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Analysis of floristic similarity between forest remnants from the upper Parana river floodplain, Brazil/Analise da similaridade floristica entre remanescentes florestais da planicie de inundacao do alto rio Parana, Brasil.

Introduction

Wetlands are aquatic ecosystems found in all climate types, from the tropics to the tundra, and on all continents, except Antarctica (MITSCH; GOSSELINK, 1993). These environments include water bodies, temporary or not, as lakes, rivers and streams, besides marsh, floodplains and marine ecosystems, among others (GOPAL; JUNK, 2000; NEIFF, 2001).

Occupy about 6% from the Earth surface, or 8.6 million [km.sup.2], of which about 56% are in tropical and subtropical regions (MITSCH; GOSSELINK, 1993). These areas provide one of the major ecological traits to South America, due to the large extent of occurrence, encompassing approximately 20% of its territory (JUNK, 1993); and for Brazil, were estimated 1,082,466 [km.sup.2] (NEIFF, 2001). Most wetlands belong to the category of floodplain, which are those periodically flooded (JUNK et al., 1989).

The forest in the surroundings of water bodies, known as riparian or streamside vegetation among others, present differences mainly regarding the floristic composition and structure. In general, low values of similarity indexes and high species diversity, due to environmental heterogeneity have been registered to Brazilian riparian forests (BERNACCI et al., 1998; LACERDA et al., 2005; MEYER et al., 2004; RODRIGUES; NAVE, 2004; ROLIM et al., 2006; TEIXEIRA; RODRIGUES, 2006).

Several factors may influence the (dis) similarity between riparian forests, such as the hydrological characteristics from the watershed, the different influence degrees of flooding, the forest remnant width, the matrix and domain of vegetation, successional stage, climate, topography, soil types, geographical distance, altitude and latitude (ARAUJO et al., 2005; BERNACCI et al., 1998; COSTA; MANTOVANI, 1995; DURIGAN et al., 2008; KINOSHITA et al., 2006; LACERDA et al., 2005; MACHADO et al., 2004; MARANGON et al., 2003; MEYER et al., 2004; METZGER et al., 1997; RODRIGUES; NAVE, 2004; ROLIM et al., 2006; SANTOS; KINOSHITA, 2003; SILVA et al., 2007; STRANGHETTI; RANGA, 1998; TEIXEIRA; RODRIGUES, 2006).

For the upper Parana river floodplain, the floristic similarity was low and the factors related was the vegetation heterogeneity that comprised the Seasonal Semideciduous Forest (SSF), the typical formations of riparian forests, the Cerrado and the Pantanal; the water availability, the soil type and anthropogenic disturbances (SOUZA; MONTEIRO, 2005; SOUZA et al., 1997; SOUZA et al., 2004a; ROMAGNOLO; SOUZA, 2000). Concerning these assessments, Souza et al. (2004b) divided didactically the superior stretch of this plain into three systems, known as left bank, right bank and central (islands).

In this way, the present study aimed to analyze the floristic similarity, including tree component, between riparian forest remnants from the upper Parana river floodplain, considering the hypothesis that the floristic composition is an useful indicative to distinguish the three compartments, i.e., left bank, right bank and island.

Material and methods

The study area comprised riparian forest remnants located at upper Parana river floodplain, in the Mato Grosso do Sul and Parana States, of which nine were selected to accomplish surveys of tree species (Figure 1; Table 1).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The Parana river is the tenth in the world in discharge, and one of the main constituents of the second largest drainage basin from South America, the La Plata Basin. Since its headwater, in the confluence of Grande and Paranaiba rivers, until its mouth, at the estuary of Prata river, near Buenos Aires, the Parana river runs about 3,800 km, draining an area of 2,800,000 [km.sup.2] (STEVAUX et al., 1997).

At its upper stretch, the river forms a floodplain, composed by a main channel, islands and sandy bars (STEVAUX, 1994). The left bank is formed by Caiua Sandstone Formation and is differentially exposed to the floods, which is determined by altitude and topographic variations, mostly forming speets up to 15 m height and more rarely low-lying areas subjected to flooding. The right bank is composed by alluvial sediments and alluvial colluvium unconsolidated and associated to Parana river and tributaries, form an extensive fluvial plain with a complex of tributaries, secondary channels, marshes, lakes and marginal levees (SOUZA FILHO; STEVAUX, 1997).

Among human disturbances that the Parana river is exposed, the main one is the dams, present both in the main channel and in most tributaries, totaling about 130 reservoirs. Therefore, the floodplain that presented 480 km extension and more than 20 km width, was reduced for 230 km extension with the construction of Porto Primavera dam in 1998 (AGOSTINHO et al., 2004).

The climate, according to Koppen classification system, is Cfa or tropical-subtropical climate with hot summer. The annual mean temperature is higher than 22[degrees]C and the annual mean precipitation ranges from 1,200 to 1,500 mm (CAMPOS; SOUZA, 2003; CAMPOS et al., 2000; SOUZA; MONTEIRO, 2005).

