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Analysis of factors influencing negative attitude toward teacher education in Nigeria.

This study critically examined the factors influencing public attitudes

toward teacher education in Nigeria. It analysed a series of

nationwide surveys of negative public attitude toward the teaching

profession using parents and prospective university students

as respondents. A questionnaire made up of 12 items was used

to gather data on public determinants of negative attitude toward

teacher education. The survey was conducted in the six geopolitical

zones that make up the Nigerian nation. Results indicated

that the low social status accorded teachers, poor remuneration;

irregular salaries were influential on university prospective students'

and public attitude toward teacher education. Also, lack of

loans for housing and vehicles, and poor working environment

played major role as to why the public showed negative attitude

toward teacher education.

Background of the Study

The national policy on Education (1998) of the Federal Republic of Nigeria stipulated that "since no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers, teacher education shall continue to be given major emphasis in all educational planning and development". The National policy on Education stated inter alia; that the goals of teacher education shall be, to produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of our educational system and to help teachers fit into social life of the community and the society at large. The policy also stipulated that all teachers in Nigeria shall be professionally trained. Inspite of the lofty ideas for teacher education in Nigeria, many prospective university candidates have continued to avoid teacher education like the plague. In an analysis of preference of candidates for professional courses in nine faculties in Nigeria universities, Imogie (1999) showed that teacher education has low popularity as a field of study among Joint Matriculation Examination candidates. In releasing the results of the 975,060 candidates who sat for the 2002 Universities Matriculation Examination (UME), the executive secretary of the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board lamented that Agriculture and Education had the least number of applications with 6,494 and 10,784 respectively (The Nigerian Observer, July 11, 2002). If only 10,784 applied to the 52 Universities in Nigeria to study education, the Nigerian education system may be witnessing a serious crisis. The crisis may affect the demand and supply of teachers in secondary schools in Nigeria. In 1996, Nigeria had a total of 155,879 teachers in public secondary schools with a total students' population of 4.3 million. (Federal Republic of Nigeria Annual Abstract of Statistics, 1999). The number of students in secondary schools in Nigeria would have increased tremendously in the past six years while there may be a decrease in the supply of professional and committed teachers due to low public interest in teacher education. A breakdown of the applications to faculties showed that 255,651 applications were received for the faculty of administration, while the Faculty of Social Sciences received 185,727 applications. The Faculties of Engineering and Medical Sciences received 152,213 and 142,578 applications respectively.

The implication of the above figures is that, while applications to the faculties of administration, social sciences, engineering and medical Sciences were over subscribed, those for the Faculty of Education were grossly under subscribed. Another implication for the Nigerian education system is that faculties inundated with applications can not admit more than 20% to 25% of the applicants and at the end of the day, many candidates will be admitted into programmes they did not originally request for. The Faculty of Education will be one of those faculties to receive candidates who did not originally apply for the teacher education programme. When students are admitted into educational programmes they did not originally apply for, the question is whether such students will have full interest in the course of study? While it maybe true that many secondary school students in Nigeria are desperate to gain admission into higher institution to earn degrees, there is no guarantee that students admitted to courses other than the ones they originally requested for, are not using such programmes as a stopgap measure or a stepping stone to other programmes of their interests.

Personal interests appear to play an important role in the attitudes of prospective students, and their parents in relation to the choice of a course of study in the University. Many researchers and scholars who study motivation theory emphasize the relationship between interest and motivation (Schiefele, 1991. Schiefele and Csikszentimihalyi, 1993 cited in Olsen & Kirtman, 2002). Educationists like Dewey and Herbart developed philosophies that were based entirely upon the link between interest and education or interest as a necessary precursor of learning (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002). The connection definitely is a truism when exploring public attitudes toward teacher education.

Crisis in Teacher Education in Nigeria

The crisis in teacher education in Nigeria has been subject of research (Nwagwu, 1998; Okoro, 1998; Riki, 199, Obinaju, 1996; Ejiogu, 1991). These studies have actually focused on the practicing teachers themselves and their attitudes and perceptions toward their job. For instance, Ejiogu (1991) found that as a result of poor motivational strategies inherent in the teaching profession in Nigeria, most science teachers wish to leave the job for greener pastures. Riki (1999) found that impoverishing salary structure of teachers was partly responsible for the poor quality of English language teaching in many secondary schools in Nigeria. In a study to determine whether secondary school teachers were satisfied with their conditions of service, Onyishi (1999) ascertained that the teachers were not satisfied with their conditions of service as poor salaries and conditions of service were responsible for dissatisfaction with their jobs.

