Printer Friendly

An efficient constant bit rate information bit approach for Video Steganography.


In the recent years, internet and digital media are getting more and more popularity. So, requirement of secure transmission of data also increased. For this reason various good techniques are proposed and already taken into practice. In this project, we use the steganography process for the secure data transmission from the sender to receiver through the internet.

Steganography comes from the Greek word steganos which literally means "covered" and graphia which means "writing", i.e. covered writing. The most common use of steganography is to hide a file inside another file. video steganography is the modern technique which is used to hide the information (ie)unwanted people cannot access the data. In order to secretly embedding information inside a data source without changing its perceptual quality the Steganography technique is being used.. The input file is converted into an alternative equivalent multimedia files like images, video or audio. Which in turn is being hidden within another object. Video Steganography is a technique to hide any kind of files into a hoisting Video file. Due to reduction in their size and memory the video based Steganography can be more eligible than other multimedia files. For embedding information in a carrier file the least significant bit insertion is being used as an important approach. They operates on LSB bit the media file to hide the information bit. In this project, a data hiding scheme will be developed to hide the information in specific location of the frame and in specific frames of the video by LSB substitution using RDH techniques as shown in Figure 1.

Related Works:

2.1 Steganography Approach for Data Hiding using LSB Techniques [1]:

Steganography is the art of hiding messages in such a way that hackers /unauthorized people will not know the existence of the message(ie)only the receiver knows the hidden message. Steganography works by replacing bits of useless or unused information. The information that can be hidden are plain text, cipher text, or even images. Steganography sometimes is used when encryption is not permitted. Supplemention of encryption is done using the steganography. if the encrypted file is deciphered, the hidden message is not seen dispite that the encrypted file may still hide information using steganography. The goal of Steganography is to hide a secret message within a cover-media in such a way that others will not know the presence of the hidden message. Technically in simple words--Steganography means hiding one piece of data within another. The opportunity of hiding information into digital multimedia files and also at the network packet level is done by steganography. The covered writing dates back to ancient Greece, where common practices consisted of etching messages in wooden tablets and covering them with wax, and tattooing a shaved messenger's head, letting his hair grow back, then shaving it again when he arrived at his contact point. Generally, a Steganography message will appear to be something else: a picture, an article, a shopping list, or some other message--the cover text. Basically the information may be hidden by using invisible ink between the visible lines of innocuous documents, or even written onto clothing. Now a days, people often transmit digital pictures over email and other Internet communication uses multimedia objects like image, audio, video etc., as cover media in the Steganography systems. In modern approach, depending on the nature of cover object, Steganography.

2.2 Frame Selected Approach for Hiding Data within MPEG Video Using Bit Plane Complexity Segmentation[2]:

In this paper, researchers have proposed a new Approach of high secure video steganography. In this method, the digital video are used as separate frames and frames are selected to hides the information inside. As the result of the experiment shows the success of the hidden data within select frame, extract data from the frames sequence, these functions are done without affecting the quality of the video. This framework overcome drawbacks of steganography approach by invited the biggest size cover file among the multimedia file which is the video. To offer the high security to the data being transmitted the video steganography allows the users to have over selecting the frames to hide the data and also using the whole video too high a huge amount of data hidden. In order to secure the data the author selects the frame from buffer, it helps in protecting the data effectively. Due to the difficulty of showing the result as a video stream on paper, the author prefers to display the result on the frame of the digital video file along with histogram of each a single frame. The verification of this algorithm is done using histogram whether the is any divergences on the frames before and after hiding the data. As a result of comparision there is no significant difference between the frames before and after hiding the data. Hence proved that the algorithm successfully hide the data into the frames without making a noticeable difference for the human vision system.

2.3 Video Data Hiding Through LSB Substitution Technique [3]:

Now days hacking activities are growing day by day and hackers can easily hack important information and security is not sufficient to stop hacking. Though security status increased at a higher level but the major drawback of new status of security is cost, it became so costly. Hence we need better solutions which have good security level with lower cost. The confidential or important information, which sent with normal format, there might, may be a chance of happening misuse cases. These can be avoided by making use of this system. The mechanism, which is used to hide the information in the bmp image files. Present day transactions are considered to be "un-trusted" in terms of security, i.e. they are relatively easy to be hacked. And also we have to consider the transfer of large amount of data through the network will give errors while transferring. Only single level of security is present in the existing systems. As we mentioned in problem domain that the used security techniques is not appropriate to prevent hacking and the new security technique is so costly. Then we need a different technique which is more efficient and provides a better security level. In our research work we are reducing hacking activity done by hacker with hiding the information in images. We make AVI (audio video interleave) video. Normally the AVI video are large in size but it can be transmitted over network. After processing the source video by using these Data Hiding and Extraction procedure securely and this video is converted into 20 equal gray scale images. Grayscale image uses 8 bit for each pixel and able to display 256 different colours or shades of grey. We make text information in the set as set 1, set 2, set 3 and each set contain 20 bmp data images, apply LSB substitutions on them such as the 1 LSB, 2 LSB or 3 LSB. The last steps make encrypted AVI Video and send by the sender. Receiver end apply decryption is performed.

