An updated classification of the class Magnoliopsida ("Angiospermae").
Abstract Introduction Updated Classification of Magnoliopsida Pertinent Literature
In the following synopsis of the angiosperms, the hierarchy consists in descending order of subclasses (-idae), superorders (-anae), orders (-ales), suborders (-ineae), families (-aceae), subfamilies (-oideae). and tribes (-eae). An example is:
Suborder: Magnoliineae (not used here)
Tribe: Magnolieae (used here only in Asteraceae)
This example is presented to eliminate the need to list in every case the hierarchical ranks preceding the respective taxa. The names of essentially all hierarchical ranks are based on the principle of priority. The letters A, B, and C used in the synopsis for each category above the subfamily indicate the degree of confidence I place in the alignment used. hierarchical level assigned, circumscription accepted, or all of these. A, as used with Acoranae. Chrysobalanaceae. Neuradaceae, etc., represents limited confidence in the position of these taxa. Any less confidence would condemn a taxon to taxa incertae sedis. B. as used in Chloranthineae, Hydnoraceae, Apodanthaceae. Mitrastemonaceae, etc., suggests that there is some evidence that the alignment, hierarchical ranking, and circumscription are probably correct. C, used generally throughout the synopsis, implies considerable confidence that the accumulated data have allowed realistic placement and circumscription. The numerals in parentheses, for example, (8/90), indicate 8 genera, 90 species.
Thorne prepared the classification scheme. Reveal is responsible for the bibliographic information. Full synonymy is given except for names at the rank of subfamily. Only validly published names are provided here, both legitimate and illegitimate, at the rank of family. Although priority controls the selection of family names, names above that rank are not subject to priority and are a matter of choice. Factors controlling their selection here include priority, use of a name at a higher or lower rank, and a broad, general acceptance of a name in current literature.
Adoption of Art. 18, Note 1, along with Art. 18, Ex. 4, at the Vienna Botanical Congress in 2005 has fundamentally altered more than 185 years of tradition, with the result that the authorships and place of more than 600 ordinal, family, and subfamily names must now be changed. These changes, such as are known at the moment, are recorded here, and this accounts for the differences expressed here versus those recently presented in the literature generally, but especially by Hoogland and Reveal (2005) or for many years by Reveal (1995-onward). The critical period appears to cover the years from 1820 until 1895 and involves mainly Eastern European and Russian authors. The new names and authorships presented here seemingly cover the majority of commonly used ordinal and family names, but until the literature is reexamined, the full extent of the sudden creation of new names and the alteration of authorships of previous names is not known. Every effort was made to correct (albeit hurriedly) the entries in App. II of the Vienna Code (McNeill et al., 2006), but even there errors may persist.
One useful change passed at Vienna was Art. 49.2, which deleted parenthetical author citation for suprageneric names. While this practice has been followed off and on over the past 50 years or more, it was never consistent. With the resolution of the problem now at hand, all parenthetical authorships are hereby deleted.
We wish to acknowledge with thanks the assistance of Alexander Doweld of Moscow, who kindly provide us with information contained in his latest book New Syllabus of Flowering Plants prior to its publication. As always, Kanchi Gandhi, John McNeill, and Nicholas Turland have been generous with their time in resolving nomenclatural questions.
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|Author:||Thorne, Robert F.; Reveal, James L.|
|Publication:||The Botanical Review|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2007|
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