Research has also shown that there are still many unqualified teachers in Nigeria because the profession attracts low caliber personnel because of desertion and irregular resignations of qualified teachers (Nwagwu, 1998, Okoro, 1998). It was also found that given the option, 64.4% of those in the teaching profession would opt out of teaching job (Obinaju 1996).

Despite the growing interest in teacher's attitude toward the teaching profession in Nigeria, however, we are not well informed about the social determinants of public attitudes toward the teaching profession and how these factors have shaped long term trends in these attitudes. The present study attempts to reduce this gap by analyzing a series of nationwide surveys of public attitude toward the teaching profession conducted over several months. This study focuses on parents who often influence their children's choice of a course of study in the universities and prospective students who aspire to higher education.

There exist scores of studies reporting positive association between low morale, lack of job satisfaction, inadequate remuneration and lack of motivation and teachers' lack of confidence in the teaching profession (Nwagwu, 1998; Okoro 1998; and Afe 2002). Corey (1970) has advised that researchers and scholars who intend to investigate the reasons why teachers leave their jobs or remain there disgruntled and militant should approach their task with some sophistication. Nwagwu (1994), indicated that over 80% of student-teachers in Nigeria said they would not like to make teaching a life career even though they were interested in teaching as a profession. One of the less discussed reasons for the low morale and lack of motivation within the rank and file of Nigeria teachers is the belief by some politicians and government officials that anybody can teach. What is even worse is the degradation of the teaching job to an occupation for all comers. Even university administrators believe that those who are not good enough for specialized studies such as medicine, engineering and administration should be herded into the field. This situation seems to lend undue credence to Bernard Shaw's view that "He who can does, he who cannot teaches" (Afe 2002). When societal attitudes tend to confirm Shaw's indictment and ridicule the teaching profession, society pays a heavy price since teachers are pillars of any society because they produce scientists, politicians, industrialists, scholars, technicians, doctors and so on.

The teaching profession enjoyed good patronage at its inception in Nigeria in the mid 19th century. The teaching profession started during the advent of the Christian missionaries in Nigeria in 1843 when the need for a group of people to function as teachers in Christian Mission Schools became apparent. The Methodist Mission in Nigeria established the first known western type of educational institution in 1843 in Badagry, when the Christian Missionary Society (C.M.S) founded a teacher training institution in Abeokuta in 1853, with a student population of ten, the teaching profession became firmly established in Nigeria. The Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, the Southern Baptist Convention of U.S.A., the Roman Catholic Church and the Church Missionary Society were to follow suit by establishing other training schools for teachers. Thereafter, teacher training came into vogue and the products of these institutions were readily employed in the missionary schools. The need to achieve higher professional status in the teaching profession led to the establishment of Advanced Teacher Training Colleges and Colleges of Education in Nigeria between 1962 and 1968. The universities in Nigeria were to follow suit in the late 1960s and early 1970s by establishing faculties of education or institute of education for the training of teachers to meet the demand for teachers, not only in missionary schools but also in schools established by State and Federal Governments. Thus, the teaching profession became popular among Nigerians. However, after independence in 1960, employment opportunities expanded for Nigerians which made the schools to lose many teachers to other better paying jobs. According to Aghenta (1998), the resultant shortage of teachers combining with other factors, such as teachers' militancy, forced the government to take over schools from voluntary agencies and missionaries in the late 1960s and early 1970s. However, government management of schools left much to be desired as myriad of problems began to creep into the school system. Such problems include: poor remuneration, lack of promotion, low public image and lack of job satisfaction. While many teachers continued to desert the profession, many are retired prematurely due to government dwindling resources and the need to trim the work force to reduce government spending. Today, the teaching profession is no longer attractive to many Nigerians as it did in the 1960s and 1970s. This fever may be catching up with prospective university students many of whom would rather study other subjects or courses in the university than enrol in teacher education programme. In the Vanguard Newspapers of Thursday, March, 6th 2002, Edukugho, in an article titled; "Teaching: The job nobody wants anymore", lamented that, "Unlike in developed countries who appreciate, recognized and reward teachers, here in Nigeria, poverty, destitution, hunger, deprivation have been the lot of teachers. Their predicament is worse after retiring. Pensions and gratuity are unpaid, leaving them at the mercy of charity" (P.26)

Purpose of the Study

Despite the importance of teacher education in Nigeria, many empirical studies have focused on practicing teachers themselves while relatively few have actually focused on public perception of teacher education. Not much has been done on why parents no longer encourage their children to apply to study teacher education programmes in higher institutions.

Based on the above analysis, the purpose of the study, therefore, was to examine the factors responsible for lack of interest in teacher education programmes among parents and prospective university students. The study determined the factors influencing the sharp decline in admission request into faculties of education in Nigerian universities.

In order to find out the determinants of public attitudes toward teacher education, the following research questions were posed:

1. What are the factors influencing negative attitude toward teachers education in Nigeria?

2. Do parents and prospective university students differ in their view on the factors influencing negative attitudes toward teacher education?

Methodology

In order to find out the determinants of public attitudes toward teacher education, the survey research method was adopted. Detailed descriptions of the sample, data collection and analysis procedures follow.

Population and Sample

The population for the study involved two key actors in the education sector in Nigeria. The first consisted of prospective university students who were final year senior secondary school students, which constituted the majority of applicants seeking admission into universities in Nigeria. The second consisted of parents of the final year senior secondary school students. There were 1,038,364 final year students who sat for the senior secondary school certificate examination in May/June 2003 in Nigeria. The entire population of this study comes from the existing six geopolitical zones in Nigeria.

There are six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. In each geopolitical zone in Nigeria, a state was randomly selected through the use of table of random numbers. In each of the states, ten secondary schools were randomly selected through the use of balloting technique. A total of 60 schools were selected and used for the study. In each school, 25 students were randomly selected through the use of balloting technique, yielding a total of 1500 students. The parents of those students were also used for the study. On the whole, 3000 subjects (1500 students and 1500 parents) constituted the sample for the study. The choice of the parents is informed by the fact that, apart from the peer group and teachers who exercise great influence on the students, parents too have considerable influence on their children in making career choices. This is probably why in Nigeria today, there are families of lawyers, engineers, teachers, pharmacists, doctors and so on.

In a study to determine the influence of some selected variable on vocational choices among rural students in Illinois, United States of America, Westorm (1981), observed that parents exhibit profound influence on their children in career decision, though other adults and peers were perceived by students to have been more influential. Shertzer and Stone (1976) pointed out that the economic and occupation level of the home affect the vocational goal of youths.

In Nigeria, Olayinka (1983), Olutola (1986) and Okujagu (1992) noted that parents who are professionals encourage their children to aim at studying such courses leading to the professions while parents with some form of formal education and the illiterates would wish to train their children not only to make up for what they could not achieve, but motivated them to pursue career in the fields of laws, engineering, accounting no matter the interest and aptitude of these children.

Instrumentation

This study's data were from responses of parents and prospective university students to the questionnaire titled "Parents and Prospective University Students' Attitude TowardsTeacher Education in Nigeria (PPUSATTEN). PPUSATTEN is a 14-item questionnaire. The items in the questionnaire were derived from a review of literature in journals, magazine and Nigeria newspapers. The items in the questionnaire sought to find out parents' and prospective university students' attitude toward teacher education in Nigeria. The items were measured by four ordinal categories of agree, strongly agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The response scale is such that the highest number '4' indicates a strong agreement, while the least number '1' indicates a strong disagreement. Three professors in the Faculty of Education of the University of Benin certified the validity of the instrument after initial observations and corrections were used to ensured face and content validity. The instrument was pilot-tested by using 30 senior secondary school final year students, though part of the target population but was not used in the study. The Cronbach Alpha formula was used to test the reliability of the instruments and this yielded a value of 0.71.

Data Collection

30 trained field personnel administered the questionnaire. In each zone, 5 field assistants who are themselves teachers selected from the sampled schools were gathered in a centrally located area within the zone, and were trained by the researchers. These research assistants helped in the distribution of the questionnaire. On the whole, 95% return rate, which was 1425 parents, and 1425 prospective students, was achieved. The respondents cut across all facets of human endeavours in all the six geographical zones. The educational qualification of parents/respondents showed that 1.5 percent had doctorate degrees, 9.2 percent had masters' degree, 35 percent had bachelors' degrees and equivalent qualifications and 9.1 percent were illiterates. Also, 7.1 percent had the primary school leaving certificate; about 38.1 percent had the general certificate of education and its equivalent.

