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An updated classification of the class Magnoliopsida.

Taxa Incertae Sedis

Haptanthus Goldberg & Nelson (1). Honduras. (Haptanthaceae C. Nelson, 2002 (1/1)). Relationships still unknown (Goldberg & Nelson, 1989), near Euphorbiaceae or Flacourtiaceae (Goldberg & Alden, 2005), or near Buxaceae (Doust & Stevens, 2005; Shipunov, 2005).

Heteranthia Ness & Mart. (1) Brazil. Probably in or near Solanaceae (Mabberley 1997).

Pottingeria Prain (1) se Asia. Placed tentatively in Celastraceae by Airy Shaw (1973) and in Hydrangeales as Pottingeriaceae Takht. by Takhtajan (1987); accepted by Doweld (2001) who assigned the family near Phellinaceae Takht. Cunoniaceae and Flacourtiaceae have also been suggested.

Pteleocarpa Oliv. (1) W. Malesia. Excluded from Boraginaceae by Riedl (1997), Baas (1997), and Omstead & Ferguson (2001).

Pertinent Literature

Mostly only those publications are listed that have not already been cited in the Thorne (2000a, 2000b) papers listed below.

Aagesen, L. & A. M. Sanso. 2003. The phylogeny of the Alstromeriaceae, based on morphology, rps16 intron, and rbcL sequence data. Syst. Bot. 28: 47-69.

Aerne, L. & M. Simpson. 2006. The vegetative anatomy of the Haemodoraceae and its systematic significance. Botany 2006 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, p. 270.

Aguilar, J. F., P. A. Fryxell & R. K. Jansen. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships and classification of the Sida generic alliance (Malvaceae) based on nrDNA ITS evidence. Syst. Bot. 28:352-364.

Ahmad, K. J. 1974. Cuticular studies in some species of Mendoncia and Thunbergia (Acanthaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 69: 53-63.

Airy Shaw, H. K. 1965. On a new species of the Silvianthus Hook. f. and on the family Carlemanniaceae. Kew Bull. 19: 507-512.

--. 1973. A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns. Ed. 8. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

Albach, D. C., M. M. Martinez-Ortega, M. A. Fischer & M. W. Chase. 2004. Evolution of Veroniceae: a phylogenetic perspective. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 91:275-302.

--, H. M. Meudt & B. Oxelman. 2005. Piecing together the "new" Plantaginaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 92:297-315.

--, D. E. Soltis, M. W. Chase & P. S. Soltis. 2001a. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic angiosperm Hydrostachys. Taxon 50: 781-805.

--, P. S. Soltis & D. E. Soltis. 2001b. Patterns of embryological and biochemical evolution in the asterids. Syst. Bot. 26: 242-262.

--, --, -- & R. G. Olmstead. 2001b. Phylogenetic analysis of the Asteridae based on sequences of 4 genes. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 163-212.

Albers, F. & U. Meve. 2001. A karyological survey of Asclepiadoideae, Periplocoideae, and Secamonoideae, and evolutionary considerations within Apocynaceae s.1. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 624-656.

Alejandra, J., P. S. Manos & E. A. Zimmer. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of the perianthless Piperales: reconstructing the evolution of flora development. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 165: 403-416.

Alford, M. H. 2006. Gerrardinaceae: a new family of African flowering plants unresolved among Brassicales, Huerteales, Malvales, and Sapindales. Taxon 55:959-964.

Al-Shehbaz, A., M. A. Beilsteln & E. A. Kellogg. 2006. Systematics and phylogeny of the Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): an overview. Pl. Syst. Evol. 259: 89-120.

Anderberg, A. A., C. Rydin & M. Kallersjo. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships in the order Ericales s.1.: analyses of molecular data from five genes from the plastid and mitochondrial genomes. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 677-687.

--, B. Stahl & M. Kullersjo. 2000. Maesaceae, a new primuloid family in the order Ericales s.1. Taxon 49: 183-187.

Anderson, E. F. 2001. The cactus family. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Andersson, L. & S. Andersson. 2000. A molecular phylogeny of Tropaeolaceae and its systematic implications. Taxon 49: 721-736.

--, M. Kocsis & R. Eriksson. 2006. Relationships of the genus Azorella (Apiaceae) and other hydrocotyloids inferred from sequence variation in three plastid markers. Taxon 55: 270-280.

Andersson, S. 2006. On the phylogeny of the genus Calceolaria (Calceolariaceae) as inferred from ITS and plastid matK sequences. Taxon 55:125-137.

Andreasen, K. & B. Bremer. 2000. Combined phylogenetic analysis in the Rubiaceae-Ixoroideae: morphology, nuclear and chloroplast DNA data. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1731-1748.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 141: 399-436.

Applequist, W. L., W. L. Wagner, E. A. Zimmer & M. Nepokroeff. 2006. Molecular evidence resolving the systematic position of Hectorella (Portulacaceae). Syst. Bot. 31: 310-319.

-- & R. S. Wallace. 2000. Phylogeny of the Madagascan endemic family Didiereaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 221: 157-166.

-- & --. 2001. Phylogeny of the portulacaceous cohort based on ndhF sequence data. Syst. Bot. 26: 406-419.

-- & --. 2002. Deletions in the plastid trnT-trnL intergenic spacer define clades within Cactaceae subfamily Cactoideae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 231 : 153-162.

-- & --. 2003. Expanded circumscription of Didiereaceae and its division into three subfamilies. Adansonia, set. 3.25: 13-16.

Asmussen, C. B. & M. W. Chase. 2001. Coding and noncoding plastid DNA in palm systematics. Amer. J. Bot. 88:1103-1117.

Azuma, H., J. G. Garcia-Franco, V. Rico-Gray & L. B. Thien. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the Magnoliaceae: the biogeography of tropical and temperate disjunctions. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 2275-2285.

Azuma, T., T. Kajita, J. Yokoyama & H. Ohashi. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of Salix (Salicaceae) based on rbcL sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 67-75.

Baas, P., S. Jansen & E. Smets. 2001. Vegetative anatomy and affinities of Dirachma socotrana (Dirachmaceae). Syst. Bot. 26: 231-241.

Backlund, A. & N. Pyek. 1998. Diervillaceae and Linnaeaceae: two new families of caprifolioids. Taxon 47: 657-661.

Backlund, M., B. Oxelman & B. Bremer. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships within the Gentianales based on ndhF and rbcL sequences, with particular reference to the Loganiaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1029-1043.

Bailey, C. D., M. Koch, M. Mayer, M. Klaus, S. L. O'kane, S. I. Warwick, M. D. Windham & I. Al-Shehbaz. 2006. A global nrDNA ITS phylogeny for the Brassicaceae. Botany 2006 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis. pp. 205-206.

Baldwin, B. G., B. L. Wessa & J. L. Panero. 2002. Nuclear rDNA evidence/'or major lineages of helenioid Heliantheae (Compositae). Syst. Bot. 27: 161-198.

Ballard, H. E. Jr., M. Feng & J. K. Munzinger. 2002. Biogeographic patterns and trans-oceanic dispersal in the Violaceae. Botany 2002 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, p. 175.

--, G. Rothwell & R. Stockey. 2002. Reassessing relationships among aroids and duckweeds. Botany 2002 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, p. 113.

Balthazar, M. von & P. K. Endress. 2002a. Didymelaceae--a comparison of female structures with Buxaceae and other basal eudicots. Botany 2002 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, p. 20.

-- & --. 2002b. Reproductive structures and systematics of Buxaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 140: 193-228.

-- & --. 2002c. Development of inflorescences and flowers in Buxaceae and the problem of perianth interpretation. Int. J. PI. Sci. 163: 847-876.

--, -- & Y.-L. Qiu. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships in Buxaceae based on nuclear internal transcribed spacers and plastid dnhF sequences. Int. J. PI. Sci. 161: 785-792.

--, G. E. Schatz & P. K. Endress. 2003. Female flowers and inflorescences of Didymelaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 237: 199-208.

Barfuss, M. H. J., R. Samuel, W. Till & T. F. Stuessy. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships in subfamily Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) based on DNA sequence data from seven plastid regions. Amer. J. Bot. 92:337-351.

Barnes, R. W., R. S. Hill & J. C. Bradford. 2001. The history of Cunoniaceae in Australia from macro-fossil evidence. Austral. J. Bot. 49: 301-320.

Bartish, I. V., N. Jeppsson, H. Nybom & U. Swenson. 2002. Phylogeny of Hippophae ((Elaeagnaceae) inferred from parsimony analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphology. Syst. Bot. 27: 41-54.

Baum, D. A., A. Yen, B. A. Whitlock, W. S. Alverson, R. Nyffeller, S. Smith & R. Oldham. 2002. Mode, locus, and tempo of evolution in Malvoideae and Bombacoideae (Malvaceae s.1.): evidence from multiple DNA sequences. Botany 2002 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, p. 114.

Beardsley, P. M. & R. G. Olmstead. 2002. Redefining Phrymaceae: the placement of Mimulus, tribe Mimuleae, and Phryma. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1093-1102.

Behnke, H. D. 2000. Forms and sizes of sieve-element plastids and evolution of the monocotyledons. Pp. 163-188 in K. L. Wilson & D. A. Morrison (eds.), Monocots: systematics and evolution. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.

--. 2003. Sieve-element plastids and evolution of monocotyledons with emphasis on Melanthiaceae sensu lato and Aristolochia-Asaroideae, a putative dicotyledon sister group. Bot. Rev. 68: 524-544.

Bell, C. D. & M. J. Donoghue. 2005. Dating the Dipsacales: comparing models, genes, and evolutionary implications. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 284-296.

-- & E. J. Edwards. 2002. Phylogeny and biogeography of Valerianaceae (Dipsacales) with special reference to the South American species. Botany 2002 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, p. 115.

--,--, S.-T. Kim & M. J. Donoghue. 2001. Dipsacales phylogeny based on chloroplast sequences. Harvard Pap. Bot. 6: 481-499.

Blarer, A., D. L. Nickrent & P. K. Endress. 2004. Comparative floral structure and systematics in Apodanthaceae (Rafflesiales). Pl. Syst. Evol. 245:119-142.

Bobrov, A. V. F. Ch., P. K. Endress, A. P. Melikian, M. S. Romanov, A. N. Sorokin & A. P. Bejerano. 2005. Fruit structure of Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 148: 265-274.

Bogler, D. J., J. C. Pires & J. Francisco-Ortega. 2006. Phylogeny of Agavaceae based on ndhF, rbcL, and ITS sequences: implications of molecular data for classification. Aliso 22: 313-328.

Borg, A. J., L. A. McDade & J. Schonenberger. 2006. Molecular systematics and patterns of morphological evolution in Thunbergioideae (Acanthaceae). Botany 2006 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, p. 208.

Borsch, T., W. Hilu, D. Quandt, V. Wilde, C. Neinhuis & W. Barthlott. 2003. Non-coding plastid trnT-trnF sequences reveal a well resolved phylogeny of basal angiosperms. J. Evol. Biol. 16: 558-576.

Boureau, E. 1958. Contribution a l'etude anatomique des especes actuelles de Rhopalocarpaceae. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) ser. 2 30: 213-221.

Bradford, J. & R. W. Barnes. 2001. Phylogenetics and classification of Cunoniaceae (Oxalidales) using chloroplast DNA sequences and morphology. Syst. Bot. 26: 354-385.

Bremer, B., K. Bremer, N. Heidari, P. Erixon, R. G. Olmstead, A. A. Anderberg, M. Kallersjo & E. Barkhordarian. 2002. Phylogenetics of asterids based on 3 coding and 3 non-coding chloroplast DNA markers and the utility of non-coding DNA at higher taxonomic levels. Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 24: 274-301.

-- & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae-Rubiaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 225: 43-72.

Bremer, K. 2000. Phylogenetic nomenclature and the new ordinal system of the angiosperms. Pp. 125-133 in B. Nordenstam, G. El-Ghazaly, M. Kassas & T. C. Laurent (eds.), Plant systematics for the 21st century. Portland Press, London.

--. 2002a. Gondwanan evolution of the grass alliance of families (Poales). Evolution 56: 1374-1387.

--. 2002b. Scytopetalaceae are stipulate. Kew Bull. 57: 759-761.

-- & T. Janssen. 2006. Gondwanan origin of major monocot groups inferred from dispersalvicariance analysis. Aliso 22: 22-27.

--, A. Backlund, B. Sennblad, U. Swenson, K. Andreasen, M. Hjertson, J. Lundberg, M. Backlund & B. Bremer. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of 100+ genera and 50+ families of euasterids based on morphological and molecular data with notes on possible higher level morphological synapomorphies. Pl. Syst. Evol. 229: 137-169.

--, B. Bremer & M. Thulin. 2003. Introduction to phylogeny and systematics of flowering plants. Symb. Bot. Upsal. 33(2): 1-102.

--, E. M. Friis & B. Bremer. 2004. Molecular phylogenetic dating of asterid flowering plants shows early Cretaceous diversification. Syst. Biol. 53: 496-505. Briggs, B. G. 2000. What is significant--the Wollemi pine or the southern rushes? Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 72-80.

-- & L. A. S. Johnson. 1999. A guide to a new classification of Australian Restionaceae and allied families. Pp. 25-56 in K. A. Meney & J. S. Pate (eds.). Australian rushes. University of Western Australian Press, Nedlands, Western Australia.

-- & --. 2000. Hopkinsiaceae and Lyginiaceae, two new families of Poales in western Australia, with revisions of Hopkinsia and Lyginia. Telopea 8: 477-502.

-- & --. 2001. The genus Desmocladus (Restionaceae) and new species from the south of Western Australia and South Australia. Telopea 9: 227-245.

--, A. D. Marehant, S. Gilmore & C. L. Porter. 2000. A molecular phylogeny of Restionaceae and allies. Pp. 661-671 in K. L. Wilson & D. A. Morrison (eds.), Monocots: systematics and evolution. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.

Britton, T., B. Oxelman, A. Vinnersten & K. Bremer. 2002. Phylogenetic dating with confidence intervals using mean path lengths. Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 24: 58-65.

Bruckner, C. 2000. Clarification of the carpel number in Papaverales, Capparales, and Berberidaceae. Bot. Rev. 66: 155-307.

--. 2002. How to chop up a tree. Taxon 51: 31-41.

--. 2003. Further dogged defense of paraphyletic taxa. Taxon 52: 803-804.

Bruneau, A., F. Forest, P. S. Herendeen, B. B. Klitgaard & G. P. Lewis. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships in the Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae) as inferred from chloroplast trnL intron sequences. Syst. Bot. 26: 487-514.

Burge, D. 2006. Molecular systematics of the genus Garrya (Garryaceae): a phylogeny based upon nuclear gene sequences. Botany 2006 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, p. 209.

Buzgo, M. & P. K. Endress. 2000. Floral structure and development of Acoraceae and its systematic relationships with basal angiosperms. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 16: 23-41.

--. D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, B. A. Hauser & B. Johansen. 2002. B-class organ identity in basal monocots. Botany 2002 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, p. 17.

Caddick, L. R., P. J. Rudall & P. Wilkin. 20011a. Floral morphology and development in Dioscoreales. Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. III : 189-230.

-- & M. W. Chase. 2000b. Yams and their allies: systematics of Dioscoreales. Pp. 475-487 in K. L. Wilson & D. A. Morrison (eds.), Monocots: systematics and evolution. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.

--, P. J. Rudall, T. A. J. Hedderson & M. W. Chase. 2002. Yams reclassified: a recircumscription of Dioscoreaceae and Dioscoreales. Taxon 51 : 103-114.

Callmander, M. W., P. Chassot, P. Kupfer & P. P. Lowery II. 2003. Recognition of Martellidendron, a new genus of Pandanaceae. and its biogeographic implications. Taxon 52: 747-762.

Cameron, K. M. 1998. Systematics of heteromycotrophic Petrosaviaceae. Second International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons: Abstracts. Univ. New South Wales. Sydney, p. 64.

-- . 2001. An expanded phylogenetic analysis of Orchidaceae using three plastid genes: rbcL, atpB, and psaB. Botany 2001 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America. St. Louis, p. 104.

--. 2002. Intertribal relationships within Orchidaceae as inferred from analyses of five plastid genes. Botany 2002 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America. St. Louis, p. 116.

--. 2003. On the phylogenetic position of the New Caledonian endemic families Paracryphiaceae, Oncothecaceae, and Strasburgeriaceae: a comparison of molecules and morphology. Bot. Rev. 68: 428-443.

--. 2006. A comparison and combination of plastid atpB and rbcL gene sequences for interring phylogenetic relationships within Orchidaceae. Aliso 22: 447-464.

--& M. W. Chase. 2000. Nuclear 18S rDNa sequences of Orchidaceae confirm the subfamilial status and circumscription of Vanilloideae. Pp. 457-464 in K. L. Wilson & D. A. Morrison (eds.), Monocots: systematics and evolution. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.

--& C. Fu. 2000. Untangling the catbriers: phylogenetic studies in Smilacaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 87(6): 117 (Abstr.).

--, --, W. R. Anderson & H. G. Hills. 2001. Molecular systematics of Malpighiaceae: evidence from plastid rbcL and matK sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1847-1862.

--, -- & P. J. Rudall. 2003. Recircumscription of the monocotyledonous family Petrosaviaceae to include Japonolirion. Brittonia 55: 214-225.

--, W. M. Whitten, P. J. Kores, D. C. Jarrell, V. A. Albert, T. Yukawa, H. G. Hills & D. H. Goldman. 1999. A phylogenetic analysis of the Orchidaceae: evidence from rbcL nucleotide sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 208-224.

--, K. J. Wurdack & R. W. Jobson. 2002. Molecular evidence for the common origin of snaptraps among carnivorous plants. Amer. J. Bot. 89:1503-1509.

Campbell, C. S., R. C. Evans, M. P. Arsenault & T. A. Dickinson. 2002. Phylogenetic insights into the Maloideae (Rosaceae) from chloroplast DNA. Botany 2002 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, p. 107.

Caris, P., L. P. Ronse Decraene, E. Smets & D. Clinckemaillie. 2002. The uncertain systematic position of Symplocos (Symplocaceae): evidence from a floral ontogenetic study. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 163: 67-74.

--& E. Smets. 2003. The relationship between Samolus L. and the Theophrastaceae: a floral ontogenetic approach. Palm. Hortus Francofurt. 7:24 (Abstr.).

-- & --. 2004. A floral ontogenetic study on the sister group relationships between the genus Samolus (Primulaceae) and the Theophrastaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 91: 627-643.

-- & --. 2006. Floral ontogenetic patterns in Ericaceae. Botany 2006 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, pp. 66-67.

Carlquist, S. 2000. Wood and bark anatomy of Takhtajania (Winteraceae): phylogenetic and ecological implications. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 317-322.

--. 2001a. Wood anatomy of Fouquieriaceae in relation to habit, ecology, and systematics: nature of meristems in wood and bark. Aliso 19: 137-163.

--. 2001b. Wood and stem anatomy of Rhabdodendraceae is consistent with placement in Caryophyllales sensu lato. I. A. W. A. J. 22: 171-181.

--. 2001c. Comparative wood anatomy. Systematic, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of dicotyledon wood. 2nd rev. ed. Springer-Verlag, New York.

--. 2002. Wood anatomy and successive cambia in Simmondsia (Simmondsiaceae): evidence for inclusion in Caryophyllales s.1. Madrono 49: 158-164.

--. 2003a. Wood anatomy of Polygonaceae: analysis of a family with exceptional wood diversity. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 141: 25-51.

--. 2003b. Wood anatomy of Aextoxicaceae and Berberidopsidaceae is compatible with their inclusion in Berberidopsidales. Syst. Bot. 28: 317-325.

--. 2004. Wood and bark anatomy of Myricaceae: relationships, generic definitions, and ecological interpretations. Aliso 21: 7-29.

--. 2005a. Wood and bark anatomy of Muntingiaceae: a phylogenetic comparison within Malvales s.1. Brittonia 57: 59-67.

--. 2005b. Wood anatomy of Krameriaceae with comparisons with Zygophyllaceae: phylesis, ecology and systematics. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 149: 257-270.

-- & E. L. Schneider. 2001. Vegetative anatomy of the New Caledonian endemic Amborella trichopoda: relationships with the Illiciales and implications for vessel origin. Pacific Sci. 55: 305-312.

-- & --. 2004. Perforation plate pit membrane remnants and other vessel details of Clethraceae: primitive features in wood of Ericales. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 165: 369-375.

-- & S. Zona. 1988. Wood anatomy of Papaveraceae, with comments on vessel restriction patterns. I. A. W. A. Bull., n.s. 9: 253-267.

Cayzer, L. W., M. D. Crisp & I. R. H. Telford. 2000a. Revision of Pittosporum (Pittosporaceae) in Australia. Austral. Syst. Bot. 13: 845-902.

--, -- & --. 2000b. Auranticarpa, a new genus of Pittospuraceae from northern Australia. Austral. Syst. Bot. 13: 903-917.

Chadefaud, M. 1974. Sur la formule florale de la Capucine (Tropaeolum majus L.) Bull. Soc. Bot. France 121: 347-355.

Chan, R. & V. A. Funk. 2006. Is the tribe Arctoteae (Compositae: Cichorioideae) monophyletic? More data, more taxa, some answers, even more questions. Botany 2006 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, p. 211.

Chanderbali, A. S., H van der Werff. & S. S. Renner. 2001. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of Lauraceae: evidence from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 104-134.

Chandler, G. T. & G. M. Plunkett. 2002. Recent advances in the resolution of intra-ordinal affinities in the Apiales: evidence from 26SrDNA. Botany 2002 Abstracts. Botanical Society of America, St. Louis, p. 117.

-- & --. 2004. Evolution in Apiales: nuclear and chloroplast markers together in (almost) perfect harmony. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 144: 124-147.

Chase, M. W. 2004. Monocot relationships: an overview. Amer. J. Bot. 91: 1645-1655.

--, D. Soltis, R. G. Olmstead, D. Morgan, D. H. Les, B. Mishler, M. R. Duvall, R. A. Price, H. G. Hills, Y-L. Qiu, K. A. Kron, J. H. Rettig, E. Conti, J. D. Palmer, J. R. Manhart, K. J. Sytsma, H. J. Michaels, W. J. Kress, K. G. Karol, W. D. Clark, M. Hedren, B. S. Gaut, R. K. Jansen, K-J. Kim, C. F. Wimpee, J. F. Smith, G. R. Furnier, S. H. Straus, Q-Y. Xiang, G. M. Plunkett, P. S. Soltis, S. M. Swensen, S. E. Williams, P. A. Gadek, C. J. Quinn, L. Eguiarte, E. Golenberg, G. H. Learn, S. W. Graham, S. C. H. Barrett, S. Dayanandan & V. A. Albert. 1993. Phylogenetics of seed plants: an analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid gene rbcL. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 528-580.

--, A. de Bruijn, A. V. Cox, G. Reeves, P. J. Rudall, M. A. T. Johnson & L. E. Eguiarte. 2000. Phylogenetics of Asphodelaceae (Asparagales): an analysis of plastid rbcL and trnL-F DNA sequences. Ann. Bot. (London) 86: 935-951.

--, M. F. Fay, D. S. Devey, O. Maurin, N. Ronsted, T. J. Davies Y. Pillon, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, M. U. Tamura, C. B. Asmussen, K. Hilu, T. Borsch, J. I Davis, D. W. Stevenson, J. C. Pires, T. J. Givnish, K. J. Sytsma, M. M. McPherson, S. W. Graham & H. S. Rai. 2006. Multigene analyses of monocot relationships: a summary. Aliso 22: 63-75.

--, -- & V. Savolainen. 2000. Higher-level classification in the angiosperms: new insights from the perspective of DNA sequence data. Taxon 49: 685-704.

--, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, P. J. Rudall, M. F. Fay, W. H. Hahn, S. Sullivan, J. Jospeh, M. Molvray, P. J. Kores, T. J. Givnish, K. J. Sytsma & J. C. Pires. 2000. Higher-level systematics of the monocotyledons: an assessment of current knowledge and a new classification. Pp. 3-16 in K. A. Wilson & D. A. Morrison (eds.), Monocots: systematics and evolution. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.

--, S. Zmarzty, M. D. Lledo, K. J. Wurdack, S. M. Swensen & M. F. Fay. 2002. When in doubt, put it in Flacourtiaceae: a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on plastid rbcL DNA sequences. Kew Bull. 57: 141-181.

Chat, J., B. Jauregui, R. J. Petit & S. Nadot. 2004. Reticulate evolution in kiwifruit (Actinidia, Actinidiaceae) identified by comparing their maternal and paternal phylogenies. Amer. J. Bot. 91: 736-747.

Chatrou, L. W. 2003. Myristicineae, a new suborder within Magnoliales. Taxon 52: 277-279.

Cheek, M., S. A. Williams & M. Etuge. 2003. Kupea martinetugei, a new genus and species of Triuridaceae from western Cameroon. Kew Bull. 58: 225-228.

Chesselet, P., G. F. Smith & A. E. van Wyk. 2002. A new tribal classification of Mesembryanthemaceae: evidence from floral nectaries. Taxon 51: 295-308.

Civeyrel, L. & N. Rowe. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of Secamonoideae based on the plastid gene matK, morphology, and biomechanics. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 583-602.

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--, N. H. Williams, W. M. Whitten & W. S. Judd. 2001. Generic circumscription and relationships in the tribe Melanthieae (Liliales, Melanthiaceae), with emphasis on Zigadenus: evidence from ITS and trnL-F sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1657-1669.

--, W. M. Whitten, N. H. Williams & W. S. Judd. 2003. An overview of Veratrum s.1. (Liliales: Melanthiaceae) and an infrageneric phylogeny based on ITS sequence data. Syst. Bot. 28: 250-269.

Hydatellaceae, including Hydatellanae (p. 83) and Hydatellales (p. 85), are now assigned to Nymphaeales (p. 71) and positioned between Nymphaeaceae and Ceratophyllaceae. See Friis & Crane (Nature 446: 269-270. 2007) and Saarela et al. (Nature 446: 312-315. 2007).

1c. Salacioideae N. Halle ex Thorne & Reveal subfam, nov., a Hippocrateoideae fructibus baccis et seminibus cure mucilaginus arillisdiffert.

ROBERT F. THORNE

Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500 N. College Avenue Claremont, CA 91711, U.S.A.; robert.thorne@cgn.edu

WITH MANY NOMENCLATURAL ADDITIONS BY JAMES L. REVEAL

Professor Emeritus, University of Maryland

Honorary Curator' The New York Botanical Garden

Bronx, NY 10458-5126, U.S.A.

Mailing address: Adjunct Professor, Department of Plant Biology

Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-4301; jlr326@cornell.edu
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Title Annotation:Taxa Incertae Sedis-Pertinent Literature
Author:Thorne, Robert F.; Reveal, James L.
Publication:The Botanical Review
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:8AUST
Date:Apr 1, 2007
Words:24568
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