic and empyema were 39.27 [+ or -] 5.72 years, 38.83 [+ or -] 9.07 years respectively in our study.
Sex Distribution: There were a greater number of male patients than female patients in this study with 78% males and 22 % females with a ratio of 3.54:1 which was consistent with Subhakar. K et al (4) - 77.5% males and 22.5% females with a ratio of 3.44:1. In comparison, the sex distributions in some of the previous studies are: ; Luis Valdes (2) - 62.5% males and 37.5% females with a ratio of 1.6:1; Al Quorian. (6) - of 201 cases 145 were males(72%) and 56 females(27.9%) with a ratio of 2.58:1.
Socioeconomic Status: Most of the patients in this study belonged to the lower socioeconomic class. This is consistent with the fact that tuberculosis is a disease more commonly seen among people living in crowded, unhygienic conditions of lower socioeconomic class. It is poverty related disease.
Etiology: Out of the 100 cases of pleural effusion, 60 cases were of tuberculous effusion (60%).This is similar to the observation in another study from India by Maldhure et al. (7) where they showed that the tubercular effusions constitute 76% of the effusions. General prevalance of TB is high in India and Southeast Asian countries than in the West. In India tubercular effusion is the commonest cause of all exudative effusions.
This observation is different from the Western studies, where the incidence of parapneumonic effusion and malignant effusion are much higher compared to tubercular effusion.
The remaining 40 cases were of Empyema (12 cases), Parapneumonic effusion (11 cases), Transudative effusion (10 cases) and malignant effusion (7 cases). CHF was most common cause of transudative pleural effusion in our study which is consistent with Lights description of transudative pleural effusion. In comparison with some of the previous studies are: Prabhu desai et al. (8) tubercular effusion comprises 22.4% and 64% were of malignancy.
Al Quarain et al. (6) common etiology was tubercular (37%) followed by neoplasm (18%), parapneumonic (14%) and congestive cardiac failure (14%); KZ mamum et al--also showed tubercular and malignancy were the major causes of pleural effusion; Luis Valdes et al 2 showed tubercular (25%), malignancy (22.9%) and transudative (17.9%) were commonest causes.
Symptomatology: The most common symptom encountered by TB patients were dry cough(73.3%), followed by fever (70%),breathlessness(66.7%) and chest pain (35%) in comparision with the study done earlier by Arun Gopi et al. (9) in which most common symptom were chest pain(75%) and dry cough(70%). Patients with malignant effusion had cough (100%) and dyspnea (100%) as predominant symptoms followed by chest pain (28.6%) which was similar to a study by Chernov B et al, where breathlessness (57%) and cough (43%) are predominant symptoms followed by chest pain (23%). In empyema patients cough was the predominant symptom (83.3%), followed by chest pain (75%), fever (66.7%), breathlessness (58.3%) and hemoptysis (8.3%). In Parapneumonic effusion cough (100%) followed by fever (90.9%) were the predominant symptoms. Most of the patients with synpneumonic effusion, had complaints of a short duration with an acute onset, whereas those with tuberculous effusion and malignancy had complaints of a longer duration. Among the transudative pleural effusion, Congestive heart failure was the most common cause in our study. Cough (100%) and breathlessness (100%) were major symptoms respectively which is nearly consistent with the Lights description of Congestive heart failure.
Appearance of Pleural Fluid: The majority of effusions were straw colored (61%) in which TB effusion was the most common cause (88.3%), hemorrhagic effusions were encountered predominantly in malignant effusions (100%), Parapneumonic effusions were turbid (90.9%) in comparison with the study Victoria villena et al majority of effusions were straw coloured of which Tuberculosis (74%) and transudates (67%) were predominant and 34% of malignant effusions were hemorrhagic.
Pleural Fluid Cell Type and Cell Count: The majority of effusions had total leukocyte count less than 1000 cells/mm3 of which Tuberculosis constitutes 50%.All patients of empyema had cell count greater than 5,000 mm3 (100%) followed by parapneumonic effusions (36.4%), consistent with Light's observation et al. 83.3% of TB effusions and 100% of malignant effusions had lymphocyte predominance. In comparison to other studies: Valdes L et al. (2) where they have encountered neutrophil predominant tuberculous effusion in only 6.7% of patients and only one malignant effusion had neutrophil predominant effusion(3%). Follander.12 demonstrated predominance of lymphocytes and scarcity of mesothelial cells in tubercular effusion; Light RW--large number of neutrophils indicate the presence of bacterial pneumonia. Lymphocytes predominant in tubercular pleural effusion.