The occupational distribution of the parents/respondents is as follows, civil servants, professionals, military and police officers, traders, artisans, housewives and the unemployed.

Data Analysis

The data obtained were analysed using means, standard deviation and t-test.

Findings

Hypothesis: There is no significant difference between the response of students and parents on the factors responsible for negative attitude towards teacher education.

Table I indicates that the calculated t-test values were less than the criterion values of 1.60 at .05 level of significance. Thus there is no significant difference between the response of prospective university students and their parents. Table I also shows that both the parents and prospective university students have negative attitude toward teacher education in Nigeria. The results showed that low social status accorded teachers, lack of self satisfaction, working in depressing environment, poor remuneration, lack of regular promotion and irregular teachers'salaries were the factors influencing the negative public attitudes toward teacher education in Nigeria. Lack of loans for housing, vehicles and furniture, and lack of self-confidence of Nigerian teachers before other professionals were also found to have negative influence on teacher education in Nigeria.

Discussion of Results and Implications

The analysis of data on the variables influencing public attitudes toward teacher education shows that the low social status accorded teachers, the depressing environment under which teachers work, lack of regular promotion, lack of loans to build houses and buy vehicles, and irregular salaries were significant factors which influenced negative attitude of the public toward teacher education in Nigeria. These findings are consistent with those of Okoro (1998); Onyishi (1999); Riki (1999); and Afe (2002) which indicated that Nigerian teachers do not only have low social status but also their conditions of service are poor, and they work in unconducive school environment.

This study also found that most of the respondents would not seek after a teaching job and that they would rather encourage others to enrol in teacher education program. This is a clear indication that students would rather seek jobs other than teaching jobs when they eventually graduate and that their parents may not even encourage them to look for a teaching job. The implication of the above findings to the Nigerian education system is that, even if members of the public get a teaching job out of necessity, they may opt out at the slightest opportunity of getting more lucrative endeavours. A former teacher who left the profession in 1995 publicly stated in the Vanguard Newspapers of Thursday, March 16, 2003 that he regretted being a teacher. Hear him;</p> <pre>

By the time I was leaving, the situation of teachers was very pathetic. Salary was not being paid as when due. To survive was a herculean task. I relied solely on the school's co-operative and credit society to feed. It was better imagine than experience the ordeal. </pre> <p>One may wonder if any right thinking prospective student would make teaching a career choice after reading such lamentation in a newspaper, except for the love of the job. But the love of the job may not be enough to sustain public interest in the teaching profession. Schiefele (1991) has highlighted the relationship between interest and motivation and their link with effort in education. He found that many teachers spoke of their personal interests and hobbies and described ways in which those interests converged with attitudes towards their professional practice. Psychologists have linked personal interest to man's quest to satisfy some basic needs. These basic needs are the needs for food, shelter and clothing. These are essential human needs that serve as motivation for human behaviour. Motivation initiates, sustains, and directs behaviour toward a goal. In discussing motivation, one cannot ignore incentive, which is an important determinant of behaviour. Incentive sometimes refers simply to the object that satisfied the motive. In this sense, incentive is an environmental and an external element that stimulates a drive in the direction of a goal. Furthermore, the needs for self-esteem, self-actualisation, and security seem to motivate behaviour in their own right.

The import of this is that motivating conditions is necessary ingredients in a work place. This study has shown that the various governments in Nigeria, be they states, local and federal, are yet to put in place conditions of service in the teaching profession that would attract the right calibre of people to the classroom. Teachers in Nigeria need adequate pay packet which must be regular, good working environment, loans for housing or adequate rent subsidy, and regular promotion that would put them in good stead to meet their basic needs and to satisfy the need for self-esteem and self-actualisation. There is no doubt that adequate remuneration, regular payment of salaries and other benefits, regular promotion, pleasant working environments and high social status are closely related to job motivation (Obinaju, 1996)

Table 1 also found that, though most respondents like teaching jobs, they would rather encourage others to enrol in teacher education programme. This is a clear indication that parents and prospective teacher education students in Nigeria may have soft spot for teacher education but due to poor working conditions, low social status accorded teachers, and other factors, graduates of secondary schools will continue to avoid teacher education like the plague. Also, their parents may not encourage them to enrol in teacher education for the same reasons. The implication of the above findings is that in some years to come, secondary schools in Nigeria may experience shortage of qualified secondary schools teachers. Again, secondary schools in Nigeria may witness influx of unqualified teachers as those graduates from other fields will eventually find their way into teaching for lack of other satisfying jobs. At the slightest opportunity, these groups of teachers may opt for more lucrative jobs.

Since parents and teachers have exhibited negative attitude toward teacher education, Nigeria universities will continue to contend with low demand for teacher education programmes among prospective students.

Recommendations

This study has indicated the factors influencing negative public attitudes towards teacher education in Nigeria. It is therefore appropriate to recommend the following:

1. There is need for the government to revitalize and reinvigorate the teaching profession in Nigeria by eliminating the factors found in this study to influence negative attitude of the Nigerian public to teacher education.

2. Serving teachers should mount vigorous campaign to fight against the devaluation of teachers and the teaching profession.

3. The Nigerian government and the public should emulate the develop countries who appreciate, recognize and reward teachers adequately.

REFERENCES

Afe, J.O (2002) Reflections on becoming a teacher and the challenges of teacher education. Inaugural Lecture Series 64, University of Benin.

Aghenta, J.A (1998) "Teacher recruitment and rentention: Issues and Problems" in N.A Nwagwu, (Ed), Teachers and Teaching in Nigeria. The Nigerian Academy of Education Year Book 2.

Corey, A.F. (1970), "Overview of factors affecting the holding power of the teaching profession". In T.M Stinneth (Ed.), The Teacher Dropout, Itasca, Illinois: Peacock Publishers, 1-12.

Edukugho, E. (2003). Teaching: The Job nobody wants anymore. Vanguard Newspapers, 6th March 2002, Vanguard Newspaper Limited, Lagos.

Ejiogu, A.M (1991 Perceived job satisfaction and turnover of secondary schools in Nigeria. Abia Journal of Educational Studies, 167-180.

Nwagwu, C.C (1994), Women in Nigeria's teaching profession! The challenges ahead", The Vocational Aspect of Education, 33, 87-95.

Nwagwu, C. (1998), Teachers and teaching in Nigeria: Issues, challenges and prospects. The Nigerian Academy of Education Year Books 2.

Obinaju, Q.I (1996), Gender issues in teaching as profession, In E.N Okpara (Ed.) Gender Issues in Education and Development: A Book of Reading (vol. 8, pp. 204 - 212), Enugu: university Trust Publishers.

Okujagu, T.N. (1992), "Social variables in childhood education in Nigeria" in B.C Emenogu (Ed.) Issues and strategies in childhood education, Onisha: Hybrid Publishers.

Olsen, B & Kirtman, L. (2002), "Teacher as mediator of schools reform: An examination of teacher in 36 California restructuring schools" Teachers College Record, Columbia University, 104 (2) 301-324.

Olayinka, K.S (1983), Youth and career guidance: Introduction to counselling. Ife: University of Ire, Press.

Olutola, A. (1986), Career choice in T. Ikpaye (Ed.) Educational and Vocational Guidance: Concepts and Approaches. Ife: University of Ife Press.

Okoro, D.C (1998), Building and sustaining teacher morale and job satisfaction. In Nwagwu, N.A (Ed.), Teachers and Teaching in Nigeria, The Nigeria Academy of Education Year Book, No. 2.

Onyishi, B.O (1999), Secondary school teachers conditions of service and professional duties: Implication for qualitative education in Nigeria. In B.C Emeneogu (Ed.), National policy on Education and Quality Education in Nigeria: A Book of Readings. Enugu: University Trust Publishers.

Riki, F.A (1999). Increasing the quality of English Language in Nigeria post primary schools through the improving of learning/teaching conditions. In B.C Emeneogu (Ed.) National Policy on Education and Quality Education in Nigeria: A Book of Readings. Enugu: University Trust Publishers.

Schiefele, U. (1991) Interest, learning and motivation. Educational Psychiatrist, 26, (384) 299-323.

Westorm, J.A (1981). Influence of Selected variables on vocational choice of rural students in Illinois, Illinois State University Dissertation Abstracts 42:5

DR. S. E. ADUWA OGIEGBAEN

Department of Educational Psychology

and Curriculum Studies

Dr. S.E. Aduwa Ogiegbaen is a senior lecturer in the Department of Educational

Psychology

and Curriculum Studies

DR. RAYMOND UWAMEIYE

Department of Vocational and Technical Education

University of Benin

Benin City, Nigeria
APPENDIX A

Mean and Standard Deviation of Students' view on factors Influencing
Public Attitude Towards Teacher Education.

S/N   ITEMS                                  SA      A      D     SD

1     Teachers are accorded Low             1060    325     75     25
      social status
2     There is no self-satisfaction in       100     70    461    869
      teaching
3     Teachers are well recognised           163     85    751    426
4     Teaching in Nigeria involves           923    509     13     55
      working in depressing
      environment
5     Teachers are poorly paid               775    681     24     20
6     Teachers are not regularly             705    635     35    125
      promoted
7     Teachers in Nigeria are not            839    478      8    175
      regularly paid their salaries
8     Teaching is interesting to me          205    275    505    440
9     Teachers are not given                 839    439     45    102
      loans for housing and vehicles
10    There is no opportunity for            197    155    600    548
      continuous career-long self-
      improvement in teaching in
      Nigeria
11    Everybody in teacher education
      looks forward to leaving it for        700    650    100     50
      more lucrative professional
      courses.
12    I like teaching job                    190    200    675    355
13    Nigerian teachers lack self-           459    465    238    338
      confidence.
14    I will encourage others to register   1200    200     65     35
      in teacher education programme
15    I will encourage my children to         89    149    718    469
      study a programme in teacher
      education

S/N   ITEMS                                   X     SD    DECISION

1     Teachers are accorded Low             2.64   0.62   Agree
      social status
2     There is no self-satisfaction in      1.59   0.86   Disagree
      teaching
3     Teachers are well recognised          1.99   0.90   Disagree
4     Teaching in Nigeria involves          3.17   1.21   Agree
      working in depressing
      environment
5     Teachers are poorly paid              3.47   0.60   Agree
6     Teachers are not regularly            3.27   0.86   Agree
      promoted
7     Teachers in Nigeria are not           3.32   0.96   Agree
      regularly paid their salaries
8     Teaching is interesting to me         2.17   1.02   Disagree
9     Teachers are not given                3.34   0.86   Agree
      loans for housing and vehicles
10    There is no opportunity for           1.74   1.31   Disagree
      continuous career-long self-
      improvement in teaching in
      Nigeria
11    Everybody in teacher education
      looks forward to leaving it for       3.33   0.74   Agree
      more lucrative professional
      courses.
12    I like teaching job                   2.17   0.94   Disagree
13    Nigerian teachers lack self-          2.69   1.12   Agree
      confidence.
14    I will encourage others to register   3.70   066    Agree
      in teacher education programme
15    I will encourage my children to       1.91   0.78   Disagree
      study a programme in teacher
      education

APPENDIX B

Mean and Standard Deviation of Parents' view on factors Influencing
Public Attitude Towards Teacher Education.

S/N    ITEMS                               SA      A      D     SD

1      Teachers are accorded Low           995    350    100     55
       social status
2      There is no self-satisfaction in     90     40    470    900
       teaching
3      Teachers are well recognised        150     97    737    441
4      Teaching in Nigeria involves        917    523     10     50
       working in depressing
       environment
5      Teachers are poorly paid            804    637     30     29
6      Teachers are not regularly          693    640     39    128
       promoted
7      Teachers in Nigeria are not         841    350    209    100
       regularly paid their salaries
8      Teaching is interesting to me       197    275    497    456
9      Teachers are not given              759    509     57    100
       loans for housing and vehicles
10     There is no opportunity for         200    163    593    544
       continuous career-long self-
       improvement in teaching in
       Nigeria
11     Everybody in teacher education      730    634     90     41
       looks forward to leaving it for
       more lucrative professional
       courses.
12     I like teaching ob                  204    140    660    457
13     Nigerian teachers lack self-        463    445    241    351
       confidence.
14     I will encourage others to         1209    183     69     39
       register in teacher education
       programme
15     I will encourage my children to      75    150    730    470
       study a programme in teacher
       education

