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Analysis and appraisal of urban road traffic noise of the city of Cuttack, India.

Introduction

Major contribution to outdoor noise often comes from road transportation and is the main source of pollution. Noise survey in various cities throughout the world have revealed that traffic noise is typically the largest contributor to recorded sound levels and one of the most important sources of annoyance (WHO, 1999). With rapid urbanisation and the corresponding increase in the number of vehicles on roads, the noise pollution is increasing at an alarming rate in most of the important Indian cities. In India, some studies on the traffic noise monitoring have been carried out at different cities like Delhi (Prakash et al., 2006, Nirjar et al., 2003; Singh and Jain, 1995; Kumar and Jain, 1994), Mumbai (Naik, 1998), Aurangabad (Bhosale et al,. 2010), Amravati (Patil et al., 2011), Dehradun (Ziaudin et al., 2007), Lucknow (Kisku et al., 2006), Varanasi (Pathak et al., 2008, Tripathi et al., 2006), Jaipur (Agarwal and Swami, 2009a; 2009b; Agarwal et al., 2009; Choudhary et al., 2003), Kolkata (Chakraborty et al., 2002), Asansol (Banerjee et al., 2009; 2008; Banerjee and Chakraborty, 2006), Bolpur (Padhy and Padhi, 2008), Burdwan (Datta et al., 2006), Visakhapatnam (Rao and Rao, 1992), Chennai (Kalai Selvi and Ramachandraiah, 2009), Thiruvanatapuram, Kochi, Kozhikode (Sampath et al., 2004), Jharsuguda (Patel et al., 2006), Bhadrak (Goswami, 2011) and Balasore (Goswami, 2011; 2009) etc. The noise levels are showing an alarming rise and in fact, the levels exceed the prescribed levels in most of the areas. In the light of the rapid growth of vehicular population, there is a need to study noise pollution from the transportation point of view. In this study, an attempt has been made to study noise pollution due to vehicular traffic in this commercial city of Odisha state, India. As it is evident that primarily noise problem is the result of growing busy traffic, each year there is an increase in the number of vehicles in this city. This has led to overcrowded roads and pollution around this city. The road traffic noise levels at 17 different squares of this city have been assessed to predict the extent of vehicular noise pollution around the Cuttack, the business capital of Odisha. Total population of Cuttack is 2,618,708. Demographic characteristics of Cuttack (Table 1) explicitly demonstrate that the population is increasing at an alarming rate. An emerging IT hub, the boom in the metals and metal processing industries, around 3 universities, hundreds of colleges have made Cuttack as one of the fastest developing cities of India in recent years. The increase in number of industries, market complexes, institutions, urban highways constructed around residential and community areas of this city, growing population and consequently increase in number ofvehicles have inevitably caused major noise pollution problems to city dwellers. Thus, noise level measurements were taken up with emphasis on traffic noise. The study also analysed variation of noise around the squares (road sections) and its relationship with traffic volume.

Materials and Methods

Acoustic study. The present study of noise monitoring was conducted with the help of sound level meter (Model LUTREN, SL-4010). This light weight instrument (wt = 460 g with batteries) is primarily designed for community noise survey. It is calibrated acoustically using an external reference source, which is placed over the microphone. Sound level meter works on the principle of evaluation of sound pressure on a linear or weighted scale. It normally indicates root mean square (rms) value of the sound.

Cuttack city is located at 20[degrees]05' north latitude and 85[degrees]38' east longitude and has an average elevation of 36 m. The city is basically situated at the apex of the Mahanadi delta. The geographical area of this city is 3932 sq. km. The noise levels were measured following standard procedure using calibrated sound level (dB) meter in between the month of May and June, 2011 at seventeen important and crowded squares (road sections) of Cuttack (Link road square, Buxi bazar square, College square, Naya bazar square, Chandini Chowk square, OMP square, Chandi mandir square, Sati chaura square, Dolamundai square, Ranihat square, Badambadi square, Mangalabag square, Choudhury bazar square, High court square, Balu bazar square) (Shelter square and Biju Pattanaik square) (Stephenson et al., 2011; Al-Ghonamy, 2010; Ghatass, 2009; Ozer et al., 2009; Szeremeta and Zannin, 2009; Zannin and Marcon, 2006; Piccolo et al., 2005; Yang and Kang, 2005; Yusoff and Ishak, 2005). Link road square and OMP square are located along the National Highway (Kolkata-Chennai: NH-5). All buses go to Bus stop (Badambadi) of the city of Cuttack through Link road square. Buxi bazar, Dolamundai, Ranihat, Mangalabag, Choudhury bazar squares are all commercial areas of the city and are located in the heart of the old Cuttack. College square is located near Ravenshaw university and Cuttack railway station. High court square is located near High court and office of the district administration. Famous temples of this city are located along the Chandini chowk, Chandi mandir, Dolamundai and Ranihat squares. The major residential colonies are located near Naya bazar, Sati chaura, Balubazar, Shelter and Biju Pattanaik squares. Irrespective of nature and composition of the above mentioned investigated squares, the noise source is predominantly attributed to road traffic noise.

