Printer Friendly

An updated list of parasitoid hymenoptera reared from the Bemisia tabaci species complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is considered to represent a cryptic species complex of global economic importance (De Barro et al. 2011; De Barro 2012). Two putative species are internationally distributed, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1; formerly biotype B or Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) and Mediterranean (MED; formerly biotype Q, and a genetic match to the original specimens collected by P. Gennadius) (Tay et al. 2012). Both have become notorious for their roles as the vectors of plant viruses to economically important crops (Lapidot & Polston 2010; Polston et al. 2014) and for their ability to develop resistance to a number of insecticides (Horowitz et al. 2005; Castle et al. 2010).

Since the initial invasion and spread of MEAM1 throughout the United States there has been a strong focus on the use of biological control agents to combat Bemisia infestations both in open-field and protected environments (Nguyen & Bennett 1995; Gould et al. 2008). The natural enemies of whiteflies include predators, parasitoids, and fungi. Arguably, the most important of these are the parasitoid Hymenoptera due to the relative ease of culture in the laboratory and the narrow host range of many species (Goolsby et al. 2005; De Barro & Coombs 2009; Pickett et al. 2013). The purpose of this paper is to provide a list of the parasitoid wasps reported to attack members of the B. tabaci species complex (Table 1).

All parasitoids known to attack B. tabaci whiteflies are hymenopteran wasps distributed between 5 families: Aphelinidae, Azotidae, Encyrtidae, Signiphoridae (Chalcidoidea), and Platygastridae (Platygastroidea). In addition to named species, there exist numerous published records of undescribed or otherwise unidentified species in particular genera parasitizing a member of the B. tabaci species complex. These are excluded from the list herein because they potentially represent nominal species already listed, with exception to the genus Metaphycus Mercet (Encyrtidae), where accurate rearing records exist but no specific entities have been formally characterized (Evans 1993). There also are certain genera with host records that include a B. tabaci species complex member that is unlikely given known host-associations. We discuss these taxa and our rationale for their exclusion in detail below.

The following table compiles information presented in previously published parasitoid lists while adding recent information gleaned from the literature. The number of parasitoid species reported from the B. tabaci species complex has increased significantly since 18 parasitoid species were first tabulated by Greathead & Bennett (1981). Gerling (1986) included 19 species in his review, omitting several from Greathead & Bennett (1981), while including new taxa, many of genus rank. Gerling et al. (2001) increased that number to 56, and Arno et al. (2010) added an additional 20 species (all Encarsia and Eretmocerus) not included, reported, or described since Gerling et al. (2001). The current work continues on this theme bringing the total to 112 species with the expectation that this number will continue to grow as new species are discovered and the host ranges of named species are expanded to include members of this cryptic species complex.

Distribution of Bemisia tabaci Parasitoids

Parasitoid distribution records are numbered by geographic region following Evans (2007) and are reproduced below for ease of reference. The reader is referred to the same publication, freely available online, for in-depth information pertaining to the species listed including species synonyms, collection localities, host records, and citations. Additional information can be retrieved from John Noyes' Universal Chalcidoidea Database (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/chalcidoids) (Noyes 2014).

1. Nearctic--United States, Canada, and Greenland

2. Neotropical--Mexico, Central and South America, Caribbean Islands

3. Western Palearctic--Europe, North Africa (bordering the Mediterranean), Russia, the Middle East, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, and Azores, Madeira, and Canary Islands

4. Ethiopian--Africa south of the Mediterranean countries, Madagascar, Seychelles, and Cape Verde Islands

5. Eastern Palearctic--China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Southern Primor'ye

6. Oriental--India, Pakistan, Philippines, and Southeast Asia

7. Australasian--Australia, Indonesia, and New Guinea

8. Pacific Islands--New Zealand and South Pacific Islands

9. Hawaii

WW. Worldwide

Parasitoids of the Bemisia tabaci Species Complex

Ablerus Howard (Chalcidoidea: Azotidae)

Species of Ablerus (=Azotus Howard) are most commonly recorded as primary, or hyperparasitoids, of immature Sternorrhyncha (Hemiptera) although certain species are known to attack lepidopteran eggs (Darling & Johnson 1984) and the pupae of chamaemyiid Diptera (Blanchard 1936). Material bred from whiteflies is typically assumed to be hyperparasitic on aphelinid primary parasitoids developing in the same host (Viggiani 1982; Evans 2007). Recently, Ablerus macrochaeta Silvestri was reported from B. tabaci in Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces in the People's Republic of China following a 10 yr natural enemy census (Li et al. 2011). Additional whitefly host records for A. macrochaeta include Aleurocanthus inceratus Silvestri, and the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby. The only other instance of an Ablerus species attacking a whitefly in the genus Bemisia is Ablerus inquirenda Silvestri parasitizing Bemisia (as Lipaleyrodes) euphorbiae (David and Subramaniam) (Evans 2007).

Cales Howard (Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae)

Cales is a relatively poorly known genus whose members, where host relationships are known, are primary parasitoids of aleyrodine whiteflies. Cales are morphologically conserved and character poor making their identification difficult without the use of molecular tools (Mottern 2012). Abd-Rabou (1997, 2002) reported a Cales sp. from B. tabaci in Beni-Suef, Egypt, citing rare incidence. At least one species, Cales noacki Howard, is globally distributed having been implemented in successful biological control programs for control of woolly whitefly, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell), a severe pest of Citrus in many countries (Meyerdirk et al. 1980; Miklasiewicz & Walker 1990; Rose & DeBach 1994). This same species was reared from the B. tabaci complex in Tanzania on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) (Guastella et al. 2014). It is important to note, however, that recent morpho-molecular analyses have identified C. noacki as a cryptic complex composed of at least 9 other species, some of which are indistinguishable morphologically (Mottern & Heraty 2014).

Mottern (2012) recently revised the Neotropical fauna adding an additional 21 new species. Further information is available from Mottern et al. (2011), Mottern (2012), and Mottern & Heraty (2014). The latter includes a key to male and female species and species complexes.

Encarsia Forster (Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae)

Encarsia is the most speciose genus of Aphelinidae with more than 450 described species which mainly parasitize either whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) or armored scale insects (Diaspididae). The number of species recorded from the B. tabaci species complex has greatly increased over recent years from the 35 listed in Gerling et al. (2001), to 55 in Arno et al. (2010) to 81 here. Minus a few exceptional cases, female Encarsia are primary endoparasitoids whereas males develop as ectophagous hyperparasitoids on conspecific or heterospecific individuals including those of other genera (Walter 1983; Hunter & Woolley 2001). The hostassociations of females appear to be obligate insomuch as they are restricted to a particular host family (e.g., Aleyrodidae; Diaspididae; Hormaphididae) (Polaszek et al. 2009). Conversely, although male Encarsia are usually reared from the same host(s) as the females, they have also been obtained from alternative hosts, including soft scales (Coccidae) (Myartseva & Evans 2007), psyllid nymphs (Liviidae; Triozidae) (Polaszek et al. 1992; Butler & Trumble 2011), and the eggs of Lepidoptera (Polaszek 1991) and Cicadellidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) (Polaszek & Luft Albarracin 2011). The reports of the armored scale parasitoids Encarsia aspidioticola (Mercet) and Encarsia lounsburyi (Berlese & Paoli) from B. tabaci should be treated with caution (Greathead & Bennett 1981; Li et al. 2011), especially in regard to En. lounsburyi, where males are unknown.

Identification aids to Encarsia species are available for the following localities: Australia (Schmidt & Polaszek 2007), China (Huang & Polaszek 1998), Egypt (Polaszek et al. 1999), Hispaniola (Evans & Serra 2002), Italy (Viggiani 1987), India (Hayat 2011), Mexico (Myartseva & Evans 2007), North America (Schauff et al. 1996), and Taiwan (Shih et al. 2008). Polaszek et al. (1992) and Evans & Polaszek (1997) treated the species parasitizing the B. tabaci species complex. Heraty et al. (2008) recently discussed the systematics and biology of Encarsia with an emphasis on those attacking Bemisia species.

Eretmocerus Haldeman (Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae)

The genus Eretmocerus contains 78 nominal species all of which are solitary, obligate, primary ecto-endoparasitoids of the whitefly subfamily Aleyrodinae. Myriad undescribed species exist including several that have been reared from Bemisia (Zolnerowich & Rose 2008). Twentythree of the 78 described species have reportedly been reared from the B. tabaci species complex. In our list, we exclude 3 species that continue to be, or have been, commonly recorded as parasitizing B. tabaci, namely Eretmocerus californicus Howard, Eretmocerus corni Haldeman, and Eretmocerus haldemani Howard. We follow the convention of Zolnerowich & Rose (2008) that these taxa, or their host whitefly, are being misidentified (Rose et al. 1996; Rose & Zolnerowich 1997a).

Recent efforts have been made to utilize Eretmocerus in biological control programs against B. tabaci MEAM1 at the international level. Five exotic species were released in the United States for control of MEAM1 in Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California (Nguyen & Bennett 1995; Gould et al. 2008). Following the success of one of these species, Eretmocerus hayati Zolnerowich & Rose, importation for evaluation and/or releases have been made in Australia (De Barro & Coombs 2009), Egypt (Abd-Rabou 2004), the People's Republic of China (Yang & Wan 2011), and Tanzania (Guastella et al. 2014). Eretmocerus hayati appears to display a precise level of host specificity limited to the genus Bemisia (De Barro & Coombs 2009), a trait possibly shared by other Eretmocerus from the Old World that have been reported only from this genus (e.g., Er. emiratus Zolnerowich & Rose, Er. sp. nr. emiratus [Ethiopia and Sudan], Er. melanoscutus Zolnerowich & Rose) (Zolnerowich & Rose 1998). Castillo & Stansly (2011) created a nomen nudem for Er. sp. nr. emiratus (Sudan) when they published its bionomics under the name Eretmocerus sudanensis Zolnerowich & Rose. This species is excluded from the list because it currently is not a valid species, despite being the dominant Eretmocerus parasitoid of B. tabaci in Florida (Z. Lahey, unpublished data).

Accurate identification of Eretmocerus depends, in large part, on the examination of properly curated material (Rose & Zolnerowich 1997a). Keys to species have been produced for the following world regions: Australia (De Barro et al. 2000), China (Wu et al. 2009), Egypt (Abd-Rabou & Evans 2002), India (Hayat 1972, 1998), Iran (Abd-Rabou et al. 2005), Italy (Viggiani & Battaglia 1983), Mexico (Myartseva 2006a), and the United States (Rose & Zolnerowich 1997a,b; Zolnerowich & Rose 1998).

Metaphycus Mercet (Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae)

Metaphycus are primary endoparasitoids of scale insects in the Coccoidea, although a few New World species are known to parasitize whiteflies (Myartseva 2006b) and jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae) (Guerrieri & Noyes 2000). An as yet undescribed Metaphycus sp. was reared from B. tabaci collected in Venezuela by F.D. Bennett, providing the first record of the genus attacking an aleyrodid (Evans 1993). A recent survey of whitefly natural enemies conducted in Columbia also yielded a Metaphycus sp. (Bellotti et al. 2005). In the continental United States, there exists at least a single species capable of parasitizing B. tabaci. Recently, specimens were reared from B. tabaci (presumably MEAM1) as part of a survey of the parasitoid Hymenoptera associated with the B. tabaci species complex in southwest Florida (Z. Lahey, unpublished data). In all instances, the adults emerged through a hole chewed in the side of the whitefly and not through the dorsum, which is the typical escape route of whitefly parasitoids. This unusual emergence behavior may be explained, in part, by the subsequent rearing of the same species from a mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found inhabiting the same host plant, Pluchea baccharis (Miller) Pruski (Asterales: Asteraceae). This bi-parental species probably utilizes B. tabaci facultatively and is so infrequently collected from the whitefly that it is not of economic importance.

The species of Metaphycus known to attack whiteflies are all from the New World with those that are described known solely from the Neotropical realm. A key to those species is available in Myartseva (2006b), but many remain undescribed (Guerrieri & Noyes 2000).

Signiphora Ashmead (Chalcidoidea: Signiphoridae)

Signiphora is a relatively small genus that contains primary and hyperparasitoids, most of which are distributed throughout the Neotropics (Woolley 1988). Signiphora aleyrodis Ashmead has been reared in small numbers from B. tabaci in numerous surveys throughout the Neotropics (Schuster et al. 1998; Viscarret et al. 2000; de Oliveira et al. 2003) and represents the only nominal signiphorid associated with the species complex. This species is an obligate hyperparasitoid of Aphelinidae and Platygastridae (Woolley 1988). Additional reports of unidentified Signiphora species reared from the B. tabaci complex exist from Cuba (Castineiras 1995), Columbia (Bellotti et al. 2005), Martinique (Ryckewaert & Alauzet 2002), and Argentina (Viscarret et al. 2000).