S/N    ITEMS                                X     SD    DECISION

1      Teachers are accorded Low          3.52   0.78   Agree
       social status
2      There is no self-satisfaction in   1.54   0.82   Disagree
       teaching
3      Teachers are well recognised       1.97   0.89   Disagree
4      Teaching in Nigeria involves       3.54   0.68   Agree
       working in depressing
       environment
5      Teachers are poorly paid           3.58   0.64   Agree
6      Teachers are not regularly         3.24   0.88   Agree
       promoted
7      Teachers in Nigeria are not        3.29   0.93   Agree
       regularly paid their salaries
8      Teaching is interesting to me      2.12   1.04   Disagree
9      Teachers are not given             3.35   0.85   Agree
       loans for housing and vehicles
10     There is no opportunity for        2.01   1.00   Disagree
       continuous career-long self-
       improvement in teaching in
       Nigeria
11     Everybody in teacher education     3.37   0.73
       looks forward to leaving it for                  Agree
       more lucrative professional
       courses.
12     I like teaching ob                 2.09   0.98   Disagree
13     Nigerian teachers lack self-       2.68   1.14   Agree
       confidence.
14     I will encourage others to         3.75   0.59   Agree
       register in teacher education
       programme
15     I will encourage my children to    1.88   0.80   Disagree
       study a programme in teacher
       education

TABLE I:

Calculated-test Values on the Differences Between Parents' and
Students' View

S/N   ITEMS                         N1     X1    SD1     N2

1     Teachers are accorded        1425   2.64   0.62   1425
      Low social status
2     There is no self-            1425   1.59   0.86   1425
      satisfaction in teaching
3     Teachers are well            1425   1.99   0.90   1425
      recognised
4     Teaching in Nigeria          1425   3.17   1.21   1425
      involves working in
      de ressin environment
5     Teachers are poorly paid     1425   3.47   0.60   1425
6     Teachers are not             1425   3.27   0.86   1425
      regularly promoted
7     Teachers in Nigeria are      1425   3.32   0.96   1425
      not regularly paid their
      salaries
8     Teaching is interesting to   1425   2.17   1.02   1425
      me
9     Teachers are not given       1425   3.48   0.99   1425
      loans for housing and
      vehicles
10    There is no opportunity      1425   1.74   1.31   1425
      for continuous career-
      long self-improvement in
      teaching in Nigeria
11    Everybody in teacher         1425   3.33   0.74   1425
      education looks forward
      to leaving it for more
      lucrative professional
      courses.
12    I like teaching job          1425   2.17   0.93   1425
13    Nigerian teachers lack       1425   2.69   1.12   1425
      self-confidence.
14    I will encourage others to   1425   3.70   0.66   1425
      register in teacher
      education programme
15    I will encourage my          1425   1.97   0.78   1425
      children to study a
      programme in teacher
      education

S/N   ITEMS                         X2    SD2    Calculated
                                                 t-test
                                                 Values

1     Teachers are accorded        3.52   0.78   0.13
      Low social status
2     There is no self-            1.54   0.82   0.04
      satisfaction in teaching
3     Teachers are well            1.97   0.87   0.02
      recognised
4     Teaching in Nigeria          3.54   0.68   0.27
      involves working in
      de ressin environment
5     Teachers are poorly paid     3.58   0.64   0.13
6     Teachers are not             3.24   0.88   0.02
      regularly promoted
7     Teachers in Nigeria are      3.47   0.60   0.12
      not regularly paid their
      salaries
8     Teaching is interesting to   2.12   1.04   0.03
      me
9     Teachers are not given       3.14   0.83   0.84
      loans for housing and
      vehicles
10    There is no opportunity      2.01   1.00   0.37
      for continuous career-
      long self-improvement in
      teaching in Nigeria
11    Everybody in teacher         3.37   0.73   0.04
      education looks forward
      to leaving it for more
      lucrative professional
      courses.
12    I like teaching job          2.09   0.98   0.06
13    Nigerian teachers lack       2.68   1.14   0.01
      self-confidence.
14    I will encourage others to   3.75   0.59   0.06
      register in teacher
      education programme
15    I will encourage my          1.88   0.80   0.12
      children to study a
      programme in teacher
      education

N1 = Number of prospective students

N2 = Number of parents
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Author:Ogiegbaen, S.E. Aduwa; Uwameiye, Raymond
Publication:Education
Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Dec 22, 2005
Words:5590
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