Analysis of the tourist profile on the Sherry wine route, Spain.
The tourists' desire of new experiences has led to the creation of new products and the development and/or consolidation of destinations to satisfy that demand. With this in mind, the development of regional gastronomy and wine is being promoted as part of the cultural heritage of geographical areas (Brunori & Rossi, 2001). Wine and tourism (together with the local cuisine) appear to be a perfect symbiosis for visitors to appreciate a different product, promoting the economic development of the wine regions, through both sales of wine at the wineries and new business opportunities related to food supply.
Recent studies about wine tourism (Alebaki & Iakovidou, 2010; Alonso & Liu, 2011) suggest and promote the idea that food and wine can be, and actually are, already the main reason for visiting a region and not necessarily a second (or additional) travel activity (Szivas, 1999). In this regard, wine tourism is undergoing an important development in different parts of the world, including Europe, enabling geographic areas until now outside the traditional tourist flows to structure a visit to the wineries as a motivating element to create and/or revitalize a specific touristic destination.
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the research in the field of wine tourism in Europe, specifically in one of its most important wine areas, taking into account an economic point of view as well as the tradition that exists within the Sherry region (Spain), through a study that sheds light on the profile and motivation of tourists visiting the wineries of this denomination of origin. To achieve this objective, this paper is divided, after this introduction, into five sections: (i) a brief review of the scientific literature in this field; (ii) wine tourism in Europe and particularly in Spain; (iii) the character of the geographical area under investigation; (iv) the research methodology; (v) the results of the investigation. This paper ends with a section of conclusions and bibliographic references.
The genesis of the research in the field of wine tourism dates back to the mid-nineties of the last century, and is mainly located in Australia and New Zealand. Thus, wine tourism, according to Hall et al. (2000), consists of visiting vineyards, learning about wineries, and attending wine festivals and wine tasting events. Getz (2000) believes that the concept of wine tourism can be considered from three perspectives: first, analysis of consumers' motivation for undertaking the trip and their buying behavior; second, the study of the winery business and its impact, both on its sales and product distribution; and third, the socio-economic development that may occur in the region as a result of the relationship between tourism and wine.
Wine tourism demand analysis has been the subject of several investigations (including, Charters & Ali-Knight, 2002; Getz & Brown, 2006; Dawson et al., 2011; Sampaio, 2012). These seek to define the profile of wine tourists who visit a winery and their motivation. The analysis, thus, aims to identify tourists' typologies that can help define more clearly what tourists are looking for in order to adjust the offer to these characteristics. In this regard, aspects such as the sociodemographic characteristics of the interviewees (age, gender, nationality, income, etc.), the number of days spent in the area, the total travel budget, or how they found out about this geographical area (through friends or agencies, etc.) are key to better understanding of tourists. Also of interest are tourists' main reasons to visit wineries (learning more about the process of wine making or buying the product), their buying behaviour in the winery or the level of satisfaction with the trip. In addition, certain investigations deepen the analysis of tourist demand based on the variation of tourist profiles. Thus we find differentiation based on whether it is the first visit or a repeat visit (Bruwer & Alant, 2009), gender (Fraser et al., 2008; Batra, 2008), age (Alonso et al., 2007; Getz & Carlsen, 2008) or nationality (Jaffe & Pasternak, 2004; Alonso et al., 2007). These studies allow us to determine different tourist profiles more clearly through both the simplification of consumer identification procedures and by highlighting the most important characteristics of each particular segment.
Wine tourism in Europe
In recent years various scientific studies in Europe deal with wine tourism, structured around tourist routes. Among these studies we find the contributions made by Bras et al. (2010) in the Bairrada wine route (Portugal), investigations by Charter and Menival (2011) in the Champagne area (France), the analysis carried out by Tomljenovic and Getz (2009) in the regions of Medimurje and Plesivica (Croatia), the research by Jurincic and Bojnec (2009) in the region of Boriska Brda (Slovenia), the analysis by Brunori and Rossi (2000) about Toscana (Italy), the research conducted in the regions of Macedonia, Epirus and Thessaly (Karafolas, 2007) or the analysis carried out in the wine routes of Northern Greece (Alebaki and Iakovidou, 2010).
Although wine tourism has always existed in Spain, a country with strong tourism and wine industry, official wine routes were fist introduced in 2000 in order to create a quality tourism product that would meet the increasing demand for this kind of product. This proposal was supplemented in 2009 with the promotion of the local gastronomy, both food and wine, as part of the culture of an area. At the time of writing of this paper (November 2013), the official name "Wine Routes of Spain" brings together a total of 21 routes, of which 17 have been certified so far. With respect to the scientific literature on wine tourism in Spain, the first studies in the field of wine tourism dealt with two geographic areas: the Rioja and the Sherry region (Gilbert, 1992; Hall & Mitchell, 2000). However, as a result of the development of the official wine routes in 2000, and the increasing economic and cultural importance of this type of tourism, the scientific literature analyzing different areas and wine routes is growing. Thus, the literature deals in depth with different tourist routes such as in Aragon (Marzo-Navarro & Pedraja-Iglesias, 2012), County of Huelva (De la Orden, 2012), Canary Islands (Alonso & Liu, 2011), Montilla-Moriles (Lopez-Guzman et al., 2009), Rioja (Gomez & Molina, 2011) or Valencia (Clemente Ricolfe et al., 2012).
According to data from the Spanish Association of Wine Cities (ACEVIN) the number of visits to the official wine routes, totalled 1,198,199 in 2008 while in 2011 this number had grown to 1,528.295, i.e. there was an increase of over 27% in just four years. If we focus on the data from each of the wine routes, two main routes stand out, Penedes and Sherry, which received 62% of the wine tourists in 2011 with about 500,000 visits per year each (ACEVIN, 2012).
Description of the geographic area within the Sherry region
The geographical setting of the Sherry and brandy wine route consists of eight municipalities in the province of Cadiz (Jerez de la Frontera, El Puerto de Santa Maria, Sanlucar de Barrameda, Chiclana de la Frontera, Chipiona, Puerto Real, Rota and Trebujena) and one in the province of Seville (Lebrija). These nine municipalities make up the production area of the Sherry denomination (Map 1).
The Sherry region has a total surface area of 10,725 hectares of vineyards and has a topography of open spaces, slightly hill shaped with a predominantly calcium carbonate terrain resulting in a whitish soil. The palomino grape is the most characteristic of the region and is used to make fino/pale Sherry wines.
The Pedro Ximenez variety produces high quality sweet wines with a fruity taste and particular aroma and the moscatel species is used to make wines of this name. The Sherry region is characterized by westerly winds, which are responsible for transporting the maritime humidity to the vineyards in the dry summer months, allowing the night dews in the summer season to help achieve the cycle of grape maturity. The yearly rainfall is estimated at 600 liters per square meter and the area has an average of 290 sunny days a year. The mild climate provides an average temperature of 22[degrees]C.
The Sherry wines are aged and produced in a unique process, known as the solera * system, in which old wines are regularly topped up with younger ones, a process known as "fractional blending" allowing the younger wines to age for a minimum of three years. Along with the quality of the wines, a unique architecture for housing the wines, called "cathedral wineries", originated in the second half of the eighteenth century, which reinforces the mysticism and the magic that characterizes these architectural sites.
Wine production has been the main economic activity in the Sherry region since the end of the 18th century and is still of considerable importance despite the reduction in the sale of its wines due to new tendencies, changing demand patterns and habits in consumer behaviour and the arrival of new wines from the so called "New World" (Chile, Argentina, Australia, South Africa, California, New Zealand)
Over the last two decades, between 1993 and 2011 there has been a drop in total wine sales of 46.44% from 913,582 hectolitres in 1993 to 424,285 in 2011.
The wine industry employs around 15,000 people (3,000 in direct and 12,000 in indirect jobs) and gives work to 2,500 winegrowers and on average 450,000 dayjobs in the vineyards, and a considerable ancillary industry with a production of 150 million bottles, labels, corks, cardboard boxes, etc. Sherry sales (wines, brandy and vinegars) show a total turnover of around 700 million [euro] of which 440 million [euro] for brandy and spririts and 250 million for wines and vinegars.
The reduction of wine and brandy sales in both the home and international market has led to a rethinking of the wine business in the area involving the enhancement of its architectural heritage (wineries), its natural environment (landscapes, vineyards) and culture assets, all of which are essential components for the development of the wine routes. The wineries have discovered in enotourism an alternative business strategy to increase wine consumption and sales through the enhancement of customer loyalty.
Wine tourism, through wine tours/routes, is experiencing a continued growing development that drives businesses to make investments in infrastructure and offer new services and activities for tourists.
Wine and Brandy routes within the Sherry region were certified as official wine routes in 2007 and aim to promote, through the collaboration of different public administrations and with the support of private initiatives, an oenology project which will help a sustainable socio-economic development of tourism in the area. With this in mind a new tourist product centred on the world of wine has been created which will make it possible to set up various itineraries targeted at different tourist typologies, and to create an integrated information and conservation system of the viticultural heritage of this area. The various itineraries aim to combine visits to the wineries together with a visit to the regionally famous horse show, the combination of the area's gastronomy with its wine or the contemplation of the vineyard landscape.
The importance of the Sherry wine tours can be seen in the number of visitors which have made it the second most visited wine area in Spain. In 2010 the area received 455,854 visitors who spent on average 333 [euro] which resulted in a turover of 151 million [euro] (wine sales, accomodation, catering, visits of wineries and musea, and merchandising), which is 21.57% of the wine sector's total revenue.
As a result wine tourism has become a business alternative for the companies in the wine sector enhancing touristic development in the area, sales and brand image.
However, in economic terms, the sales of Sherry wines are in decline, as can be seen in Table 1, due both to declining domestic consumption and a sharp fall in exports.
This has resulted in a re-evaluation of the wine industry in the Sherry region by placing a strong emphasis on its architectural heritage (wineries) and its specific environment (vineyard landscape). For this reason, the development of wine tourism in the area, complemented by the local cuisine, is becoming a key element in the economic recovery of the wine industry in this area.
With respect to wine tourism in Jerez, the visits to the wineries are a major tool of its marketing policies and a lever for higher economic returns. Combining inegrowing activities with tourism offers important additional business oportunities through direct wine sales while at the same time enhancing brand image and customer loyalty towards the values, principles and products of the winery. Hence, we are not dealing with two alternative non-interrelated activities but rather with two business units that run absolutely in parallel, are fully complementary and mutually dependent for optimizing profitability and guaranteeing global competitiveness for the winery and/or Group of Winerie.
In this regard, enotourism can and should play an important role in the global development strategy of any winery, regardless of its size, location, wine ranking, commercial strategy, etc.
The methodology used in this research is based on a field study to determine the tourists' profile and motivation, in relation to wine and gastronomy within the geographic area of the Sherry region. To conduct this research, the field work was carried out within the wineries in the area, when the tourists visited the winery and specifically the timing of the survey was during the wine tasting sessions.
The structure of the survey used in this research is based on several previous studies (Charters & Ali-Knight, 2002; Getz & Brown, 2006; Carmichael, 2005; Dawson et al., 2011) and responds to the analysis of four aspects: the sociodemographic characteristics of the tourist, aspects related to the travel and the visit of the winery, attitudes and motivations related to the visit and wine consumption, and the purchasing behavior.
Three out of 13 DOP Sherry wineries with a tourist flow of more than 1.000 visitors a year were selected and asked to collaborate in this research (Lopez, 2010). On this basis, the wineries were divided into three groups: a) wineries receiving over 50.000 tourists a year (three wineries), b) wineries receiving between 10.000 and 50.000 tourists a year (four wineries) and c) wineries receiving between 1.000 and 10.000 tourists a year (six wineries). From each of these groups one winery was chosen.
The surveys were conducted between April and September 2012. The questionnaire was distributed in three languages (English, German and Spanish). Participants filled out the questionnaire independently, although the interviewers were present in case they had any kind of difficulty in filling it in. The questionnaire was completely anonymous. Previously, a pre-test of 30 questionnaires had been conducted to detect deviations and errors. The total number of filled out questionnaires was 600.
The questionnaire items were designed to respond to the indicators and actions proposed for a demand analysis in order to allow for systematic comparisons between different enotourism destinations (Getz & Brown, 2006). A mixture of technical questions was used: a 5-point Likert scale to evaluate the motivation and expectations, yes/no questions, and open or closed questions, where respondents could make comments on their enogastronomic experience. The total number of tourists visiting this route in 2011 was 480,766 (ACEVIN, 2012). Sampling error of the research was 4%. In Table 2 the data sheet of the investigation is presented.
The data collected were organized, tabulated and analyzed using the program SPSS 15.0. The data process was carried out through the use of univariate and bivariate statistical tools.
Results and discussion
The results of the initial research are focused on determining the profile analysis of wine tourists visiting the Sherry wine route. The main data for the sociodemographic characteristics of the tourists surveyed are shown in Table 4. From Table 4, we can conclude that the profile is predominantly a traveler/tourist with higher education, which confirms the conclusion drawn by Getz and Brown (2006) and Alebaki and Iakovidou (2010), with similar proportions for the four different age groups and a slightly higher one for women. They are predominantly people in salaried employment mainly from Spain, followed by Germany, UK and USA. Their income level is high (more than 2500 euros per month), which is corroborated by the conclusions of previous studies (Jolley, 2002; Alebaki & Iakovidou, 2010, Dawson et al., 2011; Charters & Menival, 2011).