Pleural Fluid Glucose: The majority of pleural fluid glucose levels were between 40-100mg/dl in tubercular effusions (95%) while only 1.7% of tuberculosis effusions had sugars less than 40mg%. Majority of malignant pleural effusion (57.1%) had pleural fluid glucose levels >100mg/dl while 42.9% had glucose levels between 40-100 mg/dl. Low pleural fluid glucose (less than 40 mg/dl) was seen predominantly in patients with Empyema (83.3%) because of bacterial utilization of glucose. In comparison to other studies: Antony Seaton. (3)--showed glucose level <60mg% in parapneumonic, empyema, tubercular and malignancy and >60mg% in transudates; Richard W. Light pleural fluid glucose level below 40mg% in Parapneumonic effusion and Empyema. Carr DT et al- low pleural fluid glucose value was seen in exudative pleural effusion and normal in cases of transudative effusion.
Adenosine Deaminase: In tubercular pleural effusion pleural fluid Adenosine deaminase level (ADA) has got a good diagnostic index after excluding other causes of raised ADA levels. Although a pleural fluid ADA above 70IU/L is diagnostic of tuberculosis it has to be considered if the pleural fluid ADA is between 40 IU/L and 70 IU/L. An ADA level less than 40IU/L very much unlikely of pleural tuberculosis. But different authors have used different cut off levels for pleural fluid ADA ranging between 33 IU/L to 50 IU/L. (61,62,63,64) In our study pleural fluid ADA >40U/l was taken as diagnostic cut off for tuberculous effusion and it yielded 96.36% sensitivity, 84.4% specificity, 80.3% positive predictive value, 95% negative predictive value and p value<0.0001. In our study who were diagnosed as tubercular effusion 27 patients(45%) had ADA level more than 70IU/L, 26 patients (43.3%) with ADA level between 40-70IU/L and 7patients (11.7%) with ADA level between 30-40 IU/L. In comparison to other studies: Asmita A. Mehta et al pleural fluid ADA >40U/l was taken as diagnostic cut off for tuberculous effusion and it yielded 85.7% sensitivity, 80.8% specificity, 75% positive predictive value and 89.5% negative predictive value . S.K. Verma et al pleural fluid ADA 36U/l was taken as diagnostic cut off for tuberculous effusion and it yielded 100% sensitivity, 77.7% specificity. Kalpana K.Dave et al pleural fluid ADA >60U/l was taken as diagnostic cut off for tuberculous effusion and it yielded 69.2% sensitivity, 92% specificity , 90% positive predictive value and 74% negative predictive value. Prabhakar et al pleural fluid ADA 50U/l was taken as diagnostic cut off for tuberculous effusion and it yielded 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity.
All our malignant effusions had pleural fluid ADA less than 40 IU/L with a mean of 23.5 which in comparison to Mehta et al study the mean ADA in malignant effusion was 18 IU/l. In our study, out of 12 empyema cases, 2 cases (16.6%) had ADA values between 40- 70IU/L rest all had ADA <40 IU/L.
Studies done in the West demonstrate pleural fluid ADA more than 70 IU/L, by Valdes et aland Burgess et al when compared with our study which showed a mean of 52.82+28.45 IU/L. The mean ADA were high in the 2 Indian studies done by Rajendra Prasad et al, and Gilhotra et al with the mean ADA level ranging between 76.8 [+ or -] 23.8 IU/L -95.8 [+ or -] 57.5 IU/L.
Pleural LDH to Serum LDH Ratio: The ratio of pleural fluid LDH to serum LDH was more than 2 in 100%, 3.3% and 14.3% of patients with empyema, tubercular effusion and malignancy respectively. Majority of patients with tubercular effusion (60%), malignancy (57.1%), parapneumonic effusion (72.7%) had a ratio of 1-2. Pleural LDH to serum LDH ratio was less than 0.6 in all of transudative effusions (100%). The mean LDH value in tubercular effusion--407.06 [+ or -] 165.03, malignant 381.71 [+ or -] 165.4, transudative-178.6 [+ or -] 32.92, parapneumonic 359.9 [+ or -] 69.98 and empyema -879 [+ or -] 120.42. The mean LDH in exudate effusion was higher as compared to transudative effusions which was highly significant. In our study all the transudates had a ratio of less than 0.6 while 83 cases of exudates had a ratio more than 0.6 and remaining 7 cases (6 cases of tuberculosis and 1 case of empyema) had ratio less than 0.6. Pleural fluid mean LDH levels in different etiologies in our study.
In comparison to other studies: Lakhotia- pleural fluid LDH >200 U/L and pleural fluid to serum ratio >0.6 helps to classify the effusion as exudates. The same view was held by Santiago Romero and Marina Costa. Burana Chavalittamrong et al -pleural fluid LDH was found increased in malignancy, tuberculosis, parapneumonic effusions and in empyema with a mean of 1470.68(p<0.05).
Site of Effusion: Out of the 100 patients with pleural effusion 59 cases were right sided of which 37 cases(61.7%) and 7 cases (63.6%) were of tuberculous and parapneumonic effusion respectively .35 patients had left sided effusion and only 6 patients had bilateral pleural effusion. In comparison to other studies: Al Quarain pleural effusion was more common in right side (56%) than on the left (32%); In Follander--both right and left side effusion were of equal distribution.
Size of Effusion: In our study massive effusion were seen in 100% of malignant effusions, 10% of transudative effusions and 8.4% of Tuberculosis. In all other causes they were more commonly small to moderate in size. In comparison to a study by Grace G. Maher et al massive effusions were seen in 67% of malignant effusions and 33% of nonmalignant effusions.
In our study loculated pleural effusion were seen in 8 patients, among which 6 cases were loculated tubercular effusion which were treated with steroids and 2 cases were loculated empyema of which 1had minimal loculations removed by medical thoracoscopy while other had moderate loculations referred to higher centre for video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS).
Sputum for AFB: In this study, out of the 60 cases of tuberculous effusion, in 7 cases acid fast bacilli could be demonstrated in the sputum by Ziehl Nielson's staining (11.6%). The detection of AFB in the sputum in the tuberculous depends upon the associated lung parenchymal lesion. In comparison to other study: Subhakar. K et al - 7 of the 62 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion showed sputum positivity for AFB (i.e. 11%).
Pleural Fluid Cytology: Pleural fluid cytology was performed in all the patients with malignant pleural effusions. Among them 6 cases (85.7%) of the effusions showed malignant cells on cytological examination.
In comparison to other studies Ong KC et al pleural fluid cytology was positive in 48.5% of malignant effusions, Salyer et al pleural fluid cytology was positive in 72.6 % of malignant effusions Prakash et al pleural fluid cytology was positive in 57.6% of malignant effusions Nancy et al pleural fluid cytology was positive in 71% of malignant effusions Hirsch pleural fluid cytology was positive in 53.8 % of malignant effusions. Hence pleural fluid cytology study is simple way of diagnosing malignant pleural effusion.
Pleural Biopsy: Pleural Biopsy and Thoracoscopy was done for 20 patients only, due to practical difficulties and many patients deferred to give the consent. In our series we used Abram's pleural biopsy needle for obtaining the pleural tissue for 12 cases and thoracoscopic biopsy for 8 cases. Out of 12 closed pleural biopsies, definitive diagnosis obtained in 6(50%) cases (5 patients with tubercular effusion and 1 patient with malignant effusion). Out of 8 thoracoscopic pleural biopsies, definitive diagnosis obtained in 6(50%) cases (4 patients with tubercular effusion and 2 patients with malignant effusion). Rest of the cases (8) biopsies were nondiagnostic. In comparison to study Abdullah A et al -out of 112 pleural biopsies performed specific diagnosis were obtained in 54 cases giving a diagnostic yield of 49.1%.
Treatment: Patients with TB pleural effusion were treated with Antitubercular treatment. Empyemas were treated with interventions like Intercostal drainage tube insertion and appropriate antibiotic treatment while for 2 cases Antitubercular treatment was also given along with antibiotics. Parapneumonic effusions were treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment based on pleural fluid culture and sensitivity. Transudative effusions showed improvement with appropriate conservative line of management especially congestive heart failure. In malignant effusions thoracocentasis and Pleurodesis were done for symptomatic betterment and referred to higher centre for further management. All patients received other supportive measures. Check x-ray were done as and when necessary.
Thus, the first step in the evaluation of a pleural effusion is to identify the cause of the effusion. This is achieved by a detailed history, clinical examination, relevant blood tests, radiological features and analysis of the pleural fluid for cytology, bacteriology and biochemical parameters like protein, glucose cholesterol, L.D.H. and ADA. This is important because in case of transudates, therapy is directed towards the underlying disease like congestive cardiac failure, nephrotic syndrome, liver cirrhosis or hypoproteinemia and usually therapeutic measures directed at the pleura are not necessary. But in case with exudate effusion, a definitive diagnosis has to be established, using further diagnostic procedures like pleural biopsy and specific therapy for the pleural disease must be instituted.