The vegetation is inserted in the SSF domain (IBGE, 1992) and is represented by two formations: the Alluvial and the Submontane (VELOSO; GOES FILHO, 1982), besides the non-forest vegetation and the areas of ecological tension (CAMPOS; SOUZA, 1997). The forests, beyond the species from SSF, present typical areas of riparian areas, of Cerrado and of Pantanal (SOUZA; MONTEIRO, 2005) and are influenced by the availability of water, soil type, adjacent vegetation and anthropogenic disturbances (SOUZA et al., 2004a).

From this list of species gathered by these surveys, we elaborated a matrix of presence and absence, employed in the floristic comparison and in the similarity analyses between the areas. We conferred the synonyms and excluded the unknown taxa at any taxonomic level. The angiosperm species were grouped in families according to the APG III system (APG III, 2009). The writing of scientific names, abbreviations of names of the species authors and synonymy of the species were checked in the Index Kewensis, by consulting the site from Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis (MOBOT, 2010) or Lista de Especies da Flora do Brasil 2012 (FLORA DO BRASIL, 2012).

The floristic similarity between the surveys was assessed through the Sorensen's (ISs) and Jaccard's (ISj) similarity coefficients (MUELLER-DOMBOIS; ELLENBERG, 1974). The first allowed comparisons with three previous studies accomplished in the upper Parana river floodplain, and the second, with other studies developed in areas of riparian SSF. In order to ordinate the data, we applied the Correspondence Analysis (CA) (MCCUNE; GRACE, 2002), by using the PC-ORD software version 4, and the graphs were made using Statistica 7 software.

Results and discussion

The floristic list, compiled from nine surveys, resulted in a total of 110 species that were grouped in 80 genera and 37 families (Table 2). The number of sampled species, by survey, ranged from 18 to 85, with mean value of 12.22.

The surveys that presented greater number of species were the A9 and A4, both located in the left bank, whereas those with lower richness were situated on the right bank and in the island (Table 2). The environmental heterogeneity of the, in the locations where the surveys were undertaken, with a marginal zone subjected to frequent flooding, one intermediate and subjected to sporadic flooding, besides one third, more internal zone not exposed to flooding (SOUZA, unpublished data), may be related to higher floristic richness. Moreover, in the right bank and islands, the surveyed areas presented higher topographical homogeneity and thus greater exposure to flooding that tend to be frequent (CAMPOS; SOUZA, 2003; CAMPOS et al., 2000; ROMAGNOLO; SOUZA, 2000; SOUZA; MONTEIRO, 2005).

High species diversity in riparian forests, due to environmental heterogeneity, was verified by Van den Berg and Oliveira-Filho (2000) and by Rodrigues and Nave (2004). On the other hand, Bernacci et al. (1998), Metzger et al. (1997, 1998), Silva et al. (2007) and Teixeira and Rodrigues (2006), considered that areas exposed to frequent flooding tend to present lower species richness.

These considerations must be examined with some caution since anthropic disturbances reported for the areas and different sampling methods constitute some parameters that could affect on the obtained results. According to Magurram (1988), the number of species is directly correlated to the size of the samples. Stranghetti and Ranga (1998) comparared four remnants of SSF in Sao Paulo State and three in Minas Gerais State and verified that the size of the samples influenced on the species diversity. In accordance to Teixeira and Rodrigues (2006), the number of species sampled in riparian forests from different Brazilian regions is quite varied due to diverse environmental conditions, the matrix of surrounding vegetation, the dynamics of natural clearings, human interference and also the different sampling methods

In relation to species distribution, we registered the occurrence of two groups, the generalists and the exclusive. The first was constituted by species that occurred in nine surveys (Tabernaemontana catharinensis, Cecropia pachystachya, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Albizia niopoides, Inga vera and Triplaris americana), which grouped 5.5% of the species (Table 2; Figure 2) and in eight surveys (Unonopsis guatterioides, Zygia latifolia, Eugenia florida, Allophylus edulis and Sapindus saponaria), grouped 10% of the species. This relationship of species had already been stated as generalist for the upper Parana river floodplain (SOUZA et al., 2004a). The group of exclusive, broader, grouped 29.1% of the species that presented exclusive occurrence in one of the surveys, among them, the most expressive were the A9, with 20% of these species and the A4, with 4.5% (Table 2; Figure 2).

In general, the riparian forests presented a reduced number of generalist species and a high number of exclusive ones. For the upper Parana river floodplain, in an analysis among six (SOUZA et al., 1997), and posteriorly, among nine surveys (SOUZA et al., 2004a), about 3% of generalist and 60% of exclusive species were found.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

For the wetland florests from South and Southeastern Brazil (SILVA et al., 2007), about 37% of the species were exclusive to one of 35 analyzed areas, and 8% occurred in eight, without species common to all areas. For the riparian forests of Jacare-Pepira river, Sao Paulo State (METZGER et al., 1997; BERNACCI et al., 1998), 27% of the species were exclusive to one of 15 studied remnants and 0.5% were generalist, i.e., were present in all surveys.

Among the species listed in the present study, the most frequent to riparian forests from extra-Amazonian regions (RODRIGUES; NAVE, 2004; TEIXEIRA; RODRIGUES, 2006) and to wetland florests from South and Southeastern Brazil (SILVA et al., 2007), were: Callophylum brasiliensis, Casearia sylvestris, Cecropia pachystachya, Copafera langsdorfii, Trichilia pallida and Luehea divaricata. With exception of Cecropia pachystachya, Trichilia pallida and Callophylum brasiliensis the others were exclusive to only one of the surveys analyzed of the upper Parana river floodplain.

Regarding the floristic similarity between the surveys, the values of Sorensen index (ISs) ranged from 31 to 78.4%, in 61.1% of analyses, the values were equal or higher than 50%. The most similar surveys were the A5 and A8, both located in the right bank, followed by A4 and A9, in the left bank (Table 3).

For the upper Parana river floodplain, Souza et al. (1997), Romagnolo and Souza (2000) and Souza et al. (2004a), found mean values between 13 and 72.7%. The dominance of values considered low was associated to environmental heterogeneity and anthropic disturbances. The first mainly due to the diversity of environments that are influenced by water availability, soil type, location between the forest domain of the Parana State and the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul State (SOUZA et al., 2004a). Values considered low, in remnants of SSF, were reported by Silva and Soares (2003), Meira Neto and Martins (2002), Marangon et al. (2003), Meyer et al. (2004) and Teixeira and Rodrigues (2006).

The values of Jaccard index (ISj) varied between 31 and 64.5%, and in 13.9% of the analyses the values were superior to 50% (Table 3). The most similar surveys were the A4 and A9, both located in the left bank, followed by the A5 and A8 in the right bank. In areas of SSF, the values were also considered low (ARAUJO et al., 2005; BERNACCI et al., 1998; COSTA; MANTOVANI, 1995; KINOSHITA et al., 2006; SANTOS; KINOSHITA, 2003).

In the present study, the values from the Sorensen index were higher than those from Jaccard, and with changes between the most similar surveys, so that for the first index were those of right bank, and for the second, of left bank. Comparisons between these two indexes were performed by Pifano et al. (2007), in an area of Submontane SSF in Minas Gerais State, which also found higher values for ISs. The authors considered that this difference was due to own formulation of the indexes.

The Correspondence Analysis (CA), for the surveys, evidenced the distinction into three groups: left bank, right bank and island. In this analysis, the first two axes were retained for interpretation, the first with eigenvalue of 0.3, and the second of 0.2; the first one distinguished the left bank (A4 and A9), and the second axis separated the island (A1, A2 and A3) (Figure 3). The surveys of left bank (A4 and A9) were carried out in the same remnant under the domain of Submontane SSF under different exposure to floods and both presented the floristic as sampling method, whereas the surveys of right bank (A5, A6, A7 and A8) and island (A1, A2 and A3) were under the domain of Alluvial SSF in similar conditions of flood and were sampled through phytosociological methods.

Silva et al. (2007) also applied an ordination analysis between 35 areas of wetland forests from South and Southeast regions of Brazil and verified that areas with similar flood regime were closer amongst themselves in the ordination axes.

For the species (Figure 4), the CA evidenced that for the axis 1, 15 species presented a higher positive correlation (r = 0.9) and were common between the surveys of left bank (Table 4).

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

On the other hand, Guazuma ulmifolia with the highest negative correlation (r = -0.6) occurred only in the surveys of right bank. For the axis 2, Xylosma glaberrimum with the greatest positive correlation (r = 0.9) occurred only on the island, while Sloanea guianensis with the highest negative correlation (r = -0.9) occurred in the left bank and right bank (Table 4).

Conclusion

The results indicated that floristic surveys are important indicative for evaluations of vegetation distribution and for characterization of the left bank, right bank and island in the upper Parana river floodplain.

The species common to the banks and island, although representing less than one quarter of the species listed here and the high occurrence of species exclusive to one survey constitute important subsidies for projects of revegetation in this region. The first species, more frequent, would be indicated for early stages of revegetation of the environments in general, and the other species, exclusive to some locations, would be suitable for enrichment of a particular area.

Doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.8500

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to PELD/CNPq site 6; to PEA/UEM and Nupelia/UEM for logistic support; to CNPq for the scholarship; to Prof. Dr. Luiz Carlos Gomes for the help in statistical analyses, Profs. Drs. Liliana Rodrigues and Sidinei Magela Thomaz for useful suggestions and Vanessa Majewski Algarte for the help in making graphics.

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Received on October 15, 2009

Accepted on August 4, 2010.

Simone Rodrigues Slusarski * and Maria Conceicao de Souza

Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais, Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900, Maringa, Parana, Brazil. * Author for correspondence. E-mail: simone_slusarski@hotmail.com
Table 1. Surveys accomplished in riparian forests from
the upper Parana river floodplain (Mato Grosso do Sul and
Parana States, Brazil) and employed in the analysis of floristic
similarity (SSF = Seasonal Semideciduous Forest; DBH = diameter
at breast height; Ne = number of species).

Source                 Code   Municipality   State   Altitude
                                                       (m)

Campos and Souza        A1     Porto Rico     PR       230
(2003)

Campos and Souza        A2     Porto Rico     PR       230
(2003)

Campos and Souza        A3     Porto Rico     PR       230
(2003)

Slusarski; Souza,       A4     Porto Rico     PR       250
unpublished data

Campos et. al.          A5                    MS       250
(2000)

Romagnolo and Souza     A6     T aquarucu     MS     200-300
(2000)

Romagnolo and Souza     A7     Taquarucu      MS     200-300
(2000)

Romagnolo and Souza     A8     Taquarucu      MS     200-300
(2000)

Romagnolo and Souza     A9     Porto Rico     PR       250
(2005)

Source                    Vegetal                 Soil type
                         formation

Campos and Souza        Alluvial SSF        Hydromorphic alluvial
(2003)

Campos and Souza        Alluvial SSF      Non-hydromorphic alluvial
(2003)

Campos and Souza        Alluvial SSF      Non-hydromorphic alluvial
(2003)

Slusarski; Souza,      Submontane SSF                --
unpublished data

Campos et. al.          Alluvial SSF          Non-hydromorphic
(2000)                                      alluvial (levee) and
                                        Hydromorphic alluvial (lake)

Romagnolo and Souza     Alluvial SSF      Non-hydromorphic alluvial
(2000)

Romagnolo and Souza     Alluvial SSF      Non-hydromorphic alluvial
(2000)

Romagnolo and Souza     Alluvial SSF      Non-hydromorphic alluvial
(2000)

Romagnolo and Souza    Submontane SSF                --
(2005)

Source                     Location            Site        Sampling
                                                            method

Campos and Souza       Porto Rico Island     Forest 1       Parcels
(2003)

Campos and Souza       Porto Rico Island     Forest 2       Parcels
(2003)

Campos and Souza       Porto Rico Island     Forest 3       Parcels
(2003)

Slusarski; Souza,          Left bank       Araldo Forest   Floristic
unpublished data

Campos et. al.            Right bank            --          Parcels
(2000)

Romagnolo and Souza       Right bank        Downstream      Parcels
(2000)

Romagnolo and Souza       Right bank       Intermediate     Parcels
(2000)

Romagnolo and Souza       Right bank         Upstream       Parcels
(2000)

Romagnolo and Souza        Left bank       Araldo Forest   Floristic
(2005)

Source                    Sampled            Inclusion         Ne
                         area (ha)            criteria

Campos and Souza            0.41         DBH [greater than     33
(2003)                                  or equal to] 4.8 cm

Campos and Souza            0.45         DBH [greater than     18
(2003)                                  or equal to] 4.8 cm

Campos and Souza            0.13         DBH [greater than     23
(2003)                                  or equal to] 4.8 cm

Slusarski; Souza,      [congruent to]          Trees           68
unpublished data            10.0

Campos et. al.              0.54         DBH [greater than     43
(2000)                                  or equal to] 4.8 cm

Romagnolo and Souza         0.31         DBH [greater than     40
(2000)                                  or equal to] 4.8 cm

Romagnolo and Souza         0.31         DBH [greater than     29
(2000)                                  or equal to] 4.8 cm

Romagnolo and Souza         0.31         DBH [greater than     36
(2000)                                  or equal to] 4.8 cm

Romagnolo and Souza     [congruent to]         Trees           85
(2005)                      2.5

Table 2. Floristic list of tree species with respective occurrences
in nine surveys accomplished in the upper Parana river floodplain
(Mato Grosso do Sul and Parana States, Brazil) (A1 to A9 = study
areas according to Tab. 1; 1 = presence; 0 = absence; T = total
number of surveys in which the species occurred; * exotic species).

Family/Species                             A1   A2   A3   A4   A5

ANACARDIACEAE
3-Astronium graveolens Jacq.               0    0    0    0    0
4-Spondias mombin L.                       0    0    0    1    1
ANNONACEAE
5-Annona emarginata (Schltdl.)             1    1    0    1    1
H. Rainer
6-Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil.              1    0    0    0    0
7-Unonopsisguatterioides (A.DC.)           1    0    1    1    1
R.E.Fr.
APOCYNACEAE
8-Tabernaemontana catharinensis A.DC.      1    1    1    1    1
ARECACEAE
1-Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.)               0    0    0    1    0
Lodd. ex Mart.
BIGNONIACEAE
9-Handroanthus heptaphyuus Mattos          0    0    0    0    0
10-Tabebuia roseoalba (Ridl.) Sandwith     0    0    0    0    0
BORAGINACEAE
11-Cordia ecalyculata Vell.                0    0    0    0    0
12-Cordia seUowiana Cham.                  0    0    0    0    1
BURSERACEAE
13-Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.)            0    0    1    0    1
Marchand
CALOPHYLLACEAE
16-Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess.        0    0    0    0    1
CANNABACEAE
107-Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg.          1    1    0    1    1
108-Trema micrantha (L.) Blume             0    0    0    1    0
CELASTRACEAE
32-Salaciagrandifora Peyr.                 0    0    0    0    0
CHRYSOBALANACEAE
15-Licania octandra (Hoffmanns.            0    0    0    0    0
ex Roem. & Schult.) Kuntze
CLUSIACEAE
17-Garcinia brasiliensis Mart.             0    0    0    0    0
18-Garciniagardneriana                     0    0    0    1    0
(Planch. & Triana) Zappi
ELAEOCARPACEAE
19-Sloanea garckeana K.Schum.              1    1    1    1    1
20-Sloaneaguianensis (Aubl.) Benth.        0    0    0    1    1
ERYTHROXYLACEAE
21-Erythroxylum anguifugum Mart.           1    0    0    1    0
22-Erythroxylum peUeterianum A.St.-Hil.    0    0    0    0    0
EUPHORBIACEAE
23-Actinostemon concepciones               0    0    0    1    0
(Chodat & Hassl.) Hochr.
24-Alchorneaglandulosa Poepp. & Endl.      0    0    0    1    0
25-Croton urucurana Baill.                 1    1    0    1    1
LAMIACEAE
109-Litex megapotamica (Spreng.)           0    1    0    1    0
Moldenke
LAURACEAE
35-Nectandra angustifolia (Schrad.)        1    1    0    1    1
Ness
33-Nectandra cissiflora Ness               0    0    0    0    1
34-Nectandra cuspidata Nees                0    0    0    0    0
36-Nectandra leucantha Nees                0    0    0    1    0
37-Nectandra reticulata (Ruiz & Pav.)      0    0    0    0    1
Mez
38-Ocotea diospyrifolia (Meisn.) Mez       1    1    1    1    1
39-Ocotea puberula (Rich.) Nees            0    0    0    0    0
LECYTIDACEAE
40-Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi)          0    0    0    1    0
Kuntze
LEGUMINOSAE
Caesalpinioideae
41-Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J.F.Macbr.    0    0    0    1    1
42-Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.            0    0    0    0    1
43-Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub.      0    0    1    1    1
44-Pterogyne nitens Tul.                   0    0    0    1    0
Faboideae
45-Andira fraxinifolia Benth.              1    0    0    1    0
46-Dalbergia frutescens (Vell.) Britton    0    0    0    1    0
47-Lonchocarpus cultratus (Vell.)          0    0    0    1    0
A.M.G.Azevedo & H.C.Lima
48-Machaerium stipitatum Vogel             0    0    0    0    0
49-Machaerium viUosum Vogel                0    0    0    0    0
50-Myroxylon peruiferum L.f.               0    0    0    0    0
51-Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl                 0    0    0    1    0
52-Sweetia fruticosa Spreng.               0    0    0    0    0
Mimosoideae
53-Albizia niopoides (Spruce ex Benth.)    1    1    1    1    1
Burkart
54-Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil      0    0    0    1    0
(Griseb.) Altschul
55-Calliandrafoliolosa Benth.              0    0    0    1    0
56-Enterolobium contortisiliquum           0    0    0    0    0
(Vell.) Morong
51-Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd.               0    0    0    1    0
58-Inga marginata Willd.                   0    0    0    1    0
59-Inga vera Willd.                        1    1    1    1    1
60-Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.)          0    0    0    1    1
Brenan
61-Zygia latifolia (L.) Fawc. & Rendle     1    0    1    1    1
MALVACEAE
105-Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.                 0    0    0    0    1
106-Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc.        0    0    0    1    0
MELASTOMATACEAE
62-Miconia jucunda (DC.) Triana            0    0    0    0    0
MELIACEAE
63-Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer            0    0    0    1    1
64-Guarea kunthiana A.Juss.                0    0    0    0    0
65-Guarea macrophyUa Vahl                  1    0    1    1    0
MELIACEAE
66-Trichilia catigua AJuss.                0    0    0    1    0
67-Trichilia pallida Sw.                   1    0    1    1    1
MORACEAE
68-Ficusguianensis Desv.                   0    0    0    0    0
69-Ficus gomelleira Kunth                  1    0    1    0    0
70-Ficus obtusiuscula Miq. (Miq.)          1    1    0    1    0
71-Madura tinctoria (L.) D.Don ex          0    0    0    1    0
Steud.
MYRTACEAE
73-Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart.)        0    0    0    0    0
O.Berg
72-Eugenia subterminalis DC.               0    0    0    0    0
74-Eugenia egensis DC.                     0    0    0    1    0
15-Eugeniaflorida DC.                      1    0    1    1    1
77-Eugenia handroi (Mattos) Mattos         0    0    0    0    1
76-Eugenia moraviana O.Berg                0    0    0    1    0
78-Plinia rivularis (Cambess.) Rotman      0    0    0    0    0
79-Psidium guajava L.                      0    0    0    1    1
80-Psidium cf. guineense Sw.               0    0    0    0    0
NYCTAGINACEAE
81-Guapira opposita (Vell.) Reitz          0    0    0    1    0
PHYTOLACCACEAE
82-Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng.)         0    0    0    1    1
Harms
PICRAMNIACEAE
103-Picramnia sellowii Planch.             1    1    1    1    0
PIPERACEAE
83-Piper tuberculatum Jacq.                1    1    0    1    1
POACEAE
2-Chusquea sellowii Rupr.                  0    0    0    0    1
POLYGONACEAE
84-Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn.             0    0    0    1    1
85-Triplaris americana L.                  1    1    1    1    1
RHAMNACEAE
86-Colubrina retusa (Pittier) Cowan        1    0    0    0    0
RUBIACEAE
81-Coussarea platyphylla Mull.Arg.         1    0    1    1    1
88-Genipa americana L.                     1    0    1    1    0
89-Machaonia brasiliensis (Humb.)          0    0    0    1    1
Cham. & Schltdl.
90-Psychotria carthagenensis Jacq.         1    1    0    1    0
91-Rosenbergiodendron longiflorum          0    0    0    0    0
(Ruiz & Pav.) Fargerl.
RUTACEAE
92-Citrus X aurantium L. *                 0    0    0    1    0
93-Citrus X limon (L.) Osbeck *            0    0    0    1    1
94-Metrodorea nigra A.St.-Hil.             0    0    0    0    0
95-Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem.           0    0    0    0    0
96-Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam.              0    0    0    1    0
SALICACEAE
26-Casearia aculeata Jacq.                 0    0    0    1    0
27-Casearia decandra Jacq.                 0    0    0    0    0
28-Casearia gossypiosperma Briq.           0    0    0    1    1
29-Casearia lasiophylla Eichler            1    1    0    1    0
H0-Casearia sylvestris Sw.                 0    0    0    1    0
30-Xylosmaglaberrimum Sleumer              1    1    1    0    0
31-Xylosma venosa N.E.Br.                  1    0    0    0    0
SAPINDACEAE
91-Allophylus edulis                       1    0    1    1    1
(A.St.-Hil. et al.)
Hieron. ex Niederl.
98-Sapindus saponaria L.                   1    0    1    1    1
SAPOTACEAE
99-Chrysophyllumgonocarpum                 0    0    0    1    0
(Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl.
100-Chrysophyllum marginatum               0    0    0    1    0
(Hook. & Arn.) Radlk.
101-Pouteria glomerata (Miq.) Radlk.       1    0    1    1    1
102-Pouteria torta (Mart.) Radlk.          0    0    1    1    1
SOLANACEAE
104-Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal        0    0    0    0    1
URTICACEAE
14-Cecropia pachystachya Trecul            1    1    1    1    1

Total                                      33   18   23   68   43

Family/Species                             A6   A7   A8   A9   T

ANACARDIACEAE
3-Astronium graveolens Jacq.               0    0    0    1    1
4-Spondias mombin L.                       1    1    1    0    5
ANNONACEAE
5-Annona emarginata (Schltdl.)             1    1    1    0    7
H. Rainer
6-Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil.              0    0    0    0    1
7-Unonopsisguatterioides (A.DC.)           1    1    1    1    8
R.E.Fr.
APOCYNACEAE
8-Tabernaemontana catharinensis A.DC.      1    1    1    1    9
ARECACEAE
1-Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.)               0    0    0    1    2
Lodd. ex Mart.
BIGNONIACEAE
9-Handroanthus heptaphyuus Mattos          0    0    0    1    1
10-Tabebuia roseoalba (Ridl.) Sandwith     0    0    0    1    1
BORAGINACEAE
11-Cordia ecalyculata Vell.                0    0    0    1    1
12-Cordia seUowiana Cham.                  1    0    1    0    3
BURSERACEAE
13-Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.)            1    0    0    0    3
Marchand
CALOPHYLLACEAE
16-Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess.        1    0    1    1    4
CANNABACEAE
107-Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg.          0    0    1    1    6
108-Trema micrantha (L.) Blume             1    0    0    1    3
CELASTRACEAE
32-Salaciagrandifora Peyr.                 1    1    0    0    2
CHRYSOBALANACEAE
15-Licania octandra (Hoffmanns.            0    0    0    1    1
ex Roem. & Schult.) Kuntze
CLUSIACEAE
17-Garcinia brasiliensis Mart.             1    0    1    0    2
18-Garciniagardneriana                     0    0    0    0    1
(Planch. & Triana) Zappi
ELAEOCARPACEAE
19-Sloanea garckeana K.Schum.              0    0    1    1    7
20-Sloaneaguianensis (Aubl.) Benth.        1    1    1    1    6
ERYTHROXYLACEAE
21-Erythroxylum anguifugum Mart.           0    0    0    1    3
22-Erythroxylum peUeterianum A.St.-Hil.    0    0    0    1    1
EUPHORBIACEAE
23-Actinostemon concepciones               0    0    0    1    2
(Chodat & Hassl.) Hochr.
24-Alchorneaglandulosa Poepp. & Endl.      1    0    0    1    3
25-Croton urucurana Baill.                 0    1    1    1    7
LAMIACEAE
109-Litex megapotamica (Spreng.)           1    1    0    1    5
Moldenke
LAURACEAE
35-Nectandra angustifolia (Schrad.)        0    1    1    1    7
Ness
33-Nectandra cissiflora Ness               1    0    1    0    3
34-Nectandra cuspidata Nees                0    0    1    0    1
36-Nectandra leucantha Nees                0    0    0    1    2
37-Nectandra reticulata (Ruiz & Pav.)      0    0    1    0    2
Mez
38-Ocotea diospyrifolia (Meisn.) Mez       1    1    1    1    9
39-Ocotea puberula (Rich.) Nees            0    0    0    1    1
LECYTIDACEAE
40-Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi)          0    0    0    1    2
Kuntze
LEGUMINOSAE
Caesalpinioideae
41-Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J.F.Macbr.    0    0    0    0    2
42-Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.            0    0    0    0    1
43-Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub.      1    1    1    1    7
44-Pterogyne nitens Tul.                   0    0    0    0    1
Faboideae
45-Andira fraxinifolia Benth.              0    0    0    1    3
46-Dalbergia frutescens (Vell.) Britton    0    0    0    1    2
47-Lonchocarpus cultratus (Vell.)          0    0    0    1    2
A.M.G.Azevedo & H.C.Lima
48-Machaerium stipitatum Vogel             0    0    0    1    1
49-Machaerium viUosum Vogel                0    0    0    1    1
50-Myroxylon peruiferum L.f.               0    0    0    1    1
51-Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl                 1    0    0    1    3
52-Sweetia fruticosa Spreng.               0    0    0    1    1
Mimosoideae
53-Albizia niopoides (Spruce ex Benth.)    1    1    1    1    9
Burkart
54-Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil      0    0    0    1    2
(Griseb.) Altschul
55-Calliandrafoliolosa Benth.              0    0    0    1    2
56-Enterolobium contortisiliquum           0    0    0    1    1
(Vell.) Morong
51-Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd.               1    1    0    1    4
58-Inga marginata Willd.                   0    0    0    0    1
59-Inga vera Willd.                        1    1    1    1    9
60-Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.)          0    0    0    1    3
Brenan
61-Zygia latifolia (L.) Fawc. & Rendle     1    1    1    1    8
MALVACEAE
105-Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.                 1    1    1    0    4
106-Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc.        0    0    0    0    1
MELASTOMATACEAE
62-Miconia jucunda (DC.) Triana            0    0    0    1    1
MELIACEAE
63-Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer            1    0    1    1    5
64-Guarea kunthiana A.Juss.                0    0    0    1    1
65-Guarea macrophyUa Vahl                  0    0    0    1    4
MELIACEAE
66-Trichilia catigua AJuss.                0    0    0    1    2
67-Trichilia pallida Sw.                   1    0    1    1    1
MORACEAE
68-Ficusguianensis Desv.                   0    0    0    1    1
69-Ficus gomelleira Kunth                  0    0    0    0    2
70-Ficus obtusiuscula Miq. (Miq.)          0    0    1    1    5
71-Madura tinctoria (L.) D.Don ex          0    1    1    1    4
Steud.
MYRTACEAE
73-Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart.)        0    0    0    1    1
O.Berg
72-Eugenia subterminalis DC.               0    0    0    1    1
74-Eugenia egensis DC.                     1    0    0    0    2
15-Eugeniaflorida DC.                      1    1    1    1    8
77-Eugenia handroi (Mattos) Mattos         0    1    0    0    2
76-Eugenia moraviana O.Berg                0    0    0    1    2
78-Plinia rivularis (Cambess.) Rotman      0    0    0    1    1
79-Psidium guajava L.                      1    1    0    1    5
80-Psidium cf. guineense Sw.               1    0    0    0    1
NYCTAGINACEAE
81-Guapira opposita (Vell.) Reitz          0    0    0    1    2
PHYTOLACCACEAE
82-Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng.)         1    0    1    1    5
Harms
PICRAMNIACEAE
103-Picramnia sellowii Planch.             0    0    0    1    5
PIPERACEAE
83-Piper tuberculatum Jacq.                1    0    1    1    1
POACEAE
2-Chusquea sellowii Rupr.                  1    1    0    1    4
POLYGONACEAE
84-Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn.             1    0    0    1    4
85-Triplaris americana L.                  1    1    1    1    9
RHAMNACEAE
86-Colubrina retusa (Pittier) Cowan        0    1    1    1    4
RUBIACEAE
81-Coussarea platyphylla Mull.Arg.         1    0    1    1    1
88-Genipa americana L.                     0    0    0    1    4
89-Machaonia brasiliensis (Humb.)          0    1    0    1    4
Cham. & Schltdl.
90-Psychotria carthagenensis Jacq.         0    0    1    1    5
91-Rosenbergiodendron longiflorum          0    0    0    1    1
(Ruiz & Pav.) Fargerl.
RUTACEAE
92-Citrus X aurantium L. *                 1    0    0    1    3
93-Citrus X limon (L.) Osbeck *            0    0    0    1    3
94-Metrodorea nigra A.St.-Hil.             0    0    0    1    1
95-Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem.           0    0    0    1    1
96-Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam.              0    0    0    1    2
SALICACEAE
26-Casearia aculeata Jacq.                 0    0    0    1    2
27-Casearia decandra Jacq.                 0    0    0    1    1
28-Casearia gossypiosperma Briq.           1    0    1    1    5
29-Casearia lasiophylla Eichler            0    0    0    1    4
H0-Casearia sylvestris Sw.                 0    0    0    0    1
30-Xylosmaglaberrimum Sleumer              0    0    0    0    3
31-Xylosma venosa N.E.Br.                  0    1    0    0    2
SAPINDACEAE
91-Allophylus edulis                       1    1    1    1    8
(A.St.-Hil. et al.)
Hieron. ex Niederl.
98-Sapindus saponaria L.                   1    1    1    1    8
SAPOTACEAE
99-Chrysophyllumgonocarpum                 0    0    0    1    2
(Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl.
100-Chrysophyllum marginatum               0    0    0    1    2
(Hook. & Arn.) Radlk.
101-Pouteria glomerata (Miq.) Radlk.       1    1    0    1    1
102-Pouteria torta (Mart.) Radlk.          1    0    1    1    6
SOLANACEAE
104-Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal        0    0    0    0    1
URTICACEAE
14-Cecropia pachystachya Trecul            1    1    1    1    9

Total                                      40   29   36   85

Table 3. Sorensen's (ISs) and Jaccard's (ISj) similarity
coefficients between nine surveys of tree species from
the upper Parana river floodplain (Mato Grosso do
Sul and Parana States, Brazil).

ISs     A2     A3     A4     A5

A1     66.7   67.9   55.4   52.6
A2      --    43.9   39.5   39.3
A3      --     --    43.9   54.5
A4      --     --     --    59.5
A5      --     --     --     --
A6      --     --     --     --
A7      --     --     --     --
A8      --     --     --     --
A9      --     --     --     --

ISj     A2     A3     A4     A5

A1     39.1   55.6   31.0   31.0
A2      --    39.1   31.0   31.0
A3      --     --    31.0   31.0
A4      --     --     --    34.4
A5      --     --     --     --
A6      --     --     --     --
A7      --     --     --     --
A8      --     --     --     --
A9      --     --     --     --

ISs     A6     A7     A8     A9

A1     43.8   54.8   63.8   47.5
A2     31.0   42.5   51.9   31.1
A3     53.9   50.0   54.2   37.0
A4     57.4   47.4   55.8   78.4
A5     74.7   63.9   78.5   50.0
A6      --    63.8   71.1   49.6
A7      --     --    61.5   40.4
A8      --     --     --    47.9
A9      --     --     --     --

ISj     A6     A7     A8     A9

A1     31.0   31.0   31.0   31.0
A2     31.0   31.0   31.0   31.0
A3     31.0   31.0   31.0   31.0
A4     34.4   34.4   34.4   64.5
A5     55.7   45.4   63.3   34.4
A6      --    45.4   55.7   34.4
A7      --     --    45.4   34.4
A8      --     --     --    34.4
A9      --     --     --     --

Table 4. Species of tree that presented higher correlation (r)
in the Correspondence Analysis (CA) in nine forest surveys at
Upper Parana river floodplain (Mato Grosso do Sul and Parana
States, Brazil).

Species                                  Axis 1   Axis 2

1-Acrocomia aculeata                      0.9       --
20-Sloanea guianensis                      --      -0.9
23-Actinostemon concepciones              0.9       --
26-Casearia aculeata                      0.9       --
30-Xylosma glaberrimum                     --      0.9
36-Nectandra leucantha                    0.9       --
40-Cariniana estrellensis                 0.9       --
46-Dalbergiafrutescens                    0.9       --
47-Lonchocarpus cultratus                 0.9       --
54-Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil     0.9       --
55-Cauiandrafoliolosa                     0.9       --
66-Trichilia catigua                      0.9       --
76-Eugenia moraviana                      0.9       --
81-Guapira opposita                       0.9       --
96-Zanthoxylum caribaeum                  0.9       --
99-Chrysophyllum gonocarpum               0.9       --
100-Chrysophyllum marginatum              0.9       --
105-Guazuma ulmifolia                    -.0.6      --
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Author:Slusarski, Simone Rodrigues; de Souza, Maria Conceicao
Publication:Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences (UEM)
Date:Jul 1, 2012
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