We have found a level of association between Spanish, German, English, American and Dutch tourist and tourist from the rest of Europe and the rest of the world with regard to age (contingency coefficient = 0.354, p-value = = 0.000), level of studies (contingency coefficient = 0.330, p-value = 0.000), income (contingency coefficient = 0.298, p-value = 0.000) and profesional category (contingency coefficient = 0.358, p-value = 0.000). However, no association has been found for the gender (contingency coefficient = 0.086, p-value = 0.477).
The results with regard to the respondents' wine consumption are shown in Table 5.
The data show that there is a correlation between wine consumption and gender (coefficient [chi square] = 16.237, p = 0.039), age (coefficient [chi square] = 54.291; p = 0.000) professional category (coefficient [chi square] = 58.674; p= 0.000) country of origin (coefficient [chi square] = 119-257; p=0.003) and income level (coefficient [chi square] = 35.995; p = 0.003).
With reference to tourists' wine preference red wine clearly stands out (64.3%), followed by white wine (32.2%), fino wine (11.3%), rose wine (10.0%), and cava (2.2%). The preference for red wine coincides with that obtained by Batra (2008).
In relation to the tourist's motivation for visiting a winery, the main results are shown in Table 6, and are measured on a Likert scale of 5 points, 1-being not important and 5-very important.
According to Table 6, the main reason to visit a winery is to learn about everything related to the world of wine as for the domestic tourist and other countries. However, for German and American tourist the main reason is to taste traditional local products, and Dutch and English tourist considered to spend a day out as an important reason. Sampling the area's gastronomic specialties accompanied by their corresponding wines is also an important incentive, one that has also been observed by jaff and Pasternak (2004).
The purchase of wine, on the other hand, seems to be the least important reason for visiting a winery. This conclusion, together with the one that the tourists buy the wine at the winery mainly for their own consumption (47.9%), should be included in the line of work of enotourism, especially in small wineries, where it could serve as a means of commercializing their products (Carlsen, 2004; Getz & Brown, 2006). In this regard, the major explanation given by tourists when asked about the low purchase volume of wine in the wineries was due to the transport difficulties on airplanes, which led them to do so at the airport or in their places of origin.
We further asked the tourists about their motivation to travel to a destination to discover its food and wine. The main responses are in Table 7, which are measured on a Likert scale of 5 points, 1- being very little and 5-very much.
Also, from the data of Table 7, we see that the majority of visitors surveyed have a certain interest in everything related to the world of wine and that finding out about the food and wine plays a role when choosing a tourist destination.
Is to point out that tourists coming from the three most important countries for being destination for export of Sherry (German, English and Dutch) value as a second important reason, knowledge of the wine world. As to the level of satisfaction with their visit to the winery, also on a Likert scale of 5 points, this would be 4.26. In this regard, 43.3% of tourists surveyed are very satisfied with their visit to the winery and 43.7% satisfied. This high level of satisfaction coincides with the results obtained by Charters and Menival (2011). These data indicate the high level of satisfaction of tourists visiting the wineries within the Sherry region.
In Table 8 we present the level of satisfaction of tourists in relation to different variables related to tourism through the Spearman correlation coefficient of correlation.
All variables presented in Table 8 show a significant positive correlation with the level of satisfaction of the tourists. Thus we see that the three most influential aspects that determine the level of satisfaction are the wineries themselves the cultural activities and the entertainment events (mainly related to the horse shows).
As to whether tourists knew about the wine route of Sherry prior to the visit, 43.0% of the persons surveyed responded affirmatively. However, most of them (70.2%) had not done it before, though, and because of the high level of satisfaction of the visit, 83.9% of the tourists surveyed believe that they are likely to visit this route again.
In recent years wine and gastronomy have become one of the most important motivational factors for visiting a particular geographic area. In fact, tourists seek new experiences that engage other senses besides sight those of flavour and smell.
The academic literature reflects this type of tourism through different studies, focusing on both supply and demand, as on the economic development of the wine-growing areas. With this in mind, this article seeks to enhance current scientific research in Europe, particularly in Spain, a country with a strong tourism and wine industry, and in an area, the Sherry region, where wine tourism is of major importance.
As a result of reduced wine sales due to changes in the demand and the current low productivity of the wine-producing holdings, the wineries of the Sherry region have been forced to find new alternatives to their traditional wine business. The creation in 2007 of a touristic tour related to wine has been the beginning of a new innovative alternative for economic and social development, and has resulted in a marketing tool for the region and its wines. The turnover of the Sherry Wine Tour in 2010 was 16.7% of the total turnover of the wine sector (700 million [euro]).
Focusing on the demand for wine tourism, different studies are addressing the profile of wine tourists and their motivation for visiting a specific destination. And some studies even suggest the need for targeted analysis of the typology of tourists (Alonso et al., 2007).
In this paper we have presented the results of an investigation that aims to analyze tourists' profiles and motivation for visiting the Sherry region. For the analysis we have differentiated between tourists from Spain, Germany, United Kingdom, The United States, Netherland and tourists from other countries in Europe and the world to determine more clearly the characteristics and motivations of each of these groups. The main results of the research show that tourists enjoy high-income levels, predominantly have a university education, and visit the area on the recommendation of friends and family. On the other hand, the tourists' main motivation for visiting the wineries is to learn about the world of wine and enjoy both wine and gastronomy through the proper combination of both products. The results of the survey also allow us to conclude that for this type of tourists a visit to the wineries has already become a motivation (primary or secondary) in planning some of their trips.
A possible future line of investigation would be to quantify the degree of customer loyalty after the visit towards the winery brand and/or the wines included in the route.
Acknowledgements: The authors wish to thank the wineries of Gonzalez Byass (Tio Pepe), Lustau (Grupo Caballero) and Sandeman, within the Sherry region for their cooperation in the realization of this research.
ACEVIN (2012). Informe de visitantes a bodegas asociadas a las rutas del vino de Espana. Ano 2011, Publication Services ACEVIN, Madrid.
ALEBAKI, M., AND IAKOVIDOU O. (2010). Segmenting the Greek wine tourism market using a motivational approach, New Medit, A Mediterranean Journal of Economics, Agriculture and Environment, 4, 31-40.
ALONSO, A., FRASER, R.A., and COHEN, D.A. (2007). Investigating differences between domestic and international winery visitors in New Zealand, International Journal of Wine Business Research, 19(2), 114-126.
ALONSO, A., and LIU Y. (2011). The potential for marrying local gastronomy and wine: the case of the fortunate islands, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30, 974-981.
BATRA, A. (2008). An exploratory study on specific preferences and characteristics of wine tourists, Anatolia, an International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 19(2), 271-286.
BRAS, J.M., COSTA, C., and BUHALIS, D. (2010). Network analysis and wine routes: the case of the Bairrada wine route, The Services Industry Journal, 10, 1621-1641.
BRUNORI, G., and ROSSI, A. (2000). Synergy and coherence through collective action: some insights from wine routes in Tuscany, Sociology Ruralis, 40, 409-423.
BRUWER, J., and ALANT, K. (2009). The hedonic nature of wine tourism consumption: an experimental view, International Journal of Wine Business Research, 21(3), 235-257.
CARLSEN, J. (2004). A review of global wine tourism research, Journal of Wine Research, 15(1), 5-13.
CARMICHAEL, B.A. (2005). Understanding the wine tourism experience for winery visitors in the Niagara region, Ontario, Canada, Tourism Geographies, 7(2), 185-204.
CHARTERS, S., and ALI-KNIGHT, J. (2002). Who is the wine tourist? Tourism Management, 23, 311-319.
CHARTERS, S., and MENIVAL D. (2011). Wine tourism in Champagne, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 35, 102-118.
CLEMENTE RICOLFE, J.S., ESCRIBA-PEREZ, C., RODRIGUEZ-BARRIO, J.E., and BUITRAGO VERA, J.M. (2012). The potential wine tourist market: the case of Valencia (Spain), Journal of Wine Research, 23(2), 185-202.
DAWSON, H., HOMES, M.,JACOB, H. and WADE, R.I. (2011). Wine tourism: winery visitation in the wine appellations of Ontario, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 17(3), 237-246.
DE LA ORDEN, C. (2012). The satisfaction of wine tourist: causes and effects, European Journal of Tourism Research, 5(1), 80-83.
FRASER, R.A., ALONSO, A., and Cohen, D.A. (2008). Wine tourism experiences in New Zealand: an exploration of male and female winery visitors, Acta Turistica, 20(1), 39-65.
GETZ, D. (2000). Explore Wine tourism, management, development and destinations, London: Cognizant Communication Corporation.
GETZ, D., and BROWN, G. (2006). Critical success factors for wine tourism regions: a demand analysis, Tourism Management, 27, 146-158.
GETZ, D., and CARLSEN, J. (2008). Wine tourism among Generations X and Y, Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 56, 257-269.
GILBERT, D.C. (1992). Touristic development of a viticultural regions of Spain, International Journal of Wine Marketing, 4(2), 25-32.
GOMEZ, M., and MOLINA, A. (2012). Wine tourism in Spain: denomination of origin effects on brand equity, International Journal of Tourism Research, 14(4), 353-368.
HALL, C.M., SHARPLES, L., CAMBOURNE, B., and MACIONIS, N. (2000). Wine tourism around the world: development, management and markets, London: Elsevier.
HALL, C.M., and MITCHELL, R. (2000). Wine tourism in the Mediterranean: A tool for restructuring and development, Thunderbird International Business Review, 42(4), 445-465.
JAFFE, E., and PASTERNAK, H. (2004). Developing wine trails as a tourist attraction in Israel, International Journal of Tourism Research, 6, 237-249.
JOLLEY, A. (2002): The wine industry, wine tourism and tourism in general. Melbourne: Centre for Strategic Economic Studies of Victoria University.
JURINCIC I., and BOJNEC S. (2009). Wine tourism development: the case of the wine district in Slovenia, Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 57(4), 435-448.
KARAFOLAS, S. (2007). Wine roads in Greece: a cooperation for the development of local tourism in rural areas, Journal of Rural Cooperation, 35(1), 71-90.
LOPEZ, J.A. (2010). Posibilidades de desarrollo del enoturismo en la denominacion de origen Jerez-Xerry-Sherry y manzanilla de Sanlucar de Barrameda y vinagre de Jerez, Boletin de la Asociacion de Geografos Espanoles, 53, 21-41.
LOPEZ-GUZMAN, T., SANCHEZ CANIZARES, S., and RODRIGUEZ GARCIA, J. (2009). Wine routes in Spain: a case study, Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 57(4), 421-434.
MARZO-NAVARRO, M., and PEDRAJA-IGLESIAS, M. (2012). Critical factors of wine tourism: incentives and barriers from the potential tourist's perspective, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(2), 312-334.
REGULATORY BOARD OF THE SHERRY WINE (2012). Economics data, Publicacions Service of Regulatory Board, Sherry.
SAMPAIO A. (2012). Wine tourism and visitors' perceptions: a structural equation modelling approach, Tourism Economics, 18(3), 533-553.
SZIVAS, E. (1999). The development of wine tourism in Hungary, International Journal of WineMarketing, 11, 7-17.
TOMLJENOVIC, R., and Getz, D. (2009). Life-cycle stages in wine tourism development: a comparison of wine regions in Croatia, Tourism Review International, 13, 31-49.
Received on May 2, 2014
Aurea VIEIRA-RODRIGUEZ * Tomas LOPEZ-GUZMAN ** Juan RODRIGUEZ-GARCIA ***
* Faculty of Social Sciences and Communication. University of Cadiz. Agrifood Campus of International Excellence, ceiA3. Avenida de la Universidad S/N, 11405 Jerez de la Frontera, Cadiz, Spai, firstname.lastname@example.org.
** Faculty of Sciences Labour. University of Cordoba. Agrifood Campus of International Excellence, ceiA3. C/ Adarve, 30 14071-Cordoba, Spain, email@example.com..
*** Faculty of Social Sciences and Communication. University of Cadiz (Spain). Agrifood Campus of International Excellence, ceiA3. Avenida de la Universidad S/N. 11405 Jerez de la Frontera (Cadiz, Spain), firstname.lastname@example.org.
* The extraction of wine for expedition comes from the "solera" (the oldest tier of wine) and must be replaced with the same amount of younger wine from the first criadera (Spanish term that translates as "nursery"). In turn, this wine must be replaced with a wine from the second criadera, replaced in turn with the young wine named "sobretabla". This way, each wine cask is "rociada" (washed down) at least three times a year. No other wine is combined in this way. It takes at least four years to reach the necessary age in the solera before the wine is ready for bottling.