Total 180 measurements were made within 3 h duration (i.e., at 1 min interval) during some specified times from 7-10 a.m., 11 a.m.-2 p.m., 3-6 p.m. and 7-10 p.m., in all 17 squares by holding sound level meter in hand at arm's length at the chest level in order to reduce errors due to reflection of sound from the body of investigator holding the instrument (Swain et al, 2013; Goswami and Swain, 2012; Swain et al., 2012; 2011). The noise monitoring was done in a good climatic condition, where there was no sign for cloud. Also the monitoring was done in all working days excluding Sunday and local holidays in order to get good result.

[L.sub.eq]. [L.sub.eq] represents the equivalent energy sound level of a steady state and invariable sound. It includes both intensity and length of all sounds occurring during a given period. The noise levels of different squares in different time intervals were predicted along with their equivalent noise levels ([L.sub.eq]). The value of [L.sub.eq] in dB (A) unit is calculated by using the formula of Robinson (1971) i.e.,

[L.sub.eq] = [L.sub.50] + [([L.sub.10]-[L.sub.90]).sup.2]/56

For the present study, different percentile noise levels used are:

[L.sub.10]: the level that were exceeded during 10% of the measuring time in dB(A)

[L.sub.50]: the level that were exceeded during 50% of the measuring time in dB(A)

[L.sub.90]: the level that were exceeded during 90% of the measuring time in dB(A)

NPL. As [L.sub.eq] is an insufficient descriptor of the annoyance caused by fluctuating noise (Robinson, 1971), noise pollution level (NPL) expressed in dB is calculated by using the following formula:

NPL = [L.sub.eq] + a ([L.sub.10]-[L.sub.90])

where:

a = 1.0 (constant in the equation)

NPL takes into account the variations in the sound signal and hence serves as better indicator of the pollution in the environment for physiological and psychological disturbance of the human system.

TNI. Traffic noise index (TNI) is another parameter, which indicates the degree of variation in a traffic flow. This is also expressed in dB (A) and can be computed using the following relation (Robinson, 1971):

TNI = 4 ([L.sub.10]-[L.sub.90]) + [L.sub.90] - 30 dB (A)

NC. Noise climate (NC) is the range over which the sound levels are fluctuating in an interval of time and is assessed using the following formula (Robinson, 1971):

NC = ([L.sub.10]-[L.sub.90])

where:

[L.sub.90], the level exceeded for 90 % of the time of record, is very near to the background noise level in the absence of any motor vehicle traffic.

Traffic volume (Q). The noise level near the highway depends on the number of vehicles. The noise level increases with an increase in traffic volume. Traffic volume is defined as the total number of vehicles flowing per hour (Robinson, 1971). The number of vehicles passing through a fixed point on the road was counted.

Truck-traffic mix ratio (P). Trucks and buses are contributing more noise to the environment, than compared to automobiles. It is evident that, besides the total noise level, the number of heavy vehicles will be an important parameter in the annoyance function. This is especially the case in the transition range between continuous noise and "just annoying noise events" (Gjestland, 1987). The ratio of heavy trucks and buses to total traffic is called truck-traffic mix ratio (Robinson, 1971). This was computed in terms of percentage. An increase in this ratio will increase the noise level.

Statistical analysis. The analysis of the measured noise levels generally depicts that there are existence of variations of noise with variables as the time of day, categories of zone specific sites, road way types, etc., (Goswami et al., 2011, Goswami and Swain, 2011). In order to determine the existence and statistical significance of these variations and trends, a cross classification analysis along with F-test were assessed on the data.

Survey of social attitudes. The questionnaire addressed the socioeconomic characteristics of the individual and individual attitudes towards traffic noise and their interference of noise with daily activities, such as sleeping, relaxation, speaking and studying etc. A sample of 315 general public (236 male and 79 female; including 60 students) was interviewed using the said questionnaire from May to June, 2011 to delineate the perception about the noise and its significance on health of community. The questionnaire consisted of general information about the purpose of the public health survey, i.e., collection of health-related data in order to improve health-care planning and prevention (Mohapatra et al., 2010), nowhere stating that traffic noise pollution specifically would be studied (Bodin et al., 2009). A random criterion was employed for the selection of the interviewed people. However, there was a substantial proportion of non-responders. To estimate annoyanace and sleep disturbances, questions with a scale of four were used: "yes, often", "yes, sometimes", "no, never" and "not relevant". It is imperative to note that none of these questions involved the word 'noise' in order to avoid inducing responses about this issue. The word 'noise' (negative connotation) was replaced by "sound" (neutral connotation) (Szeremeta and Zannin, 2009). Depending on the exposure to environmental noise, two different groups i.e., exposed and nonexposed group were categorized. People of exposed group were those residing or having regular activity near the studied 17 squares, where sound pressure level exceeded 70 dB (A), while, nonexposed group was of those who lived or used to perform their activity away from noisy areas herein Cuttack, where sound pressure level did not exceed 55 dB (A). It is believed that in the present study, all the respondents belong to exposed group.

Results and Discussion

Noise pollution was assessed and analysed in seventeen different 17 traffic squares of the city (Table 2). The noise data collected from different monitoring sites displayed wide ranges of noise level varying in 4 different specified times namely; 7-10 a.m., 11 a.m.-2 p.m., 3-6 p.m. and 7-10 p.m. (Table 2). Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India has not mentioned prescribed basic noise levels on the roads and even there is no defined regulation for road traffic noise in 'the Noise Pollution (regulation and control) rules, 2000'. Thus, the detected noise levels of the study area in day time were compared with the prescribed basic noise level (tolerance limit) on roads (traffic noise) during day-time of United Kingdom i.e., 70 dB (A) (WHO, 1999) and of Nepal (Krishna Murthy et al, 2007).

[L.sub.10] values of all 17 monitored sites ranged from 97.4 to 102.3 dB; 96.6 to 102.1 dB; 98.2 to 104.8 dB and 99.4 to 104.6 dB during 7-10 a.m., 11 a.m.-2 p.m., 3-6 p.m. and 7-10 p.m., respectively (Table 2). Similarly, [L.sub.50] and [L.sub.90] values of all 17 monitored sites vary from 80.2 to 93.3 dB and 72.7 to 82.7 dB; 79.4 to 92.2 dB and 72.5 to 80.4 dB; 81.7 to 93.1 dB and 72.6 to 85.7 dB and 86.1 to 93.2 dB and 72.6 to 88.7 dB during 7-10 a.m., 11 a.m.-2 p.m., 3-6 p.m. and 7-10 p.m., respectively (Table 2). Accordingly, the calculated [L.sub.eq] (equivalent noise levels) values ranged from 91.8 to 103.2 dB; 88.4 to 100.4 dB; 94.3 to 104.5 dB and 94.1 to 104.2 dB during 7-10 a.m., 11 a.m.-2 p.m., 3-6 p.m., and 7-10 p.m., respectively (Table 2). NPL values of all 17 monitored sites ranging from 100.1 to 128.9 dB; 110.9to 127.6 dB; 111.7 to 130.1 dB and 110.1 to 136.1 dB during 7-10 a.m., 11 a.m.-2 p.m., 3-6 p.m., and 710 p.m., respectively (Table 3). TNI values ranged from 122.3 to 157.5 dB; 130 to 158.6 dB; 117.3to 158.4 dB and 113.1 to 170.2 dB during 7-10a.m., 11 a.m.-2p.m., 3-6 p.m. and 7-10 p.m., respectively. Even the minimum NPL and TNI values are more than 100 dB. These high and distressing values of noise pollution level (NPL) and traffic noise index (TNI) clearly demonstrate that the extent of noise pollution in the studied crowded squares is alarming. It was also observed that at some locations the characteristics of noise caused by fast moving traffic, different from those caused by congested or slow moving traffic. Noise from congested traffic was found to contain occasional peaks and varied more in levels. A systematic comparison between TNI and [L.sub.eq] noise levels for all selected locations revealed that the TNI values were much more than respective [L.sub.eq] levels. This simply demonstrated that although the noise levels during any period of the day were generally constant but the presence of single-event noise was sufficient to affect the values of different noise percentile levels and consequently the TNI. This is due to overpopulated road ways with bad conditions, broken roads, minimal traffic management and hooting behaviour of drivers (Agarwal and Swami, 2009a). Similarly, NC values ranged from 17.4 to 28.7 dB; 19.9 to 27.2 dB; 15.4 to 28.7 dB and 13.6 to 31.9 dB during 7-10 a.m., 11 a.m.-2 p.m., 3-6 p.m. and 7-10 p.m., respectively (Table 3). All these values clearly show high noise levels in Cuttack city mostly throughout the day in general and during the evening (7 p.m. to 10 p.m.) in particular.

Analysis of variance is computed from all the seventeen investigated squares at their respective peak hours i.e., 7-10 p.m. (Table 4). The observed value of F (0.95) is less than the tabulated values and is not significant at both 5% and 1% levels of significance. Thus, it explicitly demonstrates that the noise levels of different squares do not differ significantly at their peak hours.

Every day, thousands of autorickshaws, two wheelers and cars, hundreds of cargo carrying trucks, dumpers and buses run along these roads. A comparative data on the number of different types of vehicles passes through the studied traffic squares in a day is presented in the Table 5. Maximum number of total vehicles passing in unit time was observed at Badambadi Square (14001) followed by Link road square (13963) and OMP square (13834), whereas, minimum number of total vehicles passing in unit time was observed at High court square (11689), Biju pattanaik square (11725) and College square (11744). The noise level increases with an increase in traffic volume. The numbers of vehicles passing through a fixed point on the studied road are counted to assess the traffic volume (Q) (Table 6). It was observed that noise levels are increasing with increased traffic volume. The percentage of heavy trucks and buses to total traffic is calculated to work out truck-traffic mix ratio (P) (Table 6). The data reveals that an increase in this ratio increases the noise level.

Moreover, individual contribution to environmental noise by the air horn of different motor vehicles has been assessed at and around Cuttack. A noise of short duration (typically less than one second), particularly of high intensity, such as that produced by an air horn by any vehicle, occurring at regular or irregular intervals is known as episodic and impulsive noise. The episodic and impulsive noise levels of different types of vehicles are presented in Fig. 1. Noise produced from cargo carrying truck, bus, bolero/trekker/travera, car, motorcycle, tractor, and tempo, ranges from 108.5-126.4 dB, 102.4-120.1dB, 94.8-118.3 dB, 94.0-115.5 dB, 91.5-114.2 dB, 107.3-119.4 dB and 96.7- 116.9 dB, respectively (Fig. 1). The findings of individual contribution of vehicle towards noise pollution are more than the traffic noise-limit i.e., 70 dB (A).

However, the peak traffic was observed during two specified times such as 7-10 a.m. and 7-10 p.m. at all the monitoring squares of the city. Maximum numbers of peoples are traveling during the morning and evening time for office work and schools having similar working hours. High frequency sound emitted from electric horn and air horn of buses, trucks, cars, motorcycles, autorickshaws, engine of vehicles, crowding of general public create tremendous noise. The present study explicitly demonstrates that in most of the cases the average assessed noise levels are more than the permissible limit i.e., 70 dB for road traffic noise (Krishna Murthy el al, 2007; Kudesia and Tiwari, 2007; WHO, 1999) during day time.

Discussion on survey of social attitudes. A comprehensive questionnaire survey was undertaken, which sought information about traffic noise traits and its effects on exposed individuals. Noise (58%) and air (42%) pollution were recognised as the most important transport related urban problem. 62% of interviewed individuals opined that they personally affected by noise pollution more than any other pollution. 62% of interviewees stated that they are highly annoyed by the vehicular noise. The reasons for traffic noise pollution were evaluated as horn (61%) followed by traffic jam (30%), silencer (5%) and engine (4%). The distribution of annoyance due to vehicle categories are as 49% due to auto-rickshaws (tempos), followed by 21% due to bus and truck, 21% due to motorcycle and 9% due to four wheelers. 37% of the sample population reported frequent headaches as a result of being exposed to traffic noise. Nervousness was reported by 26% and 30% reported that traffic noise causes hearing damage. 31% respondents identified hypertension and loss of concentration as the main health effect of noise pollution. 12% interviewees were feeling mental stress and 11% were suffering from insomnia. 45% of students reported that their study was disrupted by frequent air horns of vehicles. 42% believed that traffic noise could cause loss of sleep. To estimate sleep disturbances questions with a scale of four were used: 11% opined "yes, often"; 23% respondents said "yes, sometimes", 31% opined "no, never" and 35% said "not relevant". It warrants a systematic survey of sleep quality, number of awakenings or number of changes in sleep state, changes in sleep pattern, sleep stages, subjective sleep quality to estimate the extent of sleep disturbance. The potential health impacts of traffic noise on individuals are also investigated. Excessive noise can lead to mental and physical health problems such as headache, bad temper, hearing problem, hearing impairment, loss of concentration, oral communication disturbances etc. (Lam et al., 2009; Kudesia and Tiwari, 2007). Non-auditory physical health effects in general and annoyance from noise exposure in particular include changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and levels of stress hormones, ischemic heart disease, biochemical effects, immune effects, birth weight and congenital effects (Bodin et al. 2009; Babisch, 2005). It has also effect on psychosocial well-being and performance.

Conclusion

It is inferred that the average assessed noise levels are often exceeding the permissible limit i.e., 70 dB for road traffic noise (WHO, 1999) during day time. The whole population of the Cuttack city including thousands of floating population coming to this commercial city for different purposes from nearby hundreds of small towns and villages are exposed to this urban noise levels ofmore than 70 dB (A). This is very high level, corresponding to the day time limit recommended by CPCB (2000) i.e., 55 dB for residential area and 65 dB for commercial area. Thus, it is concluded that noise level in and around Cuttack is high and much above the community annoyance limits recommended by WHO.

Recommendation

It is also worth noting that from the noise point of view, it is better to concentrate traffic along main roads then to distribute between parallel roads. Banning of hydraulic horns; improvement and streamlining of roads and parking system; controlling noise from heavy vehicle exhausts and engine brakes; design and fabrication of silencing devices and public awareness would also be helpful in reduction of the present noise level of the city. Vegetation buffer zones must be created in different parts of this city by massive plantation of trees with dense foliage (rich canopy), as they were found to be highly effective in absorbing the acoustic noise and act as very good screens in bringing down the noise levels. Effective road design, road use and development should be examined time to time.

Thus, Integrated Road Traffic Noise Strategy (IRTNS) must be developed at government level to minimise noise pollution at this commercial city of Odisha State. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India should lay down legal standards for noise levels from roads and Ministry of Environment and Forest should launch programmes to reduce noise from the motor vehicle. Therefore, Cuttack Municipal Corporation, Commissioner of Police, Cuttack and State Pollution Control Board should take some imperative steps and regulatory measures to abate such noise pollution.

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(received February 21, 2012; revised December 31, 2012; accepted January 7, 2013)

Bijay Kumar Swain, Shreerup Goswami *

Department of Geology, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack-753003, Odisha, India

* Authour for correspondence;

E-mail: goswamishreerup@gmail.com

Table 1. Decadal population trend in the city of Cuttack, India

Year   Population   Male        Female      Population
                                            density

1961   3063072      1532583     1530489     278.94
1971   3827678      1927033     1900645     341.42
1981   4628800      2346690     2282110     799.56
1991   1122739      1027747     944992      528
2001   2341094      1207781     1133313     595
2011   2618708      1,339,153   1,279,555   666

Source = District Statistical Handbook, Odisha & Census of Odisha.

Table 2. Noise level (dB) variations at different squares of the city
of Cuttack at different time intervals

Squares/ road sections                  7 a.m.-10 a.m.
                         Min    Max     [L.     [L.    [L.    [L.
                                        sub.    sub.   sub.   sub.
                                        10]     50]    90]    eq]

Link road square         74.5   121.1   102.3   93.3   80.5   101.7
Buxi bazar square        72.1   125.7    97.4   85.2   75.9   93.4
College square           72.4   119.6   100.2   85.4   77.6   94.5
Naya bazar square        72.6   124.6    98.4   84.5   76.5   93.0
Chandini chowk square    74.6   119.6    98.4   85.2   77.8   92.7
OMP square               70.5   121.3   100.6   80.2   74.2   92.6
Chandi mandir square     68.4   120.6   101.4   82.5   72.7   97.2
Sati chaura square       74.2   120.3   100.1   88.5   80.6   95.2
Dolamundai square        70.5   126.3   100.7   85.1   74.8   97.0
Ranihat square           80.9   124.3   100.1   90.3   82.7   95.7
Badambadi square         72.6   123.7   100.6   90.3   79.2   98.4
Mangalabag square        70.8   120.3   102.3   91.5   76.6   103.2
Choudhury bazar square   71.1   121.1   100.6   89.4   75.8   100.3
High court square        70.5   123.7   101.1   87.5   76.2   98.5
Balubazar square         70.1   121.3    99.2   80.3   73.8   91.8
Shelter square           71.8   121.4   101.3   87.3   76.6   98.1
Biju pattanaik square    69.1   123      98.5   82.6   74.7   92.7

Squares/ road sections                  11a.m.-2 p.m.
                         Min    Max     [L.     [L.    [L.    [L.
                                        sub.    sub.   sub.   sub.
                                        10]     50]    90]    eq]

Link road square         75.1   119.8   100.1   92.2   79.6    99.7
Buxi bazar square        72.9   120.5    98.6   81.7   75.6    91.1
College square           70.1   120.7   100.8   83.7   73.7    96.8
Naya bazar square        69.5   121      97.3   79.4   74.8    88.4
Chandini chowk square    70.6   123.4    96.6   81.4   75.1    89.6
OMP square               70.1   120.7    98.3   79.6   75.5    88.8
Chandi mandir square     71.6   120.4   100.6   80.2   74.7    92.1
Sati chaura square       72.6   121.7    99.4   86.1   76.7    95.3
Dolamundai square        69.7   124.7    98.7   80.4   73.6    91.6
Ranihat square           74.2   121.4   100.3   91.2   80.4    98.2
Badambadi square         71.1   121.6   100.6   89.2   77.4    98.8
Mangalabag square        74.1   121.3   100.2   89.1   77.6    98.2
Choudhury bazar square   70.8   127.3   102.1   84.5   76.6    96.1
High court square        70.4   124.1   101.1   87.2   73.9   100.4
Balubazar square         67.1   119.4    98.7   81.6   72.5    93.8
Shelter square           70.8   120.3   100.8   85.4   75.7    96.6
Biju pattanaik square    68.1   119.2    98.4   80.2   74.5    90.4

Squares/ road sections                  3 p.m.-6 p.m.
                         Min    Max     [L.     [L.    [L.    [L.
                                        sub.    sub.   sub.   sub.
                                        10]     50]    90]    eq]

Link road square         76.6   124.3   104.8   92.8   79.2   104.5
Buxi bazar square        73.5   124.8    98.2   86.4   76.7    94.6
College square           74.2   122.4   101.4   86.2   79.2    95.0
Naya bazar square        73.6   127.3    99.7   84.3   74.7    95.4
Chandini chowk square    76.5   120.4   101.3   89.5   81.8    96.2
OMP square               69.1   124.6   101.2   81.7   74.6    94.3
Chandi mandir square     68.2   121.4   102.3   83.5   73.6    98.2
Sati chaura square       75.3   119.9    99.7   90.1   79.8    97.1
Dolamundai square        71.8   128.9   102.3   87.4   75.7   100.0
Ranihat square           78.4   126.7   101.8   93.1   82.6    99.6
Badambadi square         79.5   125.8   101.1   92.1   85.7    96.3
Mangalabag square        72.7   120.4   102.3   90.1   78.6   100.1
Choudhury bazar square   72.3   122.6   100.2   89.1   78.6    97.4
High court square        71.1   125.6   102.2   89.4   75.5   102.1
Balubazar square         70.8   126.4   100.3   85.3   74.6    97.0
Shelter square           70.1   126.5   100.5   88.3   72.6   102.2
Biju pattanaik square    68.6   124.7    99.1   85.3   74.6    96.0

Squares/ road sections                  7 p.m.-10 p.m.
                         Min    Max     [L.     [L.    [L.    [L.
                                        sub.    sub.   sub.   sub.
                                        10]     50]    90]    eq]

Link road square         77.3   126.9   104.2   92.4   79.6   103.2
Buxi bazar square        76.7   123.3    99.6   87.7   80.6    94.1
College square           79.4   124.7   102.6   88.5   82.5    95.7
Naya bazar square        76.6   128.9   101.4   89.2   81.6    96.2
Chandini chowk square    78.3   131.8   104.6   90.4   86.2    96.4
OMP square               71.6   129.9   103.2   83.5   74.6    98.1
Chandi mandir square     70.3   125.6   104.5   86.1   72.6   104.2
Sati chaura square       80.3   121.8   102.3   90.3   83.2    96.8
Dolamundai square        71.1   126.8   104.5   86.5   76.6   100.4
Ranihat square           81.1   130.4   102.1   90.4   85.7    95.2
Badambadi square         82.3   129.6   102.3   93.2   88.7    96.5
Mangalabag square        71.6   126.9   102.6   91.4   79.5   100.9
Choudhury bazar square   73.8   128.6   103.1   92.2   79.6   102.0
High court square        72.2   129.7   102.3   89.5   78.6    99.5
Balubazar square         71.8   130.4   104.5   86.4   75.2   101.7
Shelter square           75.3   124.7   101.3   89.4   80.6    97.0
Biju pattanaik square    73.3   126.8    99.4   88.1   78.6    95.8

Table 3. Noise descriptors (TNI, NPL, NC) variations observed at
different squares of the city of Cuttack at different time intervals

Monitoring sites         7 a.m.-10 a.m.         11a.m.-2 p.m.
                         TNI     NPL     NC     TNI     NPL     NC

Link road square         137.7   123.5   21.8   131.6   120.2   20.5
Buxi bazar square        131.9   114.9   21.5   137.6   114.1   23
College square           138     117.1   22.6   152.1   123.9   27.1
Naya bazar square        134.1   114.5   21.9   134.8   110.9   22.5
Chandini chowk square    130.2   113.3   20.6   131.1   111.1   21.5
OMP square               149.8   119     26.4   136.7   111.6   22.8
Chandi mandir square     157.5   125.9   28.7   148.3   118     25.9
Sati chaura square       128.6   100.1   19.5   137.5   118     22.7
Dolamundai square        148.4   100.7   25.9   144     116.7   25.1
Ranihat square           122.3   113.1   17.4   130     118.1   19.9
Badambadi square         134.8   119.8   21.4   140.2   122     23.2
Mangalabag square        149.4   128.9   25.7   158.6   120.8   22.6
Choudhury bazar square   145     125.1   24.8   148.6   121.6   25.5
High court square        145.8   123.4   24.9   152.7   127.6   27.2
Balubazar square         145.4   117.2   25.4   147.3   120     26.2
Shelter square           154.4   122.8   24.7   146.1   121.7   25.1
Biju pattanaik square    139.9   116.5   23.8   140.1   114.3   23.9

Monitoring sites         3 p.m.-6 p.m.          7 p.m.-10 p.m.
                         TNI     NPL     NC     TNI     NPL     NC

Link road square         151.6   130.1   25.6   148     127.8   24.6
Buxi bazar square        132.7   116.1   21.5   126.6   113.1   19
College square           138     117.2   22.2   132.9   115.8   20.1
Naya bazar square        144.7   120.4   25     130.8   116     19.8
Chandini chowk square    129.8   115.7   19.5   129.8   114.8   18.4
OMP square               151     120.9   26.6   159     126.7   28.6
Chandi mandir square     158.4   126.9   28.7   170.2   136.1   31.9
Sati chaura square       129.4   117     19.9   129.6   115.9   19.1
Dolamundai square        152.1   126.6   26.6   158.2   128.3   27.9
Ranihat square           129.4   118.8   19.2   121.3   111.6   16.4
Badambadi square         117.3   111.7   15.4   113.1   110.1   13.6
Mangalabag square        143.4   123.8   23.7   141.9   124     23.1
Choudhury bazar square   135     119     21.6   143.6   125.5   23.5
High court square        152.3   128.8   26.7   143.4   123.2   23.7
Balubazar square         147.4   122.7   25.7   162.4   131     29.3
Shelter square           154.2   130.1   27.9   133.4   117.7   20.7
Biju pattanaik square    142.6   120.5   24.5   131.8   116.6   20.8

Table 4. Analysis of variance for different traffic square locations

Peak hours       Sources of variation             Sum of squares
                                                  (SS)

7 p.m.-10 p.m.   Between traffic squares          1599.4
                 Within traffic squares (error)   69145.1
                 Total                            70744.5

Peak hours       Sources of variation             Degree of freedom
                                                  (DF)

7 p.m.-10 p.m.   Between traffic squares          16
                 Within traffic squares (error)   662
                 Total                            678

Peak hours       Sources of variation             Mean squares

7 p.m.-10 p.m.   Between traffic squares          99.9
                 Within traffic squares (error)   104.4
                 Total

Peak hours       Sources of variation             F-values
                                                  Observed

7 p.m.-10 p.m.   Between traffic squares          0.95
                 Within traffic squares (error)   -
                 Total                            -

Peak hours       Sources of variation
                                                  Tabulated

7 p.m.-10 p.m.   Between traffic squares          F0.5 = 1.57
                 Within traffic squares (error)   F0.5 = 1.88
                 Total                            -

Table 5. Total number of vehicles passing across different road
squares in unit time and at different time-spels of a typical day

Monitoring sites     Number of vehicles that passed in a day
                     7 a.m.-10 a.m.        11a.m.-2 p.m.
                     2 & 3 W   LMV   HMV   2 & 3 W   LMV   HMV

Link road square     2511      497   372   2404      645   313
Buxi bazar square    2427      464   355   2164      529   286
College square       2365      479   62    2321      426   53
Naya bazar square    2543      637   89    2458      543   84
Chandini chowk       2437      582   102   2627      566   91
  square
OMP square           2562      615   278   2541      631   222
Chandi mandir        2473      611   96    2416      473   86
  square
Sati chaura square   2306      578   87    2469      461   75
Dolamundai square    2381      524   63    2223      412   56
Ranihat square       2527      457   71    2341      447   61
Badambadi square     2568      604   286   2467      461   373
Mangalabag square    2442      489   127   2511      592   86
Choudhury bazar      2416      476   93    2405      534   75
  square
High court square    2448      435   68    2351      418   59
Balubazar square     2492      472   61    2362      434   62
Shelter square       2436      423   70    2378      452   72
Biju pattanaik       2407      416   66    2366      445   68
  square

Monitoring sites     Number of vehicles that passed in a day
                     3 p.m.-6 p.m.         7 p.m.-10 p.m.
                     2 & 3 W   LMV   HMV   2 & 3 W   LMV   HMV

Link road square     2526      661   277   2743      628   386
Buxi bazar square    2404      591   70    2557      585   68
College square       2357      517   74    2483      523   84
Naya bazar square    2511      564   69    2667      678   75
Chandini chowk       2489      528   83    2556      624   88
  square
OMP square           2401      651   285   2709      634   305
Chandi mandir        2481      555   86    2512      647   91
  square
Sati chaura square   2486      537   73    2445      624   86
Dolamundai square    2474      486   66    2495      576   74
Ranihat square       2426      534   81    2614      582   87
Badambadi square     2612      663   281   2751      638   297
Mangalabag square    2528      567   92    2564      506   95
Choudhury bazar      2435      547   76    2487      489   84
  square
High court square    2369      447   79    2411      513   91
Balubazar square     2384      496   75    2451      584   82
Shelter square       2394      501   66    2427      527   79
Biju pattanaik       2381      472   72    2446      509   77
  square

Monitoring sites     Total number of vehicles

Link road square     13963
Buxi bazar square    12500
College square       11744
Naya bazar square    12918
Chandini chowk       12773
  square
OMP square           13834
Chandi mandir        12527
  square
Sati chaura square   12227
Dolamundai square    11830
Ranihat square       12228
Badambadi square     14001
Mangalabag square    12599
Choudhury bazar      12117
  square
High court square    11689
Balubazar square     11955
Shelter square       11825
Biju pattanaik       11725
  square

Table 6. Q (traffic volume) and P (truck-traffic mix ratio) at
different squares of the city of Cuttack at different time intervals

Monitoring sites         7 a.m.-10 a.m. 11a.m.-2 p.m.  3 p.m.-6 p.m.
                         Q      P(%)    Q      P(%)    Q      P(%)

Link road square         1127   11      1121    9.27   1155   7.96
Buxi bazar square        1082   10.9    993     9.56   1022   2.34
College square           969     2.16   933     1.92   983    2.54
Naya bazar square        1089    2.75   1028    2.72   1048   2.19
Chandini chowk square    1040    3.27   1095    2.74   1033   2.71
OMP square               1152    8.07   1131    6.54   1112   8.54
Chandi mandir square     1060    3.01   992     2.92   1041   2.78
Sati chaura square       990     2.92   1002    2.49   1032   2.32
Dolamundai square        989     2.12   897     2.12   1009   2.18
Ranihat square           1018    2.35   950     2.1    1014   2.66
Badambadi square         1153    8.24   1100   11.27   1185   7.93
Mangalabag square        1019    4.12   1063    2.73   1062   2.91
Choudhury bazar square   995     3.11   1005    2.48   1019   2.45
High court square        984     2.33   943     2.12   965    2.69
Balu bazar square        1008    1.98   953     2.2    985    2.54
Shelter square           976     2.35   967     2.48   987    2.23
Biju pattanaik square    963     2.28   960     2.39   975    2.46

Monitoring sites         7 p.m.-10 p.m.
                         Q      P(%)

Link road square         1252   10.3
Buxi bazar square        1070    2.15
College square           1030    2.72
Naya bazar square        1140    2.19
Chandini chowk square    1089    2.66
OMP square               1216    8.38
Chandi mandir square     1083    2.77
Sati chaura square       1052    2.75
Dolamundai square        1048    2.38
Ranihat square           1094    2.65
Badambadi square         1229    8.05
Mangalabag square        1055    3.03
Choudhury bazar square   1020    2.74
High court square        1005    2.98
Balu bazar square        1039    2.59
Shelter square           1011    2.57
Biju pattanaik square    1011    2.57
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Author:Swain, Bijay Kumar; Goswami, Shreerup
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series A: Physical Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2014
Words:7796
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