A key to the species and species groups of Signiphora is provided in Girault (1913) and Woolley (1988), respectively.

Amitus Haldeman (Platygastroidea: Platygastridae)

Amitus is 1 of 3 genera of whitefly parasitoids in the Platygastridae, all of which are primary endoparasitoids of whiteflies. Of the 19 species that comprise the genus, 4 (bennetti, fuscipennis, hesperidum, and longicornis) are recorded as parasitoids of B. tabaci. Amitus bennetti Viggiani & Evans was introduced into Florida from Puerto Rico for control of MEAM1 in the early 1990's (Nguyen & Bennett 1995). Although recoveries were made several weeks after initial field releases, it is unknown if this species established. Surveys conducted in southwest Florida in the mid 1990s, and from 2012-2013 did not recover this species, or any other species of Amitus, from B. tabaci (Stansly et al. 1997; Z. Lahey, unpublished data). Amitus fuscipennis MacGown & Nebeker is a well-known parasitoid of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), and appears capable of utilizing B. tabaci in the laboratory (reference in Gerling et al. 2001); to our knowledge A. fuscipennis has never been reared from B. tabaci in the field. Both A. hesperidum Silvestri and A. longicornis (Forster) parasitize citrus pests in the genus Aleurocanthus Quaintance. Additional Amitus have been reared from B. tabaci in Honduras (Velez 1993) and Nicaragua (Nunes et al. 2006).

Identification of Amitus is difficult due to a lack of information regarding the genus. Viggiani & Mazzone (1982) provided a key to the species of Italy. MacGown & Nebeker (1978) reviewed the species of the Western Hemisphere, and Polaszek (1997) discussed the European species. Some of the New World species were addressed by Viggiani & Evans (1992).

Doubtful Reports

One species from each of the following 3 chalcidoid genera are recorded as parasites of the B. tabaci species complex: Adelencyrtus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Neochrysocharis Kurdjumov (Eulophidae), and Pteroptrix Westwood (Aphelinidae). Adelencyrtus are parasitoids of Coccoidea (mostly Diaspididae), with 1 doubtful record of A. moderatus (Howard) from B. tabaci(Greathead & Bennett 1981). To our knowledge, A. moderatus, as well as any other species of Adelencyrtus, has never reliably been reared from an aleyrodid. Most likely the whitefly collection that produced these specimens was contaminated with diaspine scales resulting in this host association.

A similar situation arises in regards to Pteroptrix, also parasitoids of Diaspididae. Like the genus Encarsia, Pteroptrix exhibit heteronomous life histories with females acting as primary parasitoids and males developing as hyperparasitoids on the same or different species (Hunter & Woolley 2001). If females are capable of utilizing parasitized whiteflies as hosts for males, rearings of male but not female Pteroptrix from aleyrodids could be possible. Both Pruthi & Samuel (1942) and Samuel (1950) included P bemisiae Mani as a B. tabaci parasitoid in India. Hayat (1986) considered this species a nomen nudum, and for this reason alone it cannot be included as a valid parasitoid of the B. tabaci complex. In addition, no other species of Pteroptrix appears to be associated with whiteflies, making the relationship between P bemisiae and B. tabaci unlikely.

The eulophid genus Neochrysocharis was added to the list of whitefly parasitoids following reported rearings from the 3 whitefly species, Aleyrodes proletella L., Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and Tertalicia erianthi Danzig, in central Asia (Myartseva 1993; Myartseva & Yasnosh 1994). Typical host-associations for Neochrysocharis species include leaf-mining Diptera and Lepidoptera, although other taxa have also been cited (Noyes 2014). Arguably the most well-known and polyphagous species is N. formosus (= formosa Westwood), which has been bred from over 100 different host species in 5 orders (Luna et al. 2011). Although we do not completely exclude the possibility of N. formosus as a valid parasitoid of the B. tabaci species complex, or of whiteflies in general, we evince caution in doing so for the following reasons; (i) no other species of Neochrysocharis has been associated with the Aleyrodidae; (ii) primary whitefly parasitism in the family Eulophidae appears to be restricted to the tribe Euderomphalini; (iii) N. formosus and certain members of the B. tabaci complex have a cosmopolitan distribution and can be found within the same agricultural environment on the same host plant(s). Unless N. formosus displays an affinity for parasitizing a species of the B. tabaci complex endemic to the collection locality, one would expect subsequent collecting efforts to have produced N. formosus specimens from B. tabaci on at least one other occasion somewhere else in the world.

Conclusions

The B. tabaci species complex remains a serious economic problem worldwide despite the considerable attention gained over the past 30 yr. Fortunately, the number of potential biocontrol agents used for control of these pest whiteflies continues to grow as new species are discovered and the host range of known species is expanded to include members of this cryptic species complex. In this regard, the genus Eretmocerus leads the way as the most important group of parasitic wasps used against B. tabaci whiteflies with Er. hayati having been introduced onto 3 continents outside its native range. It is our hope that the current work will serve as an important reference for biocontrol workers in regards to general information about the genera that parasitize B. tabaci whiteflies, as a portal to the references that allow for their accurate identification, and as a starting point for the construction of a comprehensive key to the species that help control this serious pest complex of world agriculture.

Acknowledgments

This work was completed as part of the first author's graduate studies. ZL thanks his co-author for financial support throughout his coursework.

References Cited

Abd-Rabou S. 1997. Parasitoids attacking the Egyptian species of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Bulletin of the Society of Entomology of Egypt 75: 110-125.

Abd-Rabou S. 1998. A revision of the parasitoids of whiteflies from Egypt. Acta Phytopathologica Hungarica 33: 193-215.

Abd-Rabou S. 2002. Revision of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera) in Egypt, pp. 268296 In 2nd International Conference, Plant Protection Research Institute. Cairo, Egypt, 21-24 Dec 2002.

Abd-Rabou S. 2004. Biological control of Bemisia tabaci Biotype "B" (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) by introduction, release and establishment of Eretmocerus hayati (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Journal of Pest Science 77: 91-94.

Abd-Rabou S. 2006. Hymenopterous parasitoids as a bioagent for controlling homopterous insects in Egypt. Journal of Agricicultural Research 6: 1-59.

Abd-Rabou S, Evans GA. 2002. The Eretmocerus Haldeman of Egypt (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Mitteilungen des Internationalen Entomologischen Vereins E V Frankfurt 27: 115-123.

Abd-Rabou S, Ghahari H. 2007. Two new species of the genus Encarsia Foerster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Iran. Acta Phytopathologica Hungarica 42: 161-167.

Abd-Rabou S, Ghahari H, Evans G. 2005. Iranian Eretmocerus-species including two new species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae) of parasitoids of whiteflies (Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae). Mitteilungen des International Entomologischen Vereins E V Frankfurt 30: 157-176.

Argov Y, Rossler Y. 1988. Introduction of beneficial insects into Israel for the control of insect pests. Phytoparasitica 16: 303-315.

Arno J, Gabarra R, Liu TX, Simmons AM, Gerling D. 2010. Natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci: predators and parasitoids, pp. 385-421 In Stansly PA, Naranjo SE [eds.], Bemisia: Bionomics and Management of a Global Pest. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Bellotti AC, Pena J, Arias B, Guerrero JM, Trujillo H, Holguin C, Ortega A. 2005. Biological control of whiteflies by indigenous natural enemies for major food crops in the Neotropics, pp. 313-323 In Anderson PK, Morales FJ [eds.], Whitefly and Whitefly-borne Viruses in the Tropics: Building a Knowledge Base for Global Action. CIAT, Cali, Columbia.

Blanchard EE. 1936. Apuntes sobre calcidoideos argentinos, nuevos y conocidos. Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Argentina 8: 7-32.

Butler CD, Trumble JT. 2011. New records of hyperparasitism of Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) by Encarsia spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 87: 130-133.

Castillo JA, Stansly PA. 2011. Biology of Eretmocerus sudanensis n. sp. Zolnerowich and Rose, parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius. BioControl 56: 843-850.

Castineiras A. 1995. Natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Cuba. Florida Entomologist 78: 538-540.

Castle S, Palumbo J, Prabhaker N, Horowitz AR, Denholm I. 2010. Ecological determinants of Bemisia tabaci resistance to insecticides, pp. 423-465 In Stansly PA, Naranjo SE [eds.], Bemisia: Bionomics and Management of a Global Pest. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Darling DC, Johnson NF. 1984. Synopsis of Nearctic Azotinae (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 86: 555-562.

De Barro P, Coombs M. 2009. Post-release evaluation of Eretmocerus hayati Zolnerowich and Rose in Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research 99: 193-206.

De Barro P, Driver F, Naumann I, Schmidt S, Clarke G, Curran J. 2000. Descriptions of three species of Eretmocerus Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitising Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Trialeurodes vapororiorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Australia based on morphological and molecular data. Australian Journal of Entomology 39: 259-269.

De Barro PJ. 2012. The Bemisia tabaci species complex: questions to guide future research. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 11: 187-196.

De Barro PJ, Liu SS, Boykin LM, Dinsdale AB. 2011. Bemisia tabaci: a statement of species status. Annual Review of Entomology 56: 1-19.

de Oliveira MRV, Amancio E, Laumann RA, Gomes LdO. 2003. Natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brasilia, Brazil. Neotropical Entomology 32: 151-154.

Evans GA. 1993. Systematic studies of New World Encarsia species and a survey of the parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci in Florida, the Carribbean and Latin America. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Evans GA. 1997. A new Encarsia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species reared from the Bemisia tabaci complex (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Florida Entomologist 80: 24-27.

Evans GA. 2007. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera) associated with whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) of the world. United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, http://www.nhm.ac.uk/resources/ research-curation/projects/chalcidoids/pdf_Y/Evans2007.pdf (last accessed 10 Apr 2012).

Evans GA, Polaszek A. 1997. Additions to the Encarsia parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) of the Bemisia tabaci-complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 87: 563-571.

Evans GA, Polaszek A. 1998. The Encarsia cubensis species-group (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 100: 222-233.

Evans GA, Serra CA. 2002. Parasitoids associated with whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Hispaniola and descriptions of two new species of Encarsia Forster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 11: 197-212.

Foltyn S, Gerling D. 1985. The parasitoids of the aleyrodid Bemisia tabaci in Israel: development, host preference, and discrimination of the aphelinid wasp Eretmocerus mundus. Entomologia Experimental et Applicata 38: 255-260.

Gerling D. 1986. Natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci, biological characteristics, and potential as biological control agents: a review. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 17: 99-110.

Gerling D, Alomar O, Arno J. 2001. Biological control of Bemisia tabaci using predators and parasitoids. Crop Protection 20: 779-799.

Gerling D, Erel E, Guershon M, Inbar M. 2009. Bionomics of Encarsia scapeata Rivnay (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), tritrophic relationships, and host-induced diapause. Biological Control 49: 201-206.

Girault AA. 1913. A systematic monograph of the chalcidoid Hymenoptera of the subfamily Signiphorinae. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 45: 189-233.

Goolsby JA, De Barro PJ, Kirk AA, Sutherst RW, Canas L, Ciomperlik MA, Ellsworth PC, Gould JR, Hartley DM, Hoelmer KA, Naranjo SE, Rose M, Roltsch WJ, Ruiz RA, Pickett CH, Vacek DC. 2005. Post-release evaluation of biological control of Bemisia tabaci biotype "B" in the USA, and the development of predictive tools to guide introductions for other countries. Biological Control 32: 70-77.

Gould J, Hoelmer K, Goolsby J [eds.]. 2008. Classical Biological Control of Bemisia tabaci in the United States--A Review of Interagency Research and Implementation, Vol. 4. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Greathead DJ, Bennett FD. 1981. Possibilities for the use of biotic agents in the control of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Biocontrol News and Information 2: 7-13.

Guastella D, Lulah H, Tajebe LS, Cavalieri V, Evans GA, Pedata PA, Rapisarda C, Legg JP. 2014. Survey on whiteflies and their parasitoids in cassava mosaic pandemic areas of Tanzania using morphological and molecular techniques. Pest Management Science DOI: 10.1002/ps.3810.

Guerrieri E, Noyes JS. 2000. Revision of European species of genus Metaphycus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae), parasitoids of scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Systematic Entomology 25: 147-222.

Hayat M. 1972. The species of Eretmocerus Haldeman, 1850 (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from India. Entomophaga 17: 99-106.

Hayat M. 1986. Family Aphelinidae. Oriental Insects 20: 143-171.

Hayat M. 1989. A revision of the species of Encarsia Foerster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from India and adjacent countries. Oriental Insects 23: 1-131.