2.4 Hiding image to video: A new approach of LSB replacement [4]:

In the proposed system, the destination video frame consist of the pixel information of the source image being is hidden such that each row of pixel (consisting of 8 bits Eg. 11011001) is hided in first rows of multiple frames of the target. This method is so complex and very difficult to analyze and explains the process of hiding image into video frames. Number of techniques available for hiding text or image in images. In some methods LSBs of the target image are replaced corresponding to the text or image getting hidden. The final object appears very similar as the original because selecting LSBs for replacement is that it makes least change in pixel values. For example: a 24-bit bitmap will have 8 bits, representing each of the three color values (red, green, and blue) at each pixel. If we consider just the red there will be 28 different values of red. The difference between 11111111 and 11111110 in the value for red intensity is likely to be undetectable by the human eye. The human visual system (HVS) then the Least Significant Bit (LSB) can be used for something else other than color information. This method is very efficient in hiding the information.

III. Methodology:

Present day transactions are considered to be "un-trusted" in terms of security, i.e. they are relatively easy to be hacked and also we have to consider the transfer of large amount of data through the network will give errors while transferring. Only single level of security is present in the existing systems. The other problem of existing system is now days hacking activities are growing day by day & hackers can easily hack important information and security is not sufficient to stop hacking. Though security status increased at a higher level but the major drawback of new status of security is cost, it became so costly. Hence we need better solutions which have good security level with lower cost. In proposed system is to provide an efficient and a secure method for video steganography. We make AVI (audio video interleave) video. The AVI video are large in size but it can be transmitted from source to target over network after processing the source video by using these Data Hiding and Extraction procedure securely. The proposed method creates an index for the secret information and the index is placed in a frame of the video itself. With the help of this index, the frames containing the secret information are located. Hence, during the extraction process, instead of analyzing the entire video, the frames containing the secret data are analyzed with the help of index at the receiving end. When steganographed by this method, the probability of finding the hidden information by an attacker is lesser when compared to the normal method of hiding information frame-by-frame in a sequential manner. It also reduces the computational time taken for the extraction process figure 3.1 represents the architecture of the above proposed methodology.


* Reduced Mean squared Error (MSE)

* Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) between the stego--frame and its corresponding cover frame and the PSNR value is calculated to show that the frame is transmitted without any loss or distortion.

Upload Videos:

In this project we can upload the videos. The user uploads the video. The Video can be obtained for lesions of any size, shape, and composition in an acceptable amount of time and then filtration the Video to remove the noise and segment the video based on similarities

Frame conversion:

The reduction in the spatial and temporal redundancy of Group of Pictures can be done using the video conversion process. Temporal redundancy and spatial redundancy can be reduced by registering differences between frames and parts of a single frame. The process of converting a video to cinematic motion picture is know as the video frame conversion. Using the stego-model the number of still pictures per unit of time can be separated from the video .The new professional cameras helps to retrieve 120 or more frames per second of images as efficiently with clarity motion pictures.

CABAC coding:

The H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standards are used in entropy coding to form the CABAC coding. It is a lossless compression technique, although the video coding standards in which it is used are typically for lossy compression applications. CABAC is notable for providing much better compression than most other entropy encoding algorithms used in video encoding, and it is one of the key elements that provide the H.264/AVC encoding scheme with better compression capability than its predecessors. In H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, CABAC is only supported in the Main and higher profiles of the standard, as it requires a larger amount of processing to decode than the simpler scheme known as contextadaptive variable-length coding (CAVLC) that is used in the standard's Baseline profile. Vectorizing and parallizing the CABACcoding is more difficult, so other forms of parallelism (such as spatial region parallelism) may be coupled with its use. In HEVC, CABAC is used in all profiles of the standard. In this module, implement arithmetic coding which is a common algorithm used in both lossless and lossy data compression algorithms. It is an entropy encoding technique, in which the frequently seen symbols are encoded with fewer bits than lesser seen symbols.

Video encryption:

The carrier video file consist of the Cover frame which is the Frame image. It can be any type of video files. The secret image is the selected personal image and it may any other file which can be embedded in a bit stream such as a copyright mark, a covert communication, or a serial number. The recipient only knows the corresponding decoding stegno-key, will be able to extract the image from a cover-frame of carrier video file. The cover-frame with the secretly embedded image is then called the Embedded Stegano-Image.

Data embedding and extraction:

Least Significant Bit (LSB) is a simple approach which is used to embed image and data into video file. Here, the bits of the image are directly embedded into least significant bit plane of the cover-frame in a deterministic sequence. The least significant bits are modulated but cannot be identified in human perceptible difference because the amplitude of the change is small. In this technique, the embedding capacity can be increased by using two or more least significant bits. At the same time, the image fidelity degrades and the risk of making the embedded message statistically detectable increases. Hence a variable size LSB embedding schema is presented, in which the number of LSBs used for message embedding/extracting depends on the local characteristics of the pixel.