There were inadequate number of cases to comment the role of malignant cytology in diagnosing malignant effusion. Pleural Biopsy was done for few patients only, due to practical difficulties and also many patients refused to give the consent.
1. There were insufficient number of subjects with etiology other than TB to evaluate the utility of ADA in various etiologie.
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2. Luis Valda, David Alvarez et al: "The Aetiology of Pleural Effusion in an area with high incidence of Tuberculsis. "CHEST/109/1/Jan1996/page158-62.
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5. Pathak AK, Bhutan M, Mohan A et al. Non-small cell lung cancer, current status and future prospects Indian J of Chest Dis and Allied Sci 2004; 46:191-203.
6. Al-Quarain, F GI-Muhanna, FB Larbi. Pattern of pleural effusion in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia a prospective study in East African Medical Journal: 1994; Apr 71(4): p246-249.
7. Maldhure, Bedharkar Kulkarni et al. Pleural biopsy and adenosine deaminase in the pleural fluid in the diagnosis of tubercular pleural effusion. Ind J Tuberculosis 1994; 41: 161-164.
8. Prabhudesai PP, Mahashur AA, Mehta N, Ajay R. Exudative pleuraleffusions in patients over forty years of age--an analysis of seventy-six patients.J Post grad Med 1993;39:190.
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A. Lokeswara Reddy , G. Sundar Raj , Md. Badusha , C. Ramanjula Reddy , P. Yugandhar , S. K. Nilofer , S. Satya Sri 
 Junior Resident, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Asram Medical College & Hospital, Eluru, Andra Pradesh.
 Associate Professor, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Asram Medical College & Hospital, Eluru, Andra Pradesh.
 Junior Resident, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Asram Medical
College & Hospital, Eluru, Andra Pradesh.
 Senior Resident, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Asram Medical College & Hospital, Eluru, Andra Pradesh.
 Professor, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Asram Medical College & Hospital, Eluru, Andra Pradesh.
 Junior Resident, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Asram Medical College & Hospital, Eluru, Andra Pradesh.
 Professor & HOD, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Asram Medical College & Hospital, Eluru, Andra Pradesh.
Financial or Other, Competing Interest: None.
Submission 08-10-2015, Peer Review 09-10-2015, Acceptance 20-10-2015, Published 30-10-2015.
Dr. A. Lokeswara Reddy, PG, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Asram Medical College & Hospital, Eluru, Andra Pradesh-534005.
Table 1: Age and Sex wise Distribution Age in years Male Female No. % No. % 18 - 20 1 1.3 3 13.6 21 - 40 44 56.4 11 50 41 - 60 29 37.2 5 22.8 >60 4 5.1 3 13.6 Total 78 100 22 100 Mean [+ or -] SD 40.43 [+ or -] 40.95 [+ or -] 10.76 13.41 Age in years Total No. % 18 - 20 4 4 21 - 40 55 55 41 - 60 34 34 >60 7 7 Total 100 100 Mean [+ or -] SD 40.55 [+ or -] 11.33 Table 2: Classification of transudative and exudative pleural effusion Etiology No. of cases (n=100) Percentage Transudative effusion 10 10 Exudative effusion 90 90 Total 100 100 Table 3: Classification of Transudative effusion Etiology No. of cases (n = 10) Percentage Congestive Cardiac Failure 8 80 Renal Failure 2 20 Table 4: Etiological Classification of Exudative Effusion Etiology No. of cases (n = 90) Percentage Tuberculosis 60 66.7 Malignancy 7 7.8 Parapneumonic Effusion 11 12.2 Empyema 12 13.3 Total 90 100 Table 5: Pleural fluid Glucose levels and Etiology Etiology Exudate Pleural TB MAL PPE EMP TRANS Total fluid glucose <40 1(1.7%) 0 0 10(83.3%) 0 11 40-100 57(95%) 3(42.9%) 11(100%) 2(16.7%) 5(50%) 73 >100 2(3.3%) 4(57.1%) 0 0 5(50%) 11 Total 60(100%) 7(100%) 11(100%) 12(100%) 10(100%) 100 Table 6: Association of ADA with Etiology Etiology Exudate ADA TB MAL PPE EMP TRANS < 30 0 6( 85.7%) 8(72.7%) 5(41.7%) 9(90%) 30-40 7(11.7%) 1( 14.3%) 3(27.3%) 5(41.7%) 1(10%) 40-70 26(43.3%) 0 0 2(16.6%) 0 > 70 27(45%) 0 0 0 0 Total 60( 100%) 7( 100%) 11(100%) 12(100%) 10(100%) Mean age in tuberculous effusion in our study and other reference studies Studies Mean age(yrs) in tuberculous effusion Our study 36 Luis Valdes et al 34 S.K.Sharma et al 33 Subhakar.k et al 31 Epstein et al 54 Aho K et al 28 Mean age in malignant effusion in our study and other reference studies Studies Mean age(yrs) in malignant effusion Our study 62 Sharma et al 47 Subhakar et al 51 Sex distribution in our study and other reference studies Studies Sex distribution Male :Female ratio Our study Males-78% Females-22% 3.54:1 Subhakar.K et al (4) Males-77.5% Females-22.5% 3.44:1 Luis Valdes (2) Males-62.5% Females-37.5% 1.6:1 Al Quorian (6) Males-72% Females-28% 2.58:1 Etiology of pleural effusion in our study and other reference studies Studies Common etiology Our study Tuberculosis -60% Empyema -12% Maldhure et al (7) Tuberculosis -60% Prabhu desai et al (8) Malignancy -64% Tuberculosis -22.4% Al Qorain et al (6) Tuberculosis -37% Malignancy -18% Luis Valdes et al (2) Tuberculosis -25% Malignancy -22.9% Common symptomology in TB effusion in our study and other reference studies Studies Symptomology Our study Dry cough (73.3%) Fever (70%) Breathlessness (66.7%) Arun Gopi et al (9) Chest pain (35%) Chest pain (75%) Dry cough (70%). Common symptomology in malignant effusion in our study and other reference studies Studies Symptomology Our study Cough (100%) Dyspnea (100%) Chest pain (28.6%) Chernov B et al, (10) Breathlessness (57%) Cough (43%) Chest pain (23%). Comparison of pleural fluid appearance in our study and reference study Appearance of fluid Our study Victoria villena et al (11) Straw 61% 53% Turbid 11% 7% Hemorrhagic 16% 8% Pus 12% 1% Cell cytology in our study and other reference studies Studies Predominant Etiology of effusion cells Our study Lymphocytes 83.3% of TB effusion 100% of malignant effusion Valdes L et al Lymphocytes 93.3% of TB effusion 97% of malignant effusion Utility of ADA in Tuberculous pleural effusion with cut off 40IU/L in our study and other refernce studies Our study Asmita A.Mehta et al (13) (Reference study) Sensitivity -96.36% Sensitivity-85.7% Specificity -84.4% Specificity-80.8% Positive predictive value--80.3% Positive predictive value--75% Negative predictive value--95% Negative predictive value--89.5% Pleural fluid ADA levels in different etiologies in our study Etiology No.of cases ADA activity(IU/L) (X [+ or -] SD) Tuberculosis 60 69.7 [+ or -] 23.78 Malignancy 7 23.5 [+ or -] 7.06 Parapneumonic effusion 11 28.6 [+ or -] 3.77 Empyema 12 34.4 [+ or -] 12.01 Transudate 10 20.3 [+ or -] 7.11 Total 100 52.82 [+ or -] 28.45 Pleural fluid mean LDH levels in different etiologies in our study Etiology No.of cases LDH(X [+ or -] SD) Tuberculosis 60 407.06 [+ or -] 165.03 Malignancy 7 381.71 [+ or -] 165.4 Parapneumonic effusion 11 359.9 [+ or -] 69.98 Empyema 12 879 [+ or -] 120.42 Transudates 10 178.6 [+ or -] 32.92 Site of effusion in our study and other refernce studies Site of effusion Our study AL Quarain (42) (reference study) Right 59% 56% Left 35% 32% Bilateral 6% 12% Comparison of Sputum Positivity for Afb In Tuberculous Effusion In Our Study And Reference Study Sputum for AFB Our study Subhakar. K et al Positive 11.6% 11% SENSITIVITY OF PLEURAL FLUID CYTOLOGY IN MALIGNANT PLEURAL EFFUSION: Studies No. of total No. of cases % diagnosed Patients of malignancy by Cytology Ong KC et al 103 103 48.5 Salyer et al 271 95 72.6 Prakash et al 414 162 57.6 Nancy et al 385 109 71 Hirsch 300 117 53.8 Our study 100 7 85.7 Comparison of diagnostic efficacy of pleural biosy in our study and reference study Pleural Biopsy Our Study Abdullah A et al (reference study) Definite diagnosis obtained 50% 49.1%
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Reddy, A. Lokeswara; Raj, G. Sundar; Badusha, Md.; Reddy, C. Ramanjula; Yugandhar, P.; Nilofer, S.K.|
|Publication:||Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences|
|Date:||Nov 2, 2015|
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