Hayat M. 1998. Aphelinidae of India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): A Taxonomic Revision. Associated Publishers, Gainesville, Florida.

Hayat M. 2011. Additions to the Indian Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)--III: the genus Encarsia Forster. Oriental Insects 45: 202-274.

Heraty JM, Polaszek A. 2000. Morphometric analysis and descriptions of selected species in the Encarsia strenua group (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 9: 142-169.

Heraty JM, Polaszek A, Schauff ME. 2008. Systematics and biology of Encarsia, pp. 71-87 In Gould J, Hoelmer K, Goolsby J [eds.], Classical Biological Control of Bemisia tabaci in the United States--A Review of Interagency Research and Implementation, Vol. 4. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Hernandez-Suarez E, Carnero A, Aguiar A, Prinsloo G, LaSalle J, Polaszek A. 2003. Parasitoids of whiteflies (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Eulophidae, Platygastridae; Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from the Macaronesian archipelagos of the Canary Islands, Madeira, and the Azores. Systematics and Biodiversity 1: 55-108.

Hoelmer K, Goolsby J. 2002. Release, establishment, and monitoring of Bemisia tabaci natural enemies in the United States, pp. 58-65 In Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 14-18 Jan 2002.

Horowitz AR, Kontsedalov S, Khasdan V, Ishaaya I. 2005. Biotypes B and Q of Bemisia tabaci and their relevance to neonicotinoid and pyriproxyfen resistance. Archives of Insect Biochemistry 58: 216-225.

Huang J, Polaszek A. 1998. A revision of the Chinese species of Encarsia Forster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): parasitoids of whiteflies, scale insects and aphids (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Diaspididae, Aphidoidea). Journal of Natural History 32: 1825-1966.

Hunter MS, Woolley JB. 2001. Evolution and behavioral ecology of heteronomous aphelinid parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 46: 251-290.

Kajita H. 2000. Geographical distribution and species composition of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci-complex (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology 35: 155-162.

Kumar P, Whitten M, Thoeming G, Borgemeister C, Poehling HM. 2008. Effects of bio-pesticides on Eretmocerus warrae (Hym., Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci (Hom., Aleyrodidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 132: 605-613.

Lapidot M, Polston JE. 2010. Biology and epidemiology of Bemisia-vectored viruses, pp. 227-231 In Stansly PA, Naranjo SE [eds.], Bemisia: Bionomics and Management of a Global Pest. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Li SJ, Xue X, Ahmed MZ, Ren SX, Du YZ, Wu JH, Cuthbertson AGS, Qiu BL. 2011. Host plants and natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China. Insect Science 18: 101-120.

Liu TX, Stansly PA. 1996. Oviposition, development, and survivorship of Encarsia pergandiella (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in four instars of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 89: 96-102.

Lopez-Avila A. 1987. Two new species of Encarsia Foerster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Pakistan, associated with the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 77: 425-430.

Luna MG, Wada VI, LaSalle J, Sanchez NE. 2011. Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a newly recorded parasitoid of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Argentina. Neotropical Entomology 40: 412-414.

Luo Z, Zhang W, Gan G. 1989. Population dynamics of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in cotton field and the influence of insecticide application. Acta Entomologica Sinica 32: 293-299.

MacGown MW, Nebeker TE. 1978. Taxonomic review of Amitus (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea, Platygastridae) of the western hemisphere. Canadian Entomologist 110: 275-283.

Manzari S, Polaszek A, Belshaw R, Quicke DLJ. 2002. Morphometric and molecular analysis of the Encarsia inaron species-group (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), parasitoids of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 92: 165-176.

Meyerdirk DE, Kreasky JB, Hart WG. 1980. Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) attacking citrus in southern Texas with notes on natural enemies. Canadian Entomologist 112: 1253-1258.

Miklasiewicz TJ, Walker GP. 1990. Population dynamics and biological control of the woolly whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on citrus. Environmental Entomology 19: 1485-1490.

Mottern JL. 2012. Systematic studies of the parasitoid wasp genus Cales (Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae): combined molecular and morphological approaches to classification and evolution. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Riverside, California, USA.

Mottern JL, Heraty JM. 2014. Revision of the Cales noacki species complex (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Aphelinidae). Systematic Entomology 39: 354379.

Mottern JL, Heraty JM, Hartop E. 2011. Cales (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): morphology of an enigmatic taxon with a review of species. Systematic Entomology 36: 267-284.

Myartseva SN. 1993. Parasites of Tetralicia erianthi Danz. (Homoptera, Aleyrodoidea) in Turkmenistan. Izvertiya Akademii Nauk Seriya Biologicheskaya 3: 58-61.

Myartseva SN. 2006a. Eretmocerus Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitoids of whiteflies Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia (tabaci complex) in Mexico, with a key and description of a new species. Vedalia 13: 27-38.

Myartseva SN. 2006b. Species of the genus Metaphycus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) parasitizing whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Zoosystematica Rossica 14.

Myartseva SN, Evans GA. 2007. Genus Encarsia Forster of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae). A revision, key, and description of new species. Serie Avispas Parasfticas de Plagas y Otros Insectos No. 3. Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, Mexico.

Myartseva SN, Yasnosh VA. 1994. Parasites of greenhouse and cotton whiteflies (Homoptera, Aleyrodoidea) in Central Asia. Entomological Review 73: 1-10.

Nguyen R, Bennett FD. 1995. Importation and field release of parasites against silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii (Bellows and Perring) in Florida from 1990-1994. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 108: 43-47.

Noyes JS. 2014. Universal Chalcidoidea Database. World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/chalcidoids (last accessed 31 Mar 2015).

Nunes C, Lucas E, Coderre D. 2006. Parasitisme de Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) en cultures maraicheres en tropique sec nicaraguayen. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 26: 57-63.

Pedata PA, Polaszek A. 2003. A revision of the Encarsia longifasciata species group (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Systematic Entomology 28: 361-374.

Pickett CH, Keaveny D, Rose M. 2013. Spread and non-target effects of Eretmocerus mundus imported into California for control of Bemisia tabaci: 2002-2011. Biological Control 65: 6-13.

Polaszek A. 1991. Egg parasitism in Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) with special reference to Centrodora and Encarsia species. Bulletin of Entomological Research 81: 97-106.

Polaszek A. 1997. Amitus Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae): a genus of whitefly parasitoids new to Britain. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 133: 77-79.