The advantage of LSB-based method is high message pay-load and easy to implement. Although LSB hides the message in such way that the humans do not perceive it, it is still possible for the opponent to retrieve the message due to the simplicity of the technique. Video Steganography System to embed secret message, image is proposed to improve the LSB scheme. It overcomes the sequence-mapping problem by embedding the massage into a set of random pixels, which are scattered on the cover-image. The stegno -key used during the encoding is used to recover the image from the embedded stegano-image, it requires the cover- frame and the key. some times the exctraction of original image may or may not be required in most applications to extract the message. However, from the deformed video file the secret image can be extracted .

Evaluation criteria:

In this module we evaluate the performance by using PSNR and boundary map analysis. PSNR is employed to evaluate the quality of marked decrypted video quantitatively critical For the practical applicability of proposed approach the boundary map is used for distinguishing between natural and pseudo boundary pixels and its size.

IV. Experimental Result:

Experimental Result:

The quality of marked decrypted video is compared in the term of PSNR. The graph plots the PSNR results of different marked decrypted images under given embedding rates. Out of fairness, we modify the methods with error-correcting codes to eliminate errors. By introducing an error-correcting code, the pure payload is reduced from existing method, where is the binary entropy function with error rate. Take test image Baboon for instance. If each embedding block is sized of 8 with error rate 15.55%, then the pure payload is 1543 bits rather than 4096 bits. As for the method, we only choose those results with a significantly high probability of successful data extraction and perfect image recovery to draw the curves it can be observed that over all range of embedding rate, for all cases, our approach outperforms state-of-the-art RDH algorithms in encrypted images. The gain in terms of PSNR is significantly high at embedding rate range that the methods can achieve.

Home page:

Result page:


The proposed construction of video steganography was realized by embedding the secret image into the meaningful cover image of any type of video file using CABAC approaches. Steganography is a really interesting subject and outside of the mainstream cryptography and system administration that most of us deal with day after day. Enhancement of the image steganography system is printed out using arithmetic coding approach to provide a means of secure communication. A stego key has been applied to the system during embedment of the message into the cover image. The visual quality of the share images is also proposed in this approach. The proposed embedded video steganography has many specific advantages such as user friendliness, simple and effective process of embedding secret image with more security.

In future calculating correlation between Original and embedded image for 1 bit LSB & 2 bit LSB & 3 bit LSB Substitution & AES method. In this observation PSNR is decreased when number of LSB substation bit increased. security is sufficient to stop hacking and prevent the hackers from accessing the information. Result analyze the correlation coefficient has the value r=1 if there is no difference in the original image. The correlation factor is decreased due to the increase in the number of LSB Substitution.


[1.] Baluram Nagaria, 2012. "Steganographic Approach for data hiding using LSB techniques" Journal of Advanced Computer Research, pp: 2249-7277.

[2.] Hamid, A., Jalab, 2009. "Frame selected Approach for hiding data within MPEG video using Bit plane complexity Segmentation" Joumal of computing.

[3.] Hemant Gupta, 2013. "video data hiding through LSB substitution techniques" International Journal of Engineering and Science.

[4.] Al Frajat, A.K., 2010. 'Hiding data in video file An overview" Journal of applied sciences, 10(15): 1644-1649.

[5.] Ali Hmood, K., 2010. "An overview on hiding information technique in images" Journal of applied sciences, 10(18): 2094-2100.

[6.] Karthigaikumar, P., 2011. "Simulation of image encryption using AES algorithm" IJCA special issue on computer science New dimensions & perspectives, pp: 166-172.

[7.] Marghny Mohamed, 2011. "Data hiding by LSB substitution using genetic optimal key permutation" in International arab journal of e-technology, 2(1): 11-17.

[8.] Niu Jiping, 2008. "Image encryption algorithm based on rijndael S-boxes" in IEEE applied International conference on computational intelligence and security 978-0-7695-3508-1\08.

[9.] Punita meelu, 2011. "AES Asymmetric key cryptographic system" in international journal of information technology and knowledge management, 4: 113-117.

[10.] Subramanan, B., 2011. "Image encryption based on aes key expansion" in IEEE applied second international conference on emerging application of information technology, 978-0-7695-4329-1/11.

J. Bama PG Scholar

Department of Computer Science and Engineering PSNA College of Engineering and Technology Dindigui, Tamiinadu

Received 28 January 2017; Accepted 22 May 2017; Available online 28 May 2017

Address For Correspondence:

J.Bama PG Scholar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering PSNA College of Engineering and Technology Dindigul, Tamilnadu.


Caption: Fig. 3.1: System Architecture

Caption: Fig. 4: 1 Result analysis graph
COPYRIGHT 2017 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Bama, J.
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:May 1, 2017
Previous Article:A survey of data sharing and security issues in P2P networks.
Next Article:A detailed survey on brain tumor detection and classification systems based on features and classifiers.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |