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Analysis of Turkey's foreign trade in non-wood forest products.

Abstract

In Turkey, there are many non-wood forest products (NWFPs) that are being produced and sold domestically or exported. However, there are also many NWFPs that are not being properly produced; a number of potential NWFPs that could be produced; and others that are being imported from foreign countries. NWFPs have an important share in Turkey's foreign trade of forest products, especially in exports. The share of NWFPs is about 98 percent of the total forest products exports in Turkey. The exports of NWFPs are mainly to the United States, followed by Germany, Italy, France, and Spain. These exports contribute about $100 million ($US) annually to the Turkish economy. Turkey's NWFPs potential was neglected for many years, and no recent studies have been conducted on foreign trade of NWFPs. This research aims to investigate the development of NWFPs in the foreign trade of forest products, based on data from the past decade. The study indicates that NWFPs can be utilized in Turkey at regional and national levels to aid in economic development and to increase export income.

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Forest ecosystems provide a resource for products other than wood, called non-wood forest products (NWFPs). These products include resins, balsam, laurel leaves, peppermint leaves, birch leaves, mahaleb cherries, pine nuts, and sumac leaves. Understory plants also provide valuable NWFPs, including thyme leaves, ferns, sage leaves, mint, bulbs, rhizome plants, and mushrooms, etc. In addition, bark, thin branches, shoots, and similar products have been classified as NWFPs (Ozkan and Ayaz 1997). Because of their relatively low economic contribution, NWFPs have also been called: minor forest products, other forest products, other economic products, or non-timber forest products. It should be pointed out that there is a considerable difference between "non-wood" forest products and "non-timber" forest products. The latter term refers to products that are tree-derived but do not necessitate felling trees (Simmons 1996).

Utilization of NWFPs is as old as the existence of humans, and has gained increasing importance. NWFPs appear to have drawn particular attention in international development programs, especially during the last decade. NWFPs have served as a source of food and nutrition, medicine, ornaments, fiber materials for construction, utensils, clothing, packing, and more recently as raw materials for further processing at artisan and industrial levels (Vantomme 1998). With a better understanding of the importance of NWFPs, their social, economic, and environmental roles have become of major economic interest. Effective and sustainable uses for natural products have also contributed to the development of interest in these products.

NWFPs are an important part of the economies of many countries, and also serve as an effective tool in the conservation of forests and other ecosystems. In some cases, the value of NWFP trade is higher than that of commercial timber (Elevitch and Wilkinson 2000). Although underestimated in national economies and resource accounting systems, it is a fact that rural people have relied on NWFPs for centuries. Yet we know little about the extent of the use, availability, and sustainability of these products (Chamberlain et al. 1998). At least 150 NWFPs can be considered important in terms of international trade, including honey, gum, rattan, bamboo, cork, nuts, mushrooms, resins, essential oils, and plant and animal parts for pharmaceutical products. It is estimated that the total value of world trade of these approximately 150 NWFP items is about 1.1 billion US dollars annually. The general direction of trade is from developing to developed countries, and about 60 percent of this trade was imported by countries of the European Union, United States, and Japan. China is the dominant world exporter. India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Brazil are also major suppliers to the world markets (FAO 1997).

Due to different climatic and geographic conditions, many trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plant species grow naturally throughout Turkey. Turkey has three distinct climates: Mediterranean, continental, and oceanic. The land mass of Turkey lies between sea level and over 5500 m in altitude. Located between Asia and Europe, Turkey has a total of 10,498 plant species of which 10,245 are natural and 153 cultured. There are 3,432 of these species (33%) that are considered endemic. Turkey is considered one of the major phyto-geographical locations in the world. The NWFPs derived from plants in Turkey are generally exported as raw or semi-raw materials, while some of the products are consumed in domestic markets as medicines, culinary products, and aromatic substances. Usually, the chemical substances extracted from these products are utilized by the medicine and chemistry sectors in Turkey (Kizmaz 2000). Some essential NWFPs found in Turkey are resins; resinous wood; storax of Liquidambar orientalis; leaves of Laurus nobilis L., Eucalyptus spp., and Thymus spp, etc.; fruits of Quercus ithaburensis Decne, Rhus L., Cerasus mahalep L., Pistacia terebintus L., and Pinus pinea L. etc; bark of Pinus brutia Ten. and Betulus spp.; corms of Galanthus and others bulbous plants; oak gall; mushrooms; wildlife; fodder; and honey (FGA 1995, Anonymous 2000).

Materials and methods

In this study, data on the production of 45 different NWFPs between 1990 and 2000 were obtained from the Turkish General Directorate of Forestry, Department of Non-Wood Forest Products. Also, NWFP foreign trade data were acquired from the State Statistical Institute for the period of 1990 through 2000. In addition, production, export, and import quantities and monetary values were tabulated and compared on an annual basis.

NWFP production

Local forest villagers and their co-operatives are employed or contracted by the forestry administration in the harvesting of NWFPs through a specialized section (Division Directorate of NWFP) of the General Directorate of Forestry in Turkey. During "Five Year Development Plan" periods, NWFPs inventories are carried out by the General Directorate of Forestry for a selected number of major products, and management and utilization plans are prepared. Information given in those plans includes production capacity, rotation parcels, propagation, drying and storing techniques, and domestication strategies for certain species.