Polaszek A, Luft Albarracin E. 2011. Two new Encarsia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) reared from eggs of Cicadellidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) in Argentina: an unusual new host association. Journal of Natural History 45: 55-64.

Polaszek A, Evans GA, Bennett FD. 1992. Encarsia parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): a preliminary guide to identification. Bulletin of Entomological Research 82: 375-392.

Polaszek A, Abd-Rabou S, Huang J. 1999. The Egyptian species of Encarsia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): a preliminary review. Zoologische Mededelingen 73: 131-163.

Polaszek A, Manzari S, Quicke DLJ. 2004. Morphological and molecular taxonomic analysis of the Encarsia meritoria species-complex (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), parasitoids of whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) of economic importance. Zoologica Scripta 33: 403-421.

Polaszek A, Hernandez-Suarez EM, Manzari S, Pedata PA, Schmidt S. 2009. Mega-diversity of Encarsia (Chalcidoidea, Aphelinidae): macroevolution in a microhymenopteran, pp. 87-92 In Memoria Taller Internacional de Recursos Naturales. Victoria, Mexico, 21-23 Oct 2009.

Polston JE, De Barro PJ, Boykin LM. 2014. Transmission specificities of plant viruses with the newly identified species of the Bemisia tabaci species complex. Pest Management Science 70: 1547-1552.

Pruthi HS, Samuel CK. 1942. Entomological investigations of the leaf curl disease of tobacco in Northern India. V. Biology and population of the whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) in relation to the incidence of the disease. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 12: 37-57.

Rivnay T, Gerling D. 1987. Aphelinidae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Israel, with description of three new species. Entomophaga 32: 463-475.

Rose M, DeBach P 1994. The woolly whitefly of citrus, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Vedalia 1: 29-60.

Rose M, Zolnerowich G. 1997a. Eretmocerus Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the United States, with descriptions of new species attacking Bemisia (tabaci complex) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 99: 1-27.

Rose M, Zolnerowich G. 1997b. The Genus Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): Parasites of Whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). California Department of Food and Agriculture, Special Publication.

Rose M, Zolnerowich G, Hunter MS. 1996. Systematics, Eretmocerus, and biological control, pp. 477-497 In Gerling D, Mayer RT [eds.], Bemisia 1995: Taxonomy, Biology, Damage, Control and Management. Intercept, Andover, United Kingdom.

Ryckewaert P, Alauzet C. 2002. The natural enemies of Bemisia argentifolii in Martinique. Biocontrol 47: 115-126.

Samuel CK. 1950. Parasites and parasitism of the white fly Bemisia tabaci (Gen), vector of tobacco leaf-curl in Northern India. Indian Journal of Entomology 12: 248-250.

Sauvion N, Pavis C, Huc A, Rousseau M, Delvare G, Morales FJ, Boissot N. 2000. Bemisia tabaci Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids: Guadeloupe island as a representative site of the Caribbean, p. 416 In Proceedings of the XXI International Congress of Entomology. Foz Do Iguassu, Brazil, 20-26 Aug 2000.

Schauff ME, Evans GA, Heraty JM. 1996. A pictorial guide to the species of Encarsia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitic on whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98: 1-35.

Schmidt S, Polaszek A. 2007. The Australian species of Encarsia Forster (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae), parasitoids of whiteflies (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aleyrodidae) and armoured scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Journal of Natural History 41: 2099-2265.

Schmidt S, Naumann ID, De Barro PJ. 2001. Encarsia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) of Australia and the Pacific Islands attacking Bemisia tabaci and Tri aleurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)--a pictorial key and descriptions of four new species. Bulletin of Entomological Research 91: 369-387.

Schuster D, Evans G, Bennett F, Stansly P, Jansson R, Leibee G, Webb S. 1998. A survey of parasitoids of Bemisia spp. whiteflies in Florida, the Caribbean and Central and South America. International Journal of Pest Management 44: 255-260.

Shafee SA, Rizvi S. 1982. A new species of Encarsia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Pakistan. Journal of Entomological Research 6: 157-158.

Shih YT, Ko CC, Polaszek A. 2008. Encarsia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitoids of Bemisia species in Taiwan (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Journal of Natural History 42: 2923-2941.

Stansly P, Schuster D, Liu TX. 1997. Apparent parasitism of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) by Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera) on vegetable crops and associated weeds in South Florida. Biological Control 9: 49-57.

Tay WT, Evans GA, Boykin LM, De Barro PJ. 2012. Will the real Bemisia tabaci please stand up? PLoS One 7: e50550.

Tzeng CC, Kao SS. 1995. Toxicity of insecticides to Eretmocerus orientalis and Encarsia transvena--parasitoids of silver leaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii). Plant Protection Bulletin (Taichung) 37: 271-279.

Velez J. 1993. Relacion entre la etapa fenologica y la variedad de frijol con el nivel de parasitismo de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). M.S. thesis. Escuela Agricola Panamericana, El Zamorano, Honduras.

Viggiani G. 1982. New species and host records of African aphelinids. Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa 45: 27-32.

Viggiani G. 1987. The Italian species of the genus Encarsia Forster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria Filippo Silvestri, Portici 44: 121-179.

Viggiani G, Battaglia D. 1983. Specie italiane del genere Eretmocerus Hald. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria Filippo Silvestri, Portici 40: 97-101.

Viggiani G, Evans GA. 1992. Descriptions of three new species of Amitus Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae), parasitoids of known whiteflies from the New World. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria Filippo Silvestri, Portici 49: 189-194.

Viggiani G, Mazzone P. 1982. The Amitus Hal. (Hym., Platygasteridae) of Italy, with descriptions of three new species. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria Filippo Silvestri, Portici 39: 59-65.

Viscarret MM, Botto EN, Polaszek A. 2000. Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of economic importance and their natural enemies (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Signiphoridae) in Argentina. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 26: 5-11.

Walter GH. 1983. 'Divergent male ontogenies' in Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): a simplified classification and a suggested evolutionary sequence. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 19: 63-82.

Woolley JB. 1988. Phylogeny and classification of the Signiphoridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Systematic Entomology 13: 465-501.

Wu Q, Huangfu Wg, Gao Mq, Wei Sj, Chai Wg, Huang J, Liu Ss, Chen Xx. 2009. Newly recorded species of Eretmocerus parasitizing the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in China. Entomotaxonomia 31: 310-314

Yang NW, Wan FH. 2011. Host suitability of different instars of Bemisia tabaci biotype B for the parasitoid Eretmocerus hayati. Biological Control 59: 313-317.

Zolnerowich G, Rose M. 1998. Eretmocerus Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) imported and released in the United States for control of Bemisia (tabaci complex) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 100: 310-323.

Zolnerowich G, Rose M. 2004. Eretmocerus rui n. sp (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae), an exotic natural enemy of Bemisia (tabaci group) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) released in Florida. Florida Entomologist 87: 283-287.

Zolnerowich G, Rose M. 2008. The genus Eretmocerus, pp. 89-109 In Gould J, Hoelmer K, Goolsby J [eds.], Classical Biological Control of Bemisia tabaci in the United States--A Review of Interagency Research and Implementation, Vol. 4. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Zachary Lahey * and Philip Stansly

University of Florida, Department of Entomology & Nematology, Southwest Florida Research & Education Center, Immokalee, Florida 34142, USA

* Corresponding author; E-mail: zjlahey@ufl.edu
Table 1. Parasitoid Hymenoptera reportedly reared from the Bemisia
tabaci species complex.

Taxa                              Authority              Distribution

Aphelinidae

Cales           noacki            Howard                 2, 3, 4
Encarsia        abundantia        Chou & Su              5, 6
                acaudaleyrodis    Hayat                  3, 6
                accenta           Schmidt & Naumann      7
                adusta            Schmidt & Naumann      7
                albiscutellum     (Girault)              5, 7
                aleurochitonis    (Mercet)               3
                aleurothrixi      Evans & Polaszek       2
                ancistrocera      Huang & Polaszek       5
                aseta             Hayat & Polaszek       5, 6, 9
                aspidioticola     (Mercet)               3
                asterobemisiae    Viggiani & Mazzone     3
                azimi             Hayat                  3, 5, 6
                bennetti          Hayat                  5, 6
Encarsia        bimaculata        Heraty & Polaszek      1, 2, 3, 4,
                                                           5, 6, 7
                bothrocera        Huang & Polaszek       5
                brasiliensis      (Hempel)               1, 2, 3, 4, 7
                brevivena         Hayat                  6
                californica       Polaszek               1
                cibcensis         Lopez-Avila            3, 5, 6, 7
                citrella          (Howard)               1, 2
                citri             (Ishii)                5
                collecta          Chou & Su              5
                coquilletti       Howard                 1, 2
                davidi            Viggiani & Mazzone     3, 4
                desantisi         Viggiani               2
                duorunga          Hayat                  5, 6
                echinocera        Huang & Polaszek       5
Encarsia        elegans           Masi                   3, 5, 6
                formosa           Gahan                  WW
                fujianensis       Huang & Polaszek       5
                fuzhouensis       Huang & Polaszek       5
                gerlingi          Viggiani               3, 5
                guadeloupae       Viggiani               1, 2, 3, 4,
                                                           6, 7, 9
                hamata            Huang & Polaszek       5
                hamoni            Evans & Polaszek       1, 2
                inaron            (Walker)               1, 2, 3, 4,
                                                           5, 6, 7
                ishii             (Silvestri)            5
                japonica          Viggiani               5
                lahorensis        (Howard)               1, 3, 5, 6
                lanceolata        Evans & Polaszek       1, 2
                longicauda        Hayat                  5, 6
Encarsia        longifasciata     Subba Rao              5, 6, 7
                longivalvula      Viggiani               5, 6
                lounsburyi        (Berlese & Paoli)      1, 2, 3, 4,
                                                           5, 6, 7, 8
                lutea             (Masi)                 1, 2, 3, 4,
                                                           5, 6, 7, 8
                luteola           Howard                 1, 2, 3, 5
                macoensis         Abd-Rabou & Ghahari    3
                magnivena         Huang & Polaszek       5
                melanostoma       Polaszek & Hernandez   3
                merceti           Silvestri              2, 5, 6, 7
                meritoria         Gahan                  1, 2
                mineoi            Viggiani               3, 4, 7
                mohyuddini        Shafee & Rizvi         3, 5, 6
                neoporteri        Myartseva & Evans      1, 2
                nigricephala      Dozier                 1, 2, 4, 8
Encarsia        nipponica         Silvestri              5, 9
                noahi             Polaszek & Hernandez   3

                oakeyensis        Schmidt & Naumann      7
                obtusiclava       Hayat                  5
                opulenta          (Silvestri)            5, 6
                paracitrella      Evans & Polaszek       2
                parvella          Silvestri              4
                perflava          Hayat                  5, 6
                pergandiella      Howard                 1, 2, 3, 7

                perplexa          Huang & Polaszek       1, 2, 5, 6
                polaszeki         Evans                  2
                porteri           (Mercet)               2
                protransvena      Viggiani               1, 2, 3,
                                                           5, 8, 9
                pseudocitrella    Evans & Polaszek       1, 2
Encarsia        quaintancei       Howard                 1, 2
                reticulata        Rivnay                 3
                scapeata          Rivnay                 3
                smithi            (Silvestri)            1, 5, 6, 7
                sophia            (Girault & Dodd)       1, 2, 3, 4,
                                                           5, 6, 7, 9
                strenua           (Silvestri)            3, 5, 6
                synaptocera       Huang & Polaszek       5
                tabacivora        Viggiani               1, 2
                thoreauini        (Girault)              7
                tricolor          Forster                3, 4
                tristis           (Zehntner)             4, 5, 6, 7
                variegata         Howard                 1, 2
Eretmocerus     aegypticus        Evans & Abd-Rabou      3
                diversiciliatus   Silvestri              3, 4
Eretmocerus     emiratus          Zolnerowich & Rose     1, 4
                eremicus          Rose & Zolnerowich     1, 3
                evansi            Myartseva              2
                furuhashii        Rose & Zolnerowich     1, 5
                gunturiensis      Hayat                  6
                hayati            Zolnerowich & Rose     1, 6, 7
                joeballi          Rose & Zolnerowich     1
                longiscapus       Hayat                  3
                melanoscutus      Zolnerowich & Rose     1, 6
                mundus            Mercet                 1, 3, 4,
                                                           5, 6, 7
                nikolskajae       Myartseva              3
                orientalis        Gerling                5
                queenslandensis   Naumann & Schmidt      7
                rajasthanicus     Hayat                  6
Eretmocerus     rui               Zolnerowich & Rose     1, 5
                sculpturatus      Hayat                  6
                serius            Silvestri              1, 2, 3, 5,
                                                           6, 7, 9
                silvestrii        Gerling                5
                staufferi         Rose & Zolnerowich     1
                tejanus           Rose & Zolnerowich     1
                warrae            Naumann & Schmidt      7