Table 1. Evolution of total sales of sherry wines. Period 1993-2011 NATIONAL VOLUME EXPORT VOLUME YEAR HI. [DELTA](%) Index HI. [DELTA](%) number (1993=100) 1993 155.707,86 -10,79% 86,65 757.874,76 -17,78% 1994 141.400,99 -9,19% 78,69 793,808,93 4,74% 1995 150.020,08 6,10% 83,49 826.136,30 4,07% 1996 139.871,47 -6,76% 77,84 741.933,70 -10,19% 1997 138.061,83 -1,29% 76,83 660.957,01 -10,91% 1998 143.956,19 4,27% 80,11 670.382,90 1,43% 1999 145.448,80 1,04% 80,95 597.472,30 -10,88% 2000 141.212,62 -2,91% 78,59 578.325,68 -3,20% 2001 138.678,13 -1,79% 77,18 569.001,92 -1,61% 2002 136.324,23 -1,70% 75,87 552.120,37 -2,97% 2003 128.144,62 -6,00% 71,32 517.490,61 -6,27% 2004 137.103,43 6,99% 76,30 491.539,84 -5,01% 2005 135.120,42 -1,45% 75,20 464.929,58 -5,41% 2006 139.081,55 2,93% 77,40 423.477,32 -8,92% 2007 137.961,82 -0,81% 76,78 413.700,16 -2,31% 2008 132.983,61 -3,61% 74,01 372.423,33 -9,98% 2009 124.245,63 -6,57% 69,15 336,083,24 -9,76% 2010 127.291,85 2,45% 70,84 337.414,52 0,40% 2011 122.181,46 -4,01% 68,00 302.104,48 -10,46% VOLUME SOLD YEAR Index HI. [DELTA](%) NATIONAL EXPORT number (%) of TOTAL. (%)of (1993=100) TOTAL. 1993 67,83 913,582,62 -16,67% 17,04% 82,96% 1994 71,05 935.209,92 2,37% 15,12% 84,88% 1995 73,94 976.156,38 4,38% 15,37% 84,63% 1996 66,40 881.805,17 -9,67% 15,86% 84,14% 1997 59,16 799,018,84 -9,39% 17,28% 82,72% 1998 60,00 814.339,09 1,92% 17,68% 82,32% 1999 53,47 742.921,10 -8,77% 19,58% 80,42% 2000 51,76 719.538,30 -3,15% 19,63% 80,37% 2001 50,93 707.680,05 -1,65% 19,60% 80,40% 2002 49,41 688.444,60 -2,72% 19,80% 80,20% 2003 46,32 645,635,23 -6,22% 19,85% 80,15% 2004 43,99 628.643,27 -2,63% 21,81% 78,19% 2005 41,61 600.050,00 -4,55% 22,52% 77,48% 2006 37,90 562.558,87 -6,25% 24,72% 75,28% 2007 37,03 551.661,98 -1,94% 25,01% 74,99% 2008 33,33 505.406,94 -8,38% 26,31% 73,69% 2009 30,08 460,328,87 -8,92% 26,99% 73,01% 2010 30,20 464.706,37 0,95% 27,39% 72,61% 2011 27,04 424.285,94 -8,70% 28,80% 71,20% Source: Own elaboration based on the regulatory board of the Jerez wine (2012). Table 2. The main objectives that wineries aim at when developing enotourism activities PROFITABILITY MARKETING More direct sales More visibility Sales with higher margin? Better brand image A profitable activity in Improved competitive positioning itself-adequate invest merit and More differentiation organization Higher customer loyalty towards the brand and its values enhance the value of assets Building relationships with current and potential consumers More indirect profits through Test new products winetourism Average price per unit sold, in Improved commercial orientation the medium term Source: Own elaboration Table 2. Date sheets for the research of the demand Number of tourists 480,767 travelers (year 2011) Sample 600 surveys Sampling error 4% Procedure Simple random sampling Period of realization April-September 2012 Control of the sample Realization and supervision of field work by the authors of the investigation. Source: Own elaboration Table 4. Sociodemographic characteristics Variables Spain (%) Germany % United (N=269) (N=80) Kingdom % (N=48) Gender Man 45.4% 51.3% 45.8% (N - 599) Woman 54.6% 48.8% 54.2% Age Less than 30 12.3% 10.0% 6.3% (N = 600) years of age 30-39 years 23.8% 27.5% 10.4% 40-49 years 26.0% 16.3% 8.3% 50-59 years 22.3% 30.0% 31.3% 60 years plus 15.6% 16.3% 43.8% Level of Primary 13.2% 2.5% 0.0% studies education (N - 595) Secondary 33.8% 35.4% 55.3% education University 53.0% 62.0% 44.7% education Income High 35.4% 57.4% 54.3% (N - 549) Middle-high 24.8% 23.5% 19.6% Middle-middle 28.0% 8.8% 21.7% Middle-low 7.7% 4.4% 4.3% Low 4.1% 5.9% 0.0% Professional Employed in the 39.0% 53.2% 22.9% category private sector (N - 597) Employed in the 15.0% 22.8% 27.1% public sector Freelance/self 22.8% 11.4% 8.3% employed Pensioner 9.7% 7.6% 39.6% Student 5.2% 2.5% 0.0% Housewife 8.2% 2.5% 2.1% Variables United Netherland Other % States % (N=27) (N=134) % (N=42) Gender Man 33.3% 51.9% 49.3% (N - 599) Woman 66.7% 48.1% 50.7% Age Less than 30 23.8% 37.0% 18.7% (N = 600) years of age 30-39 years 9.5% 3.7% 25.4% 40-49 years 11.9% 0.0% 20.9% 50-59 years 16.7% 44.4% 11.2% 60 years plus 38.1% 14.8% 23.9% Level of Primary 2.4% 3.7% 1.5% studies education (N - 595) Secondary 11.9% 37.0% 15.7% education University 85.7% 59.3% 82.8% education Income High 81.1% 69.2% 51.6% (N - 549) Middle-high 5.4% 15.4% 22.2% Middle-middle 5.4% 7.7% 21.4% Middle-low 2.7% 3.8% 3.2% Low 5.4% 3.8% 1.6% Professional Employed in the 23.8% 40.7% 26.1% category private sector (N - 597) Employed in the 19.0% 29.6% 20.9% public sector Freelance/self 19.0% 7.4% 22.4% employed Pensioner 21.4% 11.1% 11.9% Student 14.3% 7.4% 13.4% Housewife 2.4% 3.7% 5.2% Source: Own elaboration. Table 5- Wine consumption Wine consumption Everyday 17.8% More than once per week 27.9% Once a week 19.7% Occasionally 21.2% Never 13.4% Source: Own elaboration Table 6. Reasons for the winery visit Reasons Spain Germany United United Kingdom States Learn about the 3.95 3.86 3.64 3.58 world of wine Taste traditional 3.71 4.00 3.68 4.31 local products Taste different 3.39 3.39 3.26 4.03 types of wine Entertainment 3.92 2.23 2.87 3.59 To spend a 3.20 2.15 3.72 3.27 day out Relaxation 3.34 2.03 3.24 3.44 Buy wine in the 2.56 2.66 2.06 2.26 wine cellar Reasons Netherland Other F p-Value) Learn about the 3.22 3.68 2.855 world of wine (0.015)* Taste traditional 3.48 3.67 2.330 local products (0.042)* Taste different 3.22 3.68 2.129 types of wine -0.061 Entertainment 3.00 3.48 20.484 (0.000)* To spend a 3.68 3.17 6.111 day out (0.000)* Relaxation 3.04 3.33 9.563 (0.000)* Buy wine in the 1.95 2.68 2.477 wine cellar (0.031)* Source: Own elaboration. Note: * Significant correlation at 5% Table 7. Wine and gastronomy as motivation to visit a destination. Reasons Spain Germany United United Kingdom States Interest in the 3.40 3.39 334 3-92 wine world Secondary purpose 3.31 2.61 2.40 3.45 for traveling Main purpose 3.09 2.14 2.70 3.24 for traveling Knowledge of 2.76 2.72 2.86 3.31 the wine world Reasons Netherland Other F (p-Value) Interest in the 3.60 3.66 2.097 wine world (0.065) Secondary purpose 2.74 3.31 6.636 for traveling (0.000)* Main purpose 2.52 2.88 6.342 for traveling (0.000)* Knowledge of 2.93 3.18 3.201 the wine world (0.007)* Source: Own elaboration Note: * Significant correlation at 5% Table 8. Spearman coefficient: Level of satisfaction with different variables related to wine tourism Jerez region Wine cellar 0.425 * Hospitality 0.413 * Cultural activities 0.383 * Ecology 0.351 * Accommodation 0.345 * Cleanliness 0.334 * Restaurants 0.302 * Conservation of the environment 0.301 * Civi security 0.229 * Information 0.288 * Shops 0.283 * Price of the trip 0.283 * Telecommunications 0.269 * Source: Own elaboration. Note: * Significant correlation at 1% Figure 1. Breakdown of average expenditure by the tourist on the Sherry route Accomodation 119 [euro] Catering 116 [euro] Wine Sales 37 [euro] Merchandising 36 [euro] Visits Wineries 16 [euro] Visits Museum 9 [euro] Source: Report Asociadon Espanola de Ciudades del Vino (ACEV1N). Note: Table made from pie chart.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Vieira-Rodriguez, Aurea; Lopez-Guzman, Tomas; Rodriguez-Garcia, Juan|
|Publication:||Journal of Tourism Challenges and Trends|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2014|
|Next Article:||Dimensions of customer relationship management in the Tunisian tourism context.|