Production of NWFPs in Turkey's forestry sector generally includes the production of incense, shrubs, laurel leaves, and other products, which are included in annual production plans. Sage leaves, thyme leaves, licorice, flower bulbs, etc., which are widespread in forest regions, and species of sub-forest flora and leaves, fruits, shoots, flowers, and similar products are not generally included in annual production plans. They are harvested according to commercial demands and are subjected to governmental approval (Ozer 1990).

The amounts of major NWFPs produced in Turkey from 1990 to 2000 are shown in Table 1. It can be seen that the production of rosemary leaves, sage leaves, seedless cones, incense, cyclamen, laurel leaves, mushrooms, thyme leaves, chestnuts, cistus, myrtle leaves, rhododendron, and moss have increased. On the other hand, the production of anemone, boletus edulis, phlomis, flower bulbs, ferns, winteraconite, erica, heather leaves, linden, snowdrops, broom, beech leaves, carob beans, balm, mistletoe, chamomile, and palms either decreased or remained relatively constant.

Table 1 indicates that the production of rosemary, seedless cones, cyclamen, shrubs, nut pine cones, laurel berries, and laurel leaves increased from 1900 to 2000 by 194.3, 125.4, 1,075, 255, 4,443, 1,065, and 1,600 percent, respectively. Turkey's total NWFP production was 4,209.8 tons in 1990. The production increased rapidly, reaching 20,944 tons in 2000.

Figure 1 shows the total amounts of sub-categories of NWFPs in 2000 and their shares in total production. The biggest share belongs to shrubs (31.8%; 6,653 tons), followed by laurel leaves (29.7%; 3,259 tons), thyme leaves (15.6%; 1,186 tons), cistus leaves (5.66%; 454.3 tons), pine nut cones (2.17%; 454.3 tons), and chestnuts (2.15%; 450 tons).

Exports

Turkey's NWFP export quantities and their values are given in Table 2. Generally, it can be seen that there was a considerable increase in NWFP export quantities each year from 1900 to 2000. However, harvesting leaves for ornamental and bouquet making purposes and mahaleb cherry production decreased between the years 1991 and 1995, and increased between the years 1996 and 2000, and linden leaf exports increased between 1991 and 1995 and decreased between 1996 and 2000. Also, mushroom and saffron exports decreased, but carob bean and licorice exports remained almost level. Interestingly, for the same period, exports of laurel leaves, all types of resins, turmeric, and ginger increased by 91, 22,642, 2,873, and 217 percent, respectively.

For the year 1991, Turkey's total exportation of NWFPs was 24,336,421 kg and it increased by 107 percent, reaching 50,400,000 kg in 2000. When the total export values and their shares of the sub-categories of NWFPs are analyzed, the major share belongs to pine nuts (17.5%; $16 million [US$]), followed by thyme (16.4%; $15 million), laurel leaves (8.8%; $8 million), mushrooms (3.8%; $3.5 million), and carob beans (2.2%; $2 million). Other NWFPs constituted 42 percent of the total value of exports (Fig. 2). For the year 1999, analyzing the total exports of major NWFPs in Turkey and the shares of the sub-categories, the major share belongs to carob beans (15.6%; 8 million kg), followed by thyme (13.7%; 7 million kg), laurel leaves (7.44%; 3.8 million kg), licorice (2.54%; 1.3 million kg), and resin varieties and herbal extracts (1.96%; 1 million kg). Other NWFPs amounted to 57 percent of total exports (Fig. 3).

Roundwood and NWFP export values are given in Table 3. Compared to roundwood, NWFPs developed more rapidly in Turkey's forest products trade balance from 1900 to 1998. Roundwood exports varied between $240,000 and $1,100,000 and its share in total forest products exports was 2 percent on the average, whereas the NWFP share was about 98 percent. By analyzing the development of forest products exports between 1990 and 2000 as shown in Figure 4, a large difference can be seen in favor of NWFPs, which clearly indicates the importance of NWFPs for Turkish forestry.

Imports

Turkey's NWFP import quantities and their foreign income values between 1991 and 2000 are given in Table 4. There was a general increase in imports of NWFPs except linden leaves, fenugreek, and a few other NWFPs. Comparing the years 1991 and 1995, resin imports increased while natural rubber imports decreased. This trend was the opposite between 1996 and 2000. Comparing the NWFP import amounts for the years 1991 and 2000, flower bulbs, cut foliage, and herbal extract imports increased by 90 percent, 10,000 percent, and 7,900 percent, respectively. In 1991, Turkey's total NWFP import quantity was 61.48 tons and it increased by 11.35 percent, reaching 68.43 tons in 2000. Between 1991 and 1999, ginger imports increased 116 percent, turmeric imports increased 20,000 percent, and more dramatically, thyme imports increased 58,170 percent. Linden was imported only in the 4 years between 1992 and 1999, and laurel leaves and sage were only imported between the years of 1996 and 1999.

The sub-category shares in the total foreign income value of NWFP imports in 1999 are shown in Figure 5. Natural rubber had the biggest share with 78.3 percent ($50 million), followed by herbal essence (5.48%; $3.5 million), flower bulbs (1.88%; $1.2 million), cut foliage (0.94%; $600,000), and thyme (0.69%; $437,917). Other NWFPs comprised 11.4 percent of the total income value. In respect to import quantities in 1999, natural rubber had the biggest share with 87.4 percent (60 million kg), followed by herbal essence (3.64%; 2.5 million kg), cut foliage (0.95%; 65,0000 kg), flower bulbs (0.44%; 300,000 kg), and thyme (0.42%; 291,351 kg). Other NWFPs comprised 6.55 percent of the entire amount of imported NWFPs (Fig. 6).

NWFPs and roundwood import values are given in Table 5. By analyzing these values, it can be seen that the share of roundwood and NWFPs in total forest products imports varied between 52 and 88 percent and between 12 and 48 percent, respectively. Between 1990 and 2000, the foreign trade balance of roundwood was negative, resulting in a shortage of roundwood as raw material for Turkish forest products industries and roundwood production was insufficient to meet industrial input demand. The trend in Turkey's forest products imports is shown in Figure 7.

Turkey's foreign trade with selected countries

NWFP exports from Turkey to five major countries between 1990 and 1999 are summarized in Table 6. The highest exports in 1990 and 1992 were made to Germany, whereas the United States was the main recipient of Turkish NWFP exports from 1993 to 1999. Other major importers of Turkish NWFPs included Italy, France, and Spain. Total Turkish NWFP exports were divided among countries as follows: 20.7 percent United States, 14.3 percent Germany, 12.3 percent Italy, 8.5 percent France, and 5.4 percent Spain. Exports were at the level of $59 million in 1990 and rose to $102 million in 1996, which was the year of the highest exports.

The five major countries from which Turkey imports NWFPs are shown in Table 7. According to the data, the Netherlands was the first for the years of 1990, 1991, 1997, and 1998; Germany was first for 1992 and 1996; Italy was first for 1993 and 1995; Albania was first for 1994; and France was first for 1999. All countries except China and Albania are members of the European Community. According to the last 10 years of the import records, the top five countries are Netherlands, Italy, China, France, and Germany with shares of 16.1, 12.4, 12.2, 10.8, and 9.8 percent, respectively.

Conclusions

Turkey has established export links with 113 countries regarding NWFPs and the main countries are the United States (20.7 percent), Germany (14.3 percent), and Italy (12.3 percent). The data provided in this paper reveal that Turkish exports of NWFPs occupy an important place in the total export of forest products. Collection, treatment, and the evaluation of the potential for NWFPs are not only important for the protection of Turkish forests but are also valuable for forest villagers. Thus, it will prove to be useful if the forest villagers involved in the collection and production of NWFPs can be organized into cooperatives that can take advantage of effective marketing methods (Koc et al. 2000).

Improvements in the processing and marketing of NWFPs are the next key issue, especially when commercial utilization of NWFPs for national or international trade is envisaged. NWFPs have attracted considerable global interest in recent years due to increasing recognition of their contribution to household economies and to food resources. Several million households worldwide depend heavily on these products for subsistence, consumption, and/or income. At the local level, some NWFPs provide raw materials for industrial processing, including internationally traded commodities such as foods and beverages, confectionery, flavorings, perfumes, medicines, paints, and polishes (Walter et al. 2000). With better recognition of the importance of these resources, some restrictions have been placed on trading of some species. These species are mainly rare or endangered and the reason for restriction or prohibition on trading is to conserve their gene resources and biological diversity. In 1995, exporting a number of species, such as storax, bulbs of some natural plants, and species of Orchidaceous in every form, were prohibited by the Export Regime Decision of 1995 (Ozugurlu and Duzgun 2000).

The importance of non-wood forest products in the Turkish forestry sector is increasing because Turkey is blessed with very rich flora compared to other countries in the temperate zone; 9,500 plant species have been discovered across the country and up to 3,000 of these species are endemic (SPO 1995, Konukcu 1998). Turkey's NWFPs, which were overlooked for many years, need to be identified properly and their sustainability assured in the forest ecosystem. Sustainability criteria must be taken into account for the country's own benefit. Finally, Turkey, as a still developing country, will undoubtedly be better off through actualization of the further potential of NWFPs exports, which can significantly contribute to the balance of payments.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
Table 1. -- Production (tons) of major NWFPs in Turkey (1990-2000)
(Baytop 1994, FGA 1995).

Product name Latin name of species 1990 1991 1992
 (tons)

Sage leaves Salvia officinalis L. 195 240 243
Anemone Anemone coronaria L. 3 1 16
Boletus edulis Boletaceae 1 1 1
Rosemary leaves Rosmarinus officinalis L.
 (Labiatae) 81 195 270
Seedless cones ------------- 328 923 1,380
Incense Liqudambar orientalis Mill.
 (Hamamelidaceae) 0.8 0.8 0
Cyclamen Cyclamen persicum L. 8 53 63
Phlomis Phlomis bruguieri L.
 (Lauraceae) 1 0 5
Shrubs ------------- 1,876 3,432 752
Laurel leaves Laurus nobilis L.
 (Lauraceae) 0 360 445
Other flower -------------
 bulbs 2 14 0
Branches ------------- 62 36 0
Other herbs ------------- 0 0 9
Other natural -------------
 mushrooms 17 2 7
Bracken (ferns) Pteridium aquilinum L.
 (Hypolepidaceae) 1 3 57
Winteraconite Eranthis hymalis L. 5 5 6
Erica Erica spp. (Ericaceae) 4 178 221
Cones of semen Pinus pinea L. (Pineceae)
 pini 10 226 271
Heath leaves Calluna vulgaris
 (Ericaceae) 0 0 0
Linden blossom Tilia L. (Tiliaceae) 17 27 7
Needles ------------- 7 5 0
Laurel cherry Laurocerasus officinalis L.
 (Rosaceae) 2 40 47
Snowdrops Galanthus (Amaryllidaceae) 24 11 29
Broom Spartium junceum L.
 (Leguminosae) 0 0 1
Beech leaves Fagus silvatica L.
 (Fagaceae) 0 0 0
Carob beans Ceratonia siliqua L.
 (Leguminosae) 0 0 0
Thyme leaves Thymus and origonums
 (Labiatae) 1,165 1,576 2,610
Chestnuts Castenea sativa L.
 (Fagaceae) 35 83 171
Button mushrooms Morchella (Morchallaceae) 0 0.02 1
Cistus Cistus cretius L.
 (Cistaceae) 0 0 0
Violets Viola spp. (Cistaceae) 0 0 12
Myrtle leaves Myrtus communis L.
 (Myrtaceae) 4 5 5
Acorns Quercus ithaburensis
 (Fagaceae) 1 0 0
Rhododendron Rhododendron simsii L.
 (Ericaceae) 0 0 0
Balm Melissa officinalis L.
 (Labiatae) 0 0 0
Mistletoe Viscum album L.
 (Loranthaceae) 0 0 5
Palm Chaemerops humilis L 0 0 0
Daisy (Camomile) Matricaria chamobilla L. 0 0 0
Reeds Cortaderia selluana 0 101 0
Sumach leaves Rhus coriaria L.
 (Anacardiaceae) 99 113 13
Salvia Tussilago farfara L.
 (Labiatae) 0 4 0
Llaurel leaves Laurocerasus officinalis L. 124 47 59
Ruscus aculeatus Liliaceae
 L. 136 167 74
Cantharellus Cantharellaceae
 cibarius 1 7 5
Moss Muscus 0 0 0
Total 4,209.8 7,855.8 6,780

Product name 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
 (tons)

Sage leaves 266 403 411 451 684
Anemone 2 15 11 12 5
Boletus edulis 0 33 3 59 24
Rosemary leaves 297 434 398 450 365
Seedless cones 994 339 1,274 849 436
Incense 1 0.8 0 0.9 0
Cyclamen 27 29 37 42 70
Phlomis 0 0 0 0 0
Shrubs 91 324 3,147 6,140 5,476
Laurel leaves 1,045 975 1,020 6,764 6,004
Other flower
 bulbs 90 15 0 15 11
Branches 0 0 585 801 67
Other herbs 0 0 7 0 0.2
Other natural
 mushrooms 0 0.3 0 4 2
Bracken (ferns) 0 57 0 8 0.4
Winteraconite 2 14 8 6 5
Erica 7 362 0 130 5
Cones of semen
 pini 143 267 426 418 231
Heath leaves 0 0 0 0.2 130
Linden blossom 3 3 5 28 6
Needles 323 14 4 16 9
Laurel cherry 16 0 5 9 21
Snowdrops 15 56 4 3 18
Broom 0 1 3 7 3
Beech leaves 10 0 0 0 0
Carob beans 0 674 530 644 116
Thyme leaves 2,700 4,814 2,728 2,235 3,157
Chestnuts 174 259 160 350 88
Button mushrooms 1 0.1 7 2 4
Cistus 412 534 152 38 214
Violets 0 0 0 0 0
Myrtle leaves 4 4 20 22 16
Acorns 159 41 0 144 63
Rhododendron 23 0 0 0 0
Balm 0 0 1 0.7 1
Mistletoe 0 0 0 1 0
Palm 0 0 0 8 0
Daisy (Camomile) 0 0 0 1 0.8
Reeds 0 0 0 0.16 0
Sumach leaves 60 45 25 19 93
Salvia 0 0 0 0 14
Llaurel leaves 41 10 67 73 50
Ruscus aculeatus
 L. 243 120 134 214 90
Cantharellus
 cibarius 7 0.3 0.08 0 0.3
Moss 0 11 81 20 118
Total 7,156 9,853.5 11,253 19,985 17,598

Product name 1998 1999 2000
 (tons)

Sage leaves 338 403 341
Anemone 4 12 9.2
Boletus edulis 3 2 1.5
Rosemary leaves 170 226 238.4
Seedless cones 630 884 739.3
Incense 0.9 2150 1.6
Cyclamen 67 61 94
Phlomis 0 0 0
Shrubs 12,389 3,233 6,653
Laurel leaves 3,551 3,965 6,122
Other flower
 bulbs 84 93 0
Branches 751 429 454.2
Other herbs 0 3 180
Other natural
 mushrooms 5 3 61.03
Bracken (ferns) 32 73 5
Winteraconite 0 12 2
Erica 0 10 14.2
Cones of semen
 pini 541 897 454.3
Heath leaves 310 5 0
Linden blossom 7 3 14.2
Needles 0 0 0
Laurel cherry 16 0 23.3
Snowdrops 24 4 23
Broom 0 0 0
Beech leaves 0 3 12
Carob beans 12 15 82
Thyme leaves 2,440 3,622 3,259
Chestnuts 238 318 450
Button mushrooms 3 2 0.9
Cistus 251 280 1,186
Violets 0 0 0
Myrtle leaves 15 3 59
Acorns 12 16 0
Rhododendron 4 8 51
Balm 1 0 0.2
Mistletoe 6 0 0
Palm 0 0 0
Daisy (Camomile) 0 0 0
Reeds 0 0 55
Sumach leaves 48 134 76.4
Salvia 0 0 0
Llaurel leaves 38 31 32
Ruscus aculeatus
 L. 197 330 126.3
Cantharellus
 cibarius 0 0 0.3
Moss 108 113 122.3
Total 22,341 17,343 20,944

PINE CONE 4%
SHRUBS 31%
LAUREL LEAVES 29%
CONE OF SEMEN PINI 2%
THYME LEAVES 16%
CHESTNUT 2%
CISTUS 6%
OTHERS 10%

Figure 1. -- Shares in total production for the major NWFPs (2000).

Note: Table made from pie chart.

MUSHROOMS 9%
PINE NUTS 18%
CAROB BEAN 4%
THYME LEAVES 16%
SAGE 2%
LAUREL LEAVES 9%
OTHERS 42%

Figure 2. -- Shares in economic export value for the major NWFPs (1999).

Note: Table made from pie chart.

CAROB BEAN 16%
THYME LEAVES 14%
LAUREL LEAVES 8%
LICORICE 3%
ALL KIND RESIN 2%
OTHERS 57%

Figure 3. -- Shares in quantity of total exports for the major NWFPs
(1999).

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Table 2. -- Quantities and foreign income values of major NWFPs exports
from Turkey (1991 to 2000) (SIS 2000). (a)

 1991 1992
Product name Quantity Income Quantity Income
 (kg) ($) (kg) ($)

Flower bulbs 277,765 1,845,867 272,711 2,620,186
Cut foliage 825,964 804,309 1,023,867 1,017,825
Mushrooms 1,374,695 16,081,264 725,333 6,523,984
Pine stone 790,999 10,332,806 446,174 8,399,244
Cinnamon, cumin,
 juniper, coriander 1,006,030 756,838 904,340 823,831
Laurel leaves 1,889,267 4,131,326 2,452,997 5,685,517
Thyme 3,976,337 8,077,998 4,744,120 10,786,478
Mahaleb 466,962 1,302,741 360,675 1,129,657
Linden flowers 287,450 1,490,549 128,538 595,719
Sage leaves 508,646 1,096,145 563,863 1,118,743
Carob beans 8,558,681 1,860,241 11,445,027 3,882,102
Resins (all kinds) 90 189 318 665
Incense 0 0 0 0
Licorice 3,040,370 2,258,821 1,684,676 1,346,150
Herbal extracts 4397 1,565,000 0 0
Ginger (Cinnabar) 3320 7,331 50 87
Turmeric (Finger) 135 1,504 1 3
Hop 0 0 0 0
Crocus 1175 3,565 0 0
Fenugreek 1,354,098 493,965 1,676,557 873,151
NWFPs other than the
 ones listed 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 24,366,421 52,110,459 26,429,247 44,803,342

 1993 1994
Product name Quantity Income Quantity Income
 (kg) ($) (kg) ($)

Flower bulbs 321,745 1,935,585 361,093 2,285,118
Cut foliage 985,057 1,498,352 485,822 345,567
Mushrooms 425,105 6,530,538 94,654 2,920,403
Pine stone 277,695 4,698,063 262,057 2,558,474
Cinnamon, cumin,
 juniper, coriander 850,093 722,316 935,392 608,356
Laurel leaves 2,452,997 5,685,517 3,349,929 5,921,016
Thyme 4,744,120 10,766,479 6,335,386 16,103,623
Mahaleb 360,675 1,129,657 248,075 861,034
Linden flowers 75,319 298,813 348,611 1,632,697
Sage leaves 576,257 1,367,658 400,220 837,511
Carob beans 11,416,964 4,181,470 7,450,100 2,905,075
Resins (all kinds) 4079 10,117 2,250,523 1,224,444
Incense 0 0 130 57
Licorice 1,352,603 998,938 1,140,205 853,982
Herbal extracts 69,037 355,458 59,325 48,183
Ginger (Cinnabar) 13,080 19,332 4660 2,198
Turmeric (Finger) 51 177 0 0
Hop 2000 27,910 0 0
Crocus 400 1,053 10,219 1,355
Fenugreek 497,289 259,442 167,055 107,810
NWFPs other than the
 ones listed 11,253,345 8,481,842 8,380,886 5,765,576
TOTAL 35,677,911 48,968,717 32,284,342 44,982,479

 1995 1996
Product name Quantity Income Quantity Income
 (kg) ($) (kg) ($)

Flower bulbs 343,720 2,373,865 662,253 3,634,072
Cut foliage 154,632 660,551 445,267 591,782
Mushrooms 156,565 5,756,401 1,656,701 10,493,505
Pine stone 203,257 1,617,187 456,270 5,649,314
Cinnamon, cumin,
 juniper, coriander 7,956,246 9,187,507 7,111,935 10,040,902
Laurel leaves 2,870,418 6,024,833 3,201,567 7,004,675
Thyme 5,600,731 13,686,112 6,475,032 15,151,640
Mahaleb 99,461 547,657 295,440 1,563,383
Linden flowers 453,179 1,715,520 336,225 1,529,431
Sage leaves 564,241 1,143,230 671,044 1,449,674
Carob beans 8,467,061 3,569,386 12,537,234 5,537,178
Resins (all kinds) 2,539,587 2,355,928 130,125 112,844
Incense 0 0 91 910
Licorice 1,557,958 1,072,274 1,764,682 1,268,546
Herbal extracts 1,465,970 1,174,440 915,708 1,509,614
Ginger (Cinnabar) 926 437 66,095 153,996
Turmeric (Finger) 20 132 125 787
Hop 0 0 804 3,749
Crocus 100 130 1260 1,805
Fenugreek 988,017 526,107 1,029,706 493,241
NWFPs other than the
 ones listed 13,163,454 653,106 25,952,198 36,638,151
TOTAL 49,584,963 52,064,803 63,709,762 102,829,199

 1997 1998
Product name Quantity Income Quantity Income
 (kg) ($) (kg) ($)

Flower bulbs 377,315 2,280,107 414,049 2,344,636
Cut foliage 260,281 729,481 343,928 842,466
Mushrooms 708,868 8,718,067 564,246 7,406,607
Pine stone 874,523 11,586,172 859,479 16,408,298
Cinnamon, cumin,
 juniper, coriander 95,747 153,157 195,773 168,265
Laurel leaves 3,762,788 7,637,332 3,423,075 7,340,650
Thyme 6,038,440 13,237,372 7,050,968 15,492,109
Mahaleb 169,209 1,178,443 221,325 1,273,723
Linden flowers 0 0 191,681 797,257
Sage leaves 720,550 1,604,405 923,325 2,103,571
Carob beans 5,597,140 3,591,390 3,345,062 2,198,839
Resins (all kinds) 345,521 372,725 5,675,230 2,692,420
Incense 0 0 0 0
Licorice 2,162,751 1,606,663 1,301,649 933,162
Herbal extracts 3,154,105 4,214,599 1,345,026 1,078,588
Ginger (Cinnabar) 16,860 39,073 38,267 72,429
Turmeric (Finger) 2873 7,601 971 2,646
Hop 4233 12,057 6650 31,006
Crocus 908 874 0 0
Fenugreek 614,298 253,445 580,319 268,848
NWFPs other than the
 ones listed 23,028,402 30,093,358 26,334,426 31,091,924
TOTAL 47,934,812 87,316,321 50,437,974 85,940,835

 1999 2000
Product name Quantity Income Quantity Income
 (kg) ($) (kg) ($)

Flower bulbs 400,000 2,200,000 400,000 2,200,000
Cut foliage 350,000 800,000 350,000 800,000
Mushrooms 600,000 8,000,000 500,000 7,000,000
Pine stone 800,000 16,000,000 800,000 16,000,000
Cinnamon, cumin,
 juniper, coriander 200,000 200,000 200,000 200,000
Laurel leaves 3,800,000 8,000,000 3,600,000 7,500,000
Thyme 7,000,000 15,000,000 7,000,000 15,000,000
Mahaleb 250,000 1,250,000 250,000 1,250,000
Linden flowers 200,000 800,000 200,000 800,000
Sage leaves 800,000 2,000,000 800,000 2,000,000
Carob beans 8,000,000 3,500,000 8,000,000 3,500,000
Resins (all kinds) 1,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 2,000,000
Incense 0 0 0 0
Licorice 1,300,000 1,000,000 1,300,000 1,000,000
Herbal extracts 1,000,000 800,000 1,000,000 800,000
Ginger (Cinnabar) 10,551 28,600 * *
Turmeric (Finger) 0 0 * *
Hop 0 0 * *
Crocus 100 200 * *
Fenugreek 372,167 184,247 * *
NWFPs other than the
 ones listed 25,000,000 30,000,000 25,000,000 30,000,000
TOTAL 51,082,818 91,263,047 50,400,000 90,050,000

(a) Asterisks indicate data not available.

Table 3. -- Roundwood and NWFP export values (1990 to 2000) (Konukcu
1999).

Years Roundwood NWFPs Total
 (thousand $) (%) (thousand $) (%) (thousand $)

1990 1,100 2 59,198 98 60,298
1991 940 2 52,110 98 53,050
1992 240 1 44,803 99 45,043
1993 350 1 48,968 99 49,318
1994 910 2 44,982 98 45,892
1995 780 2 52,064 98 52,844
1996 790 1 102,829 99 103,619
1997 316 1 87,316 99 87,632
1998 1,062 2 85,940 98 87,002
1999 * * 91,263 * *
2000 * * 90,050 * *

(a) Asterisks indicate data not available.

FLOWER BULBOUS 2%
HERBAL EXRACTS 5%
THYME LEAVES 1%
NATURAL RUBBER 78%
CUT FOLIAGE 1%
OTHERS 13%

Figure 5. -- Shares in economic import value for the major NWFPs (1999).

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Table 4. -- Quantities and foreign income values of major NWFPs imports
into Turkey (1991 to 2000) (SIS 2000). (a)

 1991 1992
 Quantity Income Quantity Income
 (kg) ($) (kg) ($)

Flower bulbs 157,751 458,593 79,822 314,435
Cut foliage 5597 44,107 32,295 117,255
Crocus 200 8,379 1100 8,963
Resins (all kinds) 24,440 50,710 1241 8,560
Herbal extracts 31,250 440,374 875 1,912
Turpentine essence 24,700 54,668 18,834 49,669
Natural rubber 61,064,887 55,999,516 62,278,170 58,011,817
Ginger (Cinnabar) 40,675 48,228 59,971 68,307
Turmeric (Finger) 328 1,722 68,275 47,275
Thyme 500 1,321 122,145 224,836
Hops 135,588 2,580,720 146,500 1,265,426
Linden blossoms 0 0 73,656 110,435
Fenugreek 0 0 0 0
Laurel leaves 0 0 0 0
Sage leaves 0 0 0 0
Mahaleb cherry 0 0 0 0
NWFP other than the
ones listed 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 61,485,916 59,688,338 62,882,884 60,228,890

 1993 1994
 Quantity Income Quantity Income
 (kg) ($) (kg) ($)

Flower bulbs 423,606 984,613 99,741 350,527
Cut foliage 254,655 431,682 29,346 72,252
Crocus 0 0 0 0
Resins (all kinds) 24,016 180,595 21,232 136,492
Herbal extracts 105,908 3,171,136 7094 12,124
Turpentine essence 0 0 34,861 45,640
Natural rubber 24,611,801 25,821,415 23,542,333 23,934,593
Ginger (Cinnabar) 41,860 44,242 35,049 35,020
Turmeric (Finger) 51,432 36,318 27,526 16,623
Thyme 351,508 370,414 464,398 675,753
Hops 240,091 2,259,433 249,475 1,911,633
Linden blossoms 40,001 88,899 0 0
Fenugreek 0 0 90,890 44,403
Laurel leaves 0 0 0 0
Sage leaves 0 0 0 0
Mahaleb cherry 0 0 0 0
NWFP other than the
ones listed 3,586,770 4,444,506 13,526,993 16,167,184
TOTAL 29,731,648 37,833,253 38,128,938 44,019,279

 1995 1996
 Quantity Income Quantity Income
 (kg) ($) (kg) ($)

Flower bulbs 238,275 1,003,073 278,604 1,218,232
Cut foliage 66,310 111,250 248,451 428,051
Crocus 322 1,595 1260 1,805
Resins (all kinds) 7,546,368 5,985,095 58,779 130,104
Herbal extracts 6041 30,447 49,111 6,742,113
Turpentine essence 79,445 94,238 0 0
Natural rubber 30,645,410 46,728,492 30,426,262 43,553,081
Ginger (Cinnabar) 59,161 62,867 58,146 154,623
Turmeric (Finger) 64,740 47,371 37,743 23,363
Thyme 179,724 279,950 679,897 1,122,727
Hops 160,508 1,485,993 165,708 1,845,943
Linden blossoms 0 0 5372 35,936
Fenugreek 25,000 13,666 40,000 8,000
Laurel leaves 0 0 13,158 62,986
Sage leaves 0 0 0 0
Mahaleb cherry 0 0 1600 11,236
NWFP other than the
ones listed 9,255,115 15,837,707 10,515,895 17,198,686
TOTAL 48,326,413 71,621,477 42,575,986 72,536,886

 1997 1998
 Quantity Income Quantity Income
 (kg) ($) (kg) ($)

Flower bulbs 297,453 1,032,319 329,210 1,210,760
Cut foliage 351,526 362,381 653,107 606,398
Crocus 0 0 0 0
Resins (all kinds) 18,190 186,964 11,768 85,996
Herbal extracts 4,048,771 4,785,993 2,877,072 3,504,306
Turpentine essence 38,160 70,904 20,340 30,311
Natural rubber 73,615,490 84,310,993 59,590,139 50,331,477
Ginger (Cinnabar) 123,860 123,690 153,183 163,798
Turmeric (Finger) 55,330 46,019 31,798 22,393
Thyme 141,160 198,667 325,280 618,060
Hops 100,308 847,059 258,937 1,939,164
Linden blassoms 0 0 0 0
Fenugreek 0 0 3300 660
Laurel leaves 350 680 247 746
Sage leaves 0 0 0 0
Mahaleb cherry 3000 2,285 2796 2,980
NWFP other than the
ones listed 4,617,253 7,311,978 4,326,633 7,467,250
TOTAL 83,410,851 99,280,462 68,583,840 65,984,299

 1999 2000
 Quantity Income Quantity Income
 (kg) ($) (kg) ($)

Flower bulbs 300,000 1,200,000 300,000 1,200,000
Cut foliage 650,000 600,000 600,000 600,000
Crocus 0 0 0 0
Resins (all kinds) 10,000 80,000 10,000 80,000
Herbal extracts 2,500,000 3,500,000 2,500,000 3,500,000
Turpentine essence 20,000 30,000 20,000 30,000
Natural rubber 60,000,000 50,000,000 60,000,000 50,000,000
Ginger (Cinnabar) 87,658 95,994 * *
Turmeric (Finger) 72,890 59,761 * *
Thyme 291,351 437,917 * *
Hops 0 0 * *
Linden blassoms 3496 16,357 * *
Fenugreek 0 0 * *
Laurel leaves 11,490 33,893 * *
Sage leaves 208,210 285,193 * *
Mahaleb cherry 0 0 * *
NWFP other than the
ones listed 4,500,000 7,500,000 5,000,000 8,000,000
TOTAL 68,655,095 63,839,115 68,430,000 63,410,000

(a) Asterisks indicate data not available.

FLOWER BULBOUS 1%
HERBAL EXRACTS 4%
THYME LEAVES 1%
NATURAL RUBBER 88%
CUT FOLIAGE 1%
OTHERS 7%

Figure 6. -- Shares in quantity of total imports for the major NWFPs
(1999).

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Table 5. -- Roundwood and NWFPs import values (1990 to 2000) (Konukcu
1999).

Years Roundwood NWFP Total
 (thousand $) (%) (thousand $) (%) (thousand $)

1990 123,911 72 47,973 28 171,884
1991 131,445 69 59,688 31 191,133
1992 142,860 70 60,288 30 203,088
1993 271,840 88 37,833 12 309,673
1994 134,000 75 44,019 25 178,019
1995 96,800 57 71,621 43 168,421
1996 133,142 65 72,536 35 205,678
1997 106,558 52 99,280 48 205,838
1998 125,950 66 65,984 34 191,934
1999 104,122 62 63,839 38 167,961
2000 121,938 66 63,410 34 185,348

Table 6. -- Primary partner countries in the export of NWFPs from Turkey
(Koc et al. 2000, SIS 2003).

 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
 (%)

1 Germany U.S. Germany U.S. U.S.
 17.9 20.8 20.3 22.5 25.3
2 Italy Germany U.S. Germany Germany
 17.0 17.0 18.1 15.9 13.9
3 U.S. Italy Italy Italy Italy
 14.9 13.7 13.3 9.0 10.0
4 France France France Spain France
 6.2 9.9 6.8 6.9 8.1
5 S.Arabia Netherlands Switzerland France Spain
 5.1 9.0 3.9 5.9 4.8
All others 38.8 29.6 37.6 39.7 37.9
Total value
(thousand $) 59,198 52,110 44,803 48,968 44,982

 1995 1996 1997 1998
 (%)

1 U.S. U.S. U.S. U.S.
 19.0 20.5 21.6 20.0
2 France Germany Germany Italy
 13.8 13.5 12.0 16.1
3 Germany Italy Italy Germany
 12.9 12.8 10.7 10.3
4 Italy France France France
 10.5 9.6 8.2 8.4
5 Spain Spain Spain Spain
 7.2 6.3 7.4 6.0
All others 36.5 37.3 40.0 39.2
Total value
(thousand $) 52,064 102,829 87,316 85,940

 1999 Total Avg.
 (%)

1 U.S. U.S.
 24.1 20.7
2 Germany Germany
 11.6 14.3
3 Italy Italy
 9.5 12.3
4 France France
 7.3 8.5
5 Netherlands Spain
 5.3 5.4
All others 42.2 38.8
Total value
(thousand $) 91,263 682,789

Table 7. -- Primary partner countries in the import of NWFPs to Turkey
(Koc et al. 2000, SIS 2003).

 1990 1991 1992 1993
 (%)

1 Netherlands Netherlands Germany Italy
 52.6 34.8 19.9 27.9
2 Italy Italy Netherlands Netherlands
 9.9 11.2 18.9 16.0
3 Portugal Switzerland China Germany
 7.7 10.1 9.7 8.2
4 Germany Germany Switzerland China
 6.8 9.4 9.7 7.9
5 China China Italy France
 5.1 8.4 8.7 5.8
All others 17.9 26.0 35.5 34.2
Total value
(thousand $) 47,973 59,688 60,228 37,833

 1994 1995 1996 1997
 (%)

1 Albania Italy Germany Netherlands
 14.1 23.4 14.4 14.7
2 Netherlands China Portugal China
 12.6 14.9 12.6 14.5
3 Italy Netherlands France Portugal
 10.9 14.1 12.4 13.2
4 Spain Germany China Italy
 10.4 14.0 9.5 12.6
5 China France Albania France
 9.7 5.6 8.6 8.5
All others 42.3 28.0 42.5 36.5
Total value
(thousand $) 44,019 71,621 72,536 99,280

 1998 1999 Total Avg.
 (%)

1 Netherlands France Netherlands
 17.6 21.5 16.1
2 France China Italy
 17.2 13.0 12.4
3 China Portugal China
 11.6 9.4 12.2
4 Italy Netherlands France
 8.7 9.3 10.8
5 Germany Italy Germany
 6.9 7.5 9.8
All others 38.0 39.2 39.5
Total value
(thousand $) 65,984 63,839 623,001


Literature cited

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The author is an Associate Professor, Dept. of Forest Product Engineering, ZKU Bartin Faculty of Forestry, 74100 Bartin, Turkey. This paper was received for publication in April 2003. Article No. 9661.
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Author:Karayilmazlar, Selman
Publication:Forest Products Journal
Geographic Code:7TURK
Date:Apr 1, 2005
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