Azotidae

Ablerus         macrochaeta       Silvestri              5, 6

Encyrtidae

Metaphycus      spp. (Columbia,                          1, 2
                Venezuela, USA)

Signiphoridae

Signiphora      aleyrodis         Ashmead                1, 2, 3

Platygas-
  tridae

Amitus          bennetti          Viggiani & Evans       1, 2
                fuscipennis       MacGown & Nebeker      1, 2, 3
                hesperidum        Silvestri              1, 2, 5
                longicornis       (Forster)              3

Taxa                              Reference

Aphelinidae

Cales           noacki            Guastella et al. 2014
Encarsia        abundantia        Li et al. 2011
                acaudaleyrodis    Polaszek et al. 1999
                accenta           Schmidt et al. 2001
                adusta            Schmidt et al. 2001
                albiscutellum     Li et al. 2011
                aleurochitonis    Luo et al. 1989
                aleurothrixi      de Oliveira et al. 2003
                ancistrocera      Li et al. 2011
                aseta             Shih et al. 2008
                aspidioticola     Greathead & Bennett 1981
                asterobemisiae    Evans 2007
                azimi             Schmidt et al. 2001
                bennetti          Li et al. 2011
Encarsia        bimaculata        Heraty & Polaszek 2000
                bothrocera        Li et al. 2011
                brasiliensis      Polaszek et al. 1992
                brevivena         Hayat 1989
                californica       Polaszek et al. 2004
                cibcensis         Lopez-Avila 1987
                citrella          Evans & Polaszek 1997
                citri             Kajita 2000
                collecta          Li et al. 2011
                coquilletti       Hoelmer & Goolsby, 2002
                davidi            Hernandez et al. 2003
                desantisi         Polaszek et al. 1992
                duorunga          Hayat 1989
                echinocera        Li et al. 2011
Encarsia        elegans           Abd-Rabou 1998
                formosa           De Barro et al. 2000
                fujianensis       Li et al. 2011
                fuzhouensis       Shih et al. 2008
                gerlingi          Li et al. 2011
                guadeloupae       Schmidt et al. 2001
                hamata            Li et al. 2011
                hamoni            Evans & Polaszek 1998
                inaron            Manzari et al. 2002
                ishii             Li et al. 2011
                japonica          Kajita 2000
                lahorensis        Li et al. 2011
                lanceolata        Evans & Polaszek 1997
                longicauda        Li et al. 2011
Encarsia        longifasciata     Pedata & Polaszek 2003
                longivalvula      Schmidt & Polaszek 2007
                lounsburyi        Li et al. 2011
                lutea             Folytn & Gerling 1985
                luteola           Castineiras 1995
                macoensis         Abd-Rabou & Ghahari 2007
                magnivena         Li et al. 2011
                melanostoma       Hernandez-Suarez et al. 2003
                merceti           Li et al. 2011
                meritoria         Hoelmer & Goolsby 2002
                mineoi            Polaszek et al. 1999
                mohyuddini        Shafee & Rizvi 1982
                neoporteri        Myartseva & Evans 2007
                nigricephala      Stansly et al. 1997
Encarsia        nipponica         Li et al. 2011
                noahi             Hernandez-Suarez et al. 2003
                oakeyensis        Schmidt et al. 2001
                obtusiclava       Shih et al. 2008
                opulenta          Li et al. 2011
                paracitrella      Evans & Polaszek 1997
                parvella          Sauvion et al. 2000
                perflava          Evans 2007
                pergandiella      Argov & Rossler 1988;
                                    Liu & Stansly 1996
                perplexa          Li et al. 2011
                polaszeki         Evans 1997
                porteri           Viscarret et al. 2000
                protransvena      Huang & Polaszek 1998
                pseudocitrella    Evans & Polaszek 1997
Encarsia        quaintancei       Stansly et al. 1997
                reticulata        Rivnay & Gerling 1987
                scapeata          Gerling et al. 2009
                smithi            Polaszek et al. 1992
                sophia            Heraty & Polaszek 2000
                strenua           Shih et al. 2008
                synaptocera       Shih et al. 2008
                tabacivora        Evans & Serra 2002
                thoreauini        Schmidt & Polaszek 2007
                tricolor          Hernandez-Suarez et al. 2003
                tristis           Li et al. 2011
                variegata         Myartseva & Evans 2007
Eretmocerus     aegypticus        Abd-Rabou & Evans 2002
                diversiciliatus   Abd-Rabou 1998
Eretmocerus     emiratus          Zolnerowich & Rose 1998
                eremicus          Rose & Zolnerowich 1997a
                evansi            Myartseva 2006a
                furuhashii        Li et al. 2011
                gunturiensis      Li et al. 2011
                hayati            Zolnerowich & Rose 1998
                joeballi          Rose & Zolnerowich 1997a
                longiscapus       Li et al. 2011
                melanoscutus      Zolnerowich & Rose 1998
                mundus            Zolnerowich & Rose 2008
                nikolskajae       Abd-Rabou 2006
                orientalis        Tzeng & Kao 1995
                queenslandensis   De Barro et al. 2000
                rajasthanicus     Li et al. 2011
Eretmocerus     rui               Zolnerowich & Rose 2004
                sculpturatus      Li et al. 2011
                serius            Abd-Rabou et al. 2005

                silvestrii        Li et al. 2011
                staufferi         Rose & Zolnerowich 1997a
                tejanus           Rose & Zolnerowich 1997a
                warrae            Kumar et al. 2008

Azotidae

Ablerus         macrochaeta       Li et al. 2011

Encyrtidae

Metaphycus      spp. (Columbia,   Bellotti et al. 2005,
                Venezuela, USA)     Evans 1993, present study

Signiphoridae

Signiphora      aleyrodis         Stansly et al. 1997

Platygas-
  tridae

Amitus          bennetti          Viggiani & Evans 1992
                fuscipennis       Gerling et al. 2001
                hesperidum        Li et al. 2011
                longicornis       Li et al. 2011
COPYRIGHT 2015 Florida Entomological Society
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Lahey, Zachary; Stansly, Philip
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 1, 2015
Words:7290
Previous Article:Palatability of baits containing (S)-methoprene to Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).
Next Article:Antixenosis and tolerance to Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in common bean cultivars.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters