# An effective genetic algorithm for flow shop scheduling problems to minimize makespan.

1. IntroductionIn past 5 decades flow shop scheduling may be a challenging area for researchers. Its main aim is to work out the job sequence of processing jobs on a given set of machines. In manufacturing environment flow shop scheduling is taken into account as most category of problem. A general flow shop scheduling during which n jobs are to be processed through m machines is to be considered. Fixed and non-negative processing times are thought of here. the foremost important assumptions created are that every job will be processed on only one machine at a time, the operations don't seem to be preventive, the jobs are out there for processing at time zero and set-up times are sequence independent. Here we have a tendency to think about the permutation flow shop problem, identical job sequence is taken into account on each machine for manufacturing. In flow shop scheduling minimizing makespan and total flow time may be a difficult task for several of the researchers. Therefore we thought of minimizing makespan as objective for my present work using meta-heuristic approach by improvising the Genetic algorithmic program. During this effective genetic algorithm (EGA), worst solutions are aloof from that algorithm by adding robust factor concept.

The first research involved to the flow shop scheduling problem was planned by Johnson [1]. Johnson represented a certain algorithm to reduce makespan for the n-jobs and 2-machines flow shop scheduling problem. Once the flow shop scheduling problem enlarges as well as additional jobs and machines, it becomes a combinatorial optimization problem. It's clear that combinatorial optimization problems are in NP-hard problem class, and close to optimum solution techniques are most popular for such problems. In recent years, metaheuristic approaches like Tabu Search, Genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, differential evolution, and artificial immune systems are very fascinating to solve combinatorial optimization problems relating to their computational performance. The recent studies for the flow shop scheduling problem with makespan criteria, it's obvious that the solution methods supported metaheuristic approaches are often planned. Mainstream of studies for the flow shop scheduling problem focuses to reduce makespan. For instance, the flow time, the machine idle times are main measures in minimizing total scheduling cost. Whereas makespan decrease results in total production run utilization, flow time decrease results in stable consumption of resources, fast turn-around of jobs and work-in-process inventory minimization. So as to reduce the production cost, it's desired to attain each these two objectives at the same time. Rajendran [2, 3] given one branch-and-bound algorithm and two heuristic algorithms aimed at two machine flow shop scheduling problem through makespan because the primary criterion and total flow time. Neppalli, Chen, and Gupta [4] planned two genetic algorithms for this problem. T'kindt, Gupta, and Billaut [5] presented mathematical programming designs, a branch-and-bound process, and a heuristic algorithm. Later, Jeen Robert et al. [6] have given a hybrid algorithm for Minimizing Makespan in the flow shop Environment. Yeh [7] created a memetic algorithm to solve this problem.

Recently, ant colony optimization (ACO) approach has become additional preferred to solve combinatorial optimization problems. This heuristic algorithm combines simulated annealing search and a local search algorithm. This study is that the initial application of ACO metaheuristic to multiobjective m-machine flow shop scheduling problem with esteem to the both objectives of makespan and total flow time. The performance of planned algorithm was related with two heuristic algorithms developed by Rajendran [8] and Ravindran [9] for these category problems and Genetic algorithm. Computational studies were showed on the yardstick problems from Taillard [10] because the test problem so as to verify the algorithm's performance. During this literature survey we tend to found several algorithm are accustomed solve flow shop scheduling problem in manufacturing field by many of the researchers, however we might found that genetic algorithm is very old algorithm however very powerful algorithm to solve flowshop scheduling problem. At the same time Muthiah [18] was described an opposite genetic algorithm and it was applied in Job shop scheduling problem. Thus we used genetic algorithm to solve flowshop scheduling however it's in effective approach by modifying its method routes strategies. Here we tend to addressed effective genetic algorithm (EGA) to solve flowshop benchmark problem, and also the results obtained by EGA are compared with earlier reportable results by using ant colony algorithm ACO by Betul Yagmahan [11] and Andrea Rossi [12].

2. Problem description and notations

Consider an m-machine flow shop problem where there are n jobs to be processed on the m machines among an equivalent order. We've got a tendency to completely take under attention of the permutation schedules, i.e., the same job order on each machine. The objective of this paper is to improve a developed Real Coded Genetic Algorithm and Efficient Genetic Algorithm to hunt out the most effective or near best sequence in flowshop environment by minimizing makespan. Meanwhile, the sequence among which each machine processes all jobs is identical on all machines.

Makespan is one among the foremost necessary criteria in every production systems; it's up to the whole completion time of all the activities. Minimizing this criterion caused higher usage of the resources specially machinery and manpower. In each simple and hybrid flow shop, the method is to transform the flow shop into a network form, then a linear programming model with the objective of minimizing the entire completion time of all the actions are constructed. Minimizing total completion time of all the activities is similar to minimizing makespan among the production system. The result is that the sequencing and scheduling of all the activities are determined. Besides, the following assumptions are thought of throughout this study:

* Each machine can process at the foremost one job at a time and each job is processed on just one machine at any given time.

* The schedule is non-preemptive; which suggests once a job starts to be processed on a machine, the process cannot be interrupted before completion.

* The number of jobs and their process times on each machine are known ahead and are non-negative integers.

* The individual operation setup times are little compared with their processing times, and are enclosed within the processing times.

* The prepared time of all jobs is zero, which suggests that everyone jobs are available for processing at the start.

The handling time t(i,j) is specified for any job i on any machine j. Given a permutation of the jobs, the accomplishment times of jobs on the machines, makespan are calculated as follows:

C([J.sub.1],1) = t([J.sub.1],1), (1)

C([J.sub.i],1) = C([J.sub.i-1],1) + t([J.sub.i],1),i = 2,... ... ... ,n, (2)

C([J.sub.1],1) = C([J.sub.1],J-1) + t([J.sub.1],j),j = 2,... ... ... ,m, (3)

C([J.sub.1],1) = max{C([J.sub.i-j],j),C[J.sub.i], j-1)}+t[J.sub.i]j), i = 2,... ... ... , n; j = 2,... ... ... ,m. (4)

(i) Makespan [C.sub.max] is the length of time required to finish processing all jobs, i.e.:

[C.sub.max]=max{[C.sub.1],[C.sub.2],... ... ... ,[C.sub.n]}, (5)

where [C.sub.n] is the completion time of job n.

The problem is to seek out a permutation of jobs thus on minimize the makespan of jobs. Since flow-shop scheduling problem has been shown to be NP--complete problem, for practical purposes, it has always a lot of acceptable to use an approximation technique that generates a close to best solution effectively. Throughout this paper an effort is made to boost the prevailing genetic algorithm procedures to use to permutation flowshop scheduling problems to provide higher results. The subsequent notations are utilized during this paper:

n number of jobs m number of machines [p.sub.ij] processing time of job i on machine j [p.sub.m] probability of mutation [P.sub.to] probability for Roulette wheel selection [p.sub.sc] probability for sub chromosomal crossover [P.sub.sm] probability for sub chromosomal mutation P(k) population at kth generation X* , X** best and second best chromosomes R real random number is 0 and 1 Ng maximum generation

3. Simple genetic algorithms (SGA)

Genetic Algorithms may be a world class optimization algorithm that look for improved performance by sampling areas of the solution space that have high probability of resulting in a good solution. They reproduce the natural evolutionary process in this, in every generation, the fittest individuals have a superior chance to produce offsprings by collaborating features of the parents or by altering one or a lot of the parent's characteristics whereas, the worst individuals are possibly to die. Decisions that need to be created for applying GA include individual or chromosome illustration, technique of crossover, probability of crossover, technique of mutation, probability of mutation, and population size. GA is of course parallel and exhibits implicit parallelism, that doesn't evaluate and improve a single answer, however analyses and modifies a set of solutions at the same time (Goldberg, [15]). The potential of a GA to control on many solutions instantaneously and collect information from all current solutions to direct search reduces the possibility of being trapped in a very local optimum.

In general, simple Genetic algorithm (SGA) consists of the subsequent steps:

Step 1: Initialize a population of chromosomes.

Step 2: Evaluate the fitness operate of each body.

Step 3: create new chromosomes by applying genetic operators like crossover and mutation to current chromosomes.

Step 4: evaluate the fitness worth of the new population of chromosomes.

Step 5: If the termination condition is satisfied, stop and come the simplest chromosome; otherwise, go to Step 3.

4. Real coded genetic algorithms (RCGA)

To compensate for the excessive computation time needed by the SGA, the important genetic algorithm (IGA) emphasizing on the coding of the chromosomes with floating purpose illustration was introduced and established to possess important improvements on the computation speed and exactness (Wei-Der Chang [14]; Goldberg [15]). Real Coded Genetic algorithm (RGGA) is same as that of straightforward genetic algorithm provided instead of taking binary values it'll take real values as [0, 1].

In real coded genetic algorithm the subsequent steps are to be followed:

Step 1: randomly generate N chromosomes on initial population within the search.

Step 2: Calculate the fitness for every chromosome.

Step 3: Perform reproduction, i.e. choose the higher chromosomes with probabilities supported their fitness values.

Step 4: Perform crossover on chromosomes selected in higher than step by crossover probability.

Step 5: Perform mutation on chromosomes generated in higher than step by mutation probability.

Step 6: If reach the stop condition or get the best solution, one could stop the process, else repeat Steps 2-6 until the stop condition is achieved.

Step 7: Get the best solution.4.

5. Effective genetic algorithm (EGA)

To enhance the performance of straightforward genetic algorithm, an efficient genetic algorithm has been developed to induce higher results. It's just a modification of straightforward genetic algorithm. GA is impressed by Darwin's Theory concerning evolution - "survival of the fittest". GA represents an intelligent exploitation of a random search wont to solve optimization problems. Within the simple GA-based approach, the varied stages like evaluation, selection, crossover and mutation are repeatedly executed when initialization till a stopping criterion is met. The algorithm works on multiple solutions at the same time. In this proposed EGA tool the initial population is processed by Nawaz, Enscore, and Ham (NEH) heuristic technique. During this a general purpose schedule optimizer for manufacturing flow shops planning using genetic algorithms. A performance measures for planning is make-span [C.sub.max] that has been used most optimum utilization of resources to extend productivity and stated as maximum completion time of last job to exit from the system:

[C.sub.max]=max{[C.sub.1],[C.sub.2],.......,[C.sub.n]},

where [C.sub.max] is the makespan that needs to be decreased. Effective Genetic algorithm consists of the subsequent steps:

Step 1: Generate Initial Population using NEH principle.

Step 2: evaluate fitness function value of chromosomes.

Step 3: selection procedure is done by roulette wheel technique.

Step 4: Use sub chromosomal level crossover.

Step 5: Use sub chromosomal level mutation (inverse technique, single purpose mutation).

Step 6: Robust- Replace heuristic technique applied.

Step 7: chromosomal level mutation.

The elaborated flow chart of EGA is given in Fig. 1. The planned algorithm can work with these steps that are within the flow chart. The subsequent parameters were described before the program works:

Initial Population: 1000. Number of generation: 250. Crossover probability: 0.9. Mutation probability: 0.05.

5.1. Generation of initial population

A set of initial population are indiscriminately generated in step with the problem size and one initial seed is incorporated by NEH heuristic (Nawaz et al. [16]) for the initial population.

5.2. Evaluate fitness function

In order to mimic the natural process of the survival of the fittest, the fitness analysis function assigns to every member of the population a value reflective their relative superiority (or inferiority). Every chromosome has an evaluation criterion supported the objective function. Since IGA is used for maximization problems, a minimization problem may be appropriately converted into a maximization problem using a fitness function. The fitness function is:

f(x) = [1/[C.sub.max]] (6)

5.3. Selection procedure

In EGA only classical roulette wheel selection technique is incorporated for improving results (Goldberg [15]) is taken into account. In roulette wheel selection, parents are selected according to their fitness value. The higher the fitness the additional chances to be selected. The subsequent procedure is used for selection.

5.4. Sub chromosomal level crossover

In this step the initial chromosomes are reformed by subjecting sub chromosomal crossover. The whole chromosome string length is splited into sub chromosomes of equal length and these sub chromosomes are moved indiscriminately within the string to create a new chromosome.

Then the makespan values of corresponding new chromosome (child) are calculated, and it's compared with parent chromosome. Finally that chromosome is producing less makespan value that chromosome are maintained.

Parent chromosome

[mathematical expression not reproducible] 10

Sub-chromosome length =3

After sub-chromosomal crossover (child)

[mathematical expression not reproducible]

5.5. Sub-chromosomal level mutation

Mutation generates an offspring solution by altering the parent's feature indiscriminately. The most effective chromosome obtained from sub-chromosomal crossover is subjected for mutation operation. During this work, two differing types of mutation operators are used specifically inverse mutation and single point mutation.

5.5.1. Inverse mutation

In this step, indiscriminately choose two positions of i and j from a sequence. The portion of the sequence between these two positions is reversed to get a brand new mutated sequence. The new sequence represents the sequence of operations after mutation. Then the makespan values of corresponding new sequence are calculated, and it's compared with old sequence. Finally that sequence is producing less makespan value that sequence is sustained.

Original Sequence 10 8 9 7 6 4 5 3 2 1 Mutated Sequence 10 2 4 3 8 7 9 6 5 1

Mutation between positions 2 and 9.

5.5.2. Single point mutation

In this mutation technique, a random operation is chosen within the sequence and moved random position within the sequence. Then the makespan values of the resulting sequence are calculated and its value is compared with previous sequence. At last, the sequence which produces lees makespan that might be continued for following step.

Before mutation 10 8 9 7 6 4 5 3 2 1 After mutation 10 8 9 7 4 5 3 2 1 6

5.6. Robust- replace heuristic

In this step, indiscriminately generate ten sequences for implementation supported mutation and their corresponding makespan value and robust factors are calculated as shown in Table 1. Value of robust factor is calculated using the formula Robust Factor:

R = [l/[C.sub.max]]. (7)

Then calculate the average value of the robust factor for the ten set of sequences. The sequences having very less robust factor compared with the typical robust value are selected for making new schedule. The maintained schedules are given in Table 2. For better understanding of this process, here we have a tendency to thought of benchmark problem (IPTA001) proposed by Taillard [10] is chosen. The problem size is 20 jobs and 5 machines

5.7. Chromosomal level mutation

The two mutation processes are allotted among the chromosomes within the population whereas the sub chromosomal level mutation is restricted within a single chromosome. The mutation process includes inverse mutation and single point mutation as given in sec 5.5.

6. Result analysis and discussion

The bench mark issues planned by Taillard [17] are tested against the meta-heuristic technique by Effective genetic algorithmic rule (EGA). Numerous sizes of the issues with twenty jobs and five, 10, twenty machines were tested and therefore the same issues were tested exploitation the EGA methodology and therefore the results are shown in Table 3.

From Table 4, it's found that the planned new metaheuristic algorithmic rule that's EGA is giving higher results in comparison to any or all different algorithms. It's conjointly found that the developed EGA is incredibly abundant appropriate for twenty jobs five machines drawback, as a result of out of ten samples (IPTA001... IPTA010) EGA is giving seven higher results. Conjointly for twenty jobs ten machines drawback EGA is giving seven higher results in comparison different results. Then the program is dead for twenty jobs twenty machines drawback out of eight samples EGA has created seven higher results. From this Table 4 results, it's terminated that the developed EGA is giving higher results in comparison to any or all different algorithms conjointly it's giving best for big sized issues. The secret writing of the each RCGA & EGA were developed in Matlab atmosphere and therefore the programming was tested on associate Intel Core i5 processor 1.6 gigacycle per second system with 4GB RAM.

For the Taillard [10] benchmark drawback the obtained results by planned new meta-heuristic methodology (EGA) is compared with existing algorithms (Rajendran [8] and Ravindran at al [9] and Yagmahan, B., & Yenisey, M. M. [11] and Andrea Rossi [12]). Table 3 Consolidated results of the benchmark issues by EGA (Best makespan sequence) and Table 4 displays the comparison of results of Taillard Benchmark drawback with totally different heuristics. Conjointly the proportion of improvement is calculated are given in Table 5 and Table 6.

Percentage Improvement = ([C.sub.yy] - [C.sub.RCGA])/[C.sub.yy] (8)

where [C.sub.yy] is erformance measure reported by Yagmahan, B., & Yenisey, M. M. [11]; [C.sub.RCGA] is performance measure obtained by RCGA algorithms.

Percentage improvement of RCGA algorithmic rule over the past literature results is delineated in Table 5. From that it is ascertained that RCGA provides a pair of. 94% average improvement in makespan with relevance (Rajendran [8]), conjointly it created three.02%, 5.61% and 5.53% average improvement in makespan over HAMC1, HAMC2 and HAMC3 Ravindran et al. [9] according values. Once more the algorithmic rule is tested with Yagmahan, B., & Yenisey, M. M. [11] however RCGA has created solely zero. 16% of average improvement in makespan. Then the performance of RCGA is tested with NPFA-ACO developed by Andrea Rossi [12] and it's out performed by -1.55%. Then we've got an inspiration that to boost the performance RCGA by Effective genetic algorithmic rule (EGA) by modifying its parameters.

Percentage improvement of EGA algorithmic rule over the past literature results is delineated in Table 6. From that it is ascertained that RGA provides a 5.77% average improvement in makespan with relevance Rajendran [8], conjointly it created 5.83%, 8.35% and 8.26% average improvement in makespan over HAMC1, HAMC2 and HAMC3 Ravindran et al. [9] according values. Once more the algorithmic rule is tested with Yagmahan, B & Yenisey, M. M. [11] however EGA has created 3.08% of average improvement in makespan. Then the performance of EGA is tested with NPFA-ACO developed by Andrea Rossi [12] and it's performed 1.42% of average improvement in makespan. Any have EGA has created 21 best makespan sequences out of 28 benchmark Taillard problems.

Figs. 2 to 4 represents diagrammatically the performance of the important coded genetic algorithmic and Effective Genetic algorithmic over Rajendran [8], Y&Y [11] and NPFS-ACO [12] algorithms. Every bar in Figs. 2 to 4 shows the effectiveness of RCGA and EGA over all different algorithms within the chart.

Based on the higher than discussion show that the planned EGA and RCGA works higher than SGA, HAMC's, ACO by Y& Y [11], hymenopteran colony letter by Andrea Rossi [12] for all the benchmark issues and it giver for higher results. It is ascertained that the planned EGA algorithmic rule is additional economical than the present one for resolution flowshop programming issues with minimizing makespan as criteria, and this work is extended to solve bi-objective or different appropriate objectives either combined or individually.

7. Conclusions

In this paper, a new Effective Genetic algorithm (EGA) and Real Coded Genetic algorithm (RCGA) is planned to solve flow shop scheduling problems to reduce makespan. To verify the computational performance of the EGA and RCGA, an enormous experiment were conducted with Tailard benchmark problem for the various sizes of the problems with 20, 50 & 100 jobs through 5, 10 & 20 machines. The obtained results by planned EGA are one step ahead of all the algorithms for the flow shop scheduling problem. The planned algorithm will be used for single or combinational problems considering completely different conditions like total flow time, total tardiness and maximum tardiness. Furthermore the proposed algorithm will be implemented for scheduling problems in numerous manufacturing systems such as job shops, flexible flow shops, and cellular manufacturing and flexible manufacturing systems with respect to completely different objectives. The future work includes application EGA to combinational optimization problems

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R.B. Jeen Robert (*), R. Rajkumar (**)

(*) Department of Mechanical Engineering, AAA College of Engineering and Technology, Sivakasi- 626005, India, E-mail: jeenrb_robert@yahoo. com

(**) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi-626005, India

AN EFFECTIVE GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEMS TO MINIMIZE MAKESPAN

Summary

In this paper, the flowshop scheduling problem with the objective of minimizing the makespan has important applications in an exceedingly type of industrial systems. The main concern of flow shop scheduling is to get the most effective sequence, that minimizes the makespan, time of flow, time of idle, delay, etc. the objective of minimizing makespan is planned for finding the flowshop scheduling problem with Effective Genetic algorithm (EGA). EGA could be an easy and efficient algorithm that is employed to resolve for each single and multi-objective problem in flow shop environment. This algorithm can works simply for our real life applications. The planned algorithm is tested with well-known problems in literature. EGA's resolution performance has been compared with the present results reported by researchers. The obtained results show that the planned EGA performs higher than NPFS-ACO algorithms in finding the flowshop scheduling problem with the makespan criterion as average percentage improvement of 1.42%. This improvement ends up in two completely different meta-heuristic algorithms for finding flow shop planning problems specifically real coded Genetic algorithm (RCGA) and EGA. However EGA is performed well once comparing with RCGA.

Keywords: Flow shop scheduling, Makespan, Genetic Algorithm, Matlab.

Received May 24, 2016

Accepted August 04, 2017

Table 1 Initial sequences Sequence 3 17 9 8 15 14 11 16 13 19 6 4 5 18 1 2 10 7 3 17 19 8 15 14 11 16 13 9 6 4 5 18 1 2 10 7 3 13 4 14 5 15 6 16 7 17 8 18 9 19 20 2 1 10 3 17 9 8 1 5 15 14 11 16 13 19 6 4 12 2 10 7 3 12 17 20 9 7 8 10 15 2 14 1 11 18 16 5 13 4 17 9 8 3 15 14 11 16 13 19 20 12 10 7 2 1 18 6 6 15 3 9 7 11 1 2 17 13 4 8 19 16 5 18 12 14 6 17 7 8 9 1 11 12 15 13 4 3 19 16 5 18 2 14 17 6 3 9 8 15 14 11 16 13 19 4 5 18 1 2 10 7 6 17 3 9 8 15 14 11 16 13 19 4 5 18 1 2 10 7 Robust Sequence Makespan Factor 3 20 12 1286 0.000778 3 20 12 1322 0.000756 3 11 12 1519 0.000658 3 20 18 1377 0.000726 3 19 6 1485 0.000673 17 5 4 1497 0.000668 6 10 20 1311 0.000763 6 10 20 1377 0.000726 17 20 12 1323 0.000756 6 20 12 1345 0.000743 Average Robust factor= 0.000725 Table 2 Sequences retained Sequence 3 17 9 8 15 14 11 16 13 19 6 4 5 18 1 2 10 7 3 17 19 8 15 14 11 16 13 9 6 4 5 18 1 2 10 7 3 17 9 8 1 5 15 14 11 16 13 19 6 4 12 2 10 7 6 15 3 9 7 11 1 2 17 13 4 8 19 16 5 18 12 14 6 17 7 8 9 1 11 12 15 13 4 3 19 16 5 18 2 14 17 6 3 9 8 15 14 11 16 13 19 4 5 18 1 2 10 7 6 17 3 9 8 15 14 11 16 13 19 4 5 18 1 2 10 7 Sequence Makespan Robust Factor 3 20 12 1286 0.000778 3 20 12 1322 0.000756 3 20 18 1377 0.000726 6 10 20 1311 0.000763 6 10 20 1377 0.000726 17 20 12 1323 0.000756 6 20 12 1345 0.000743 Table 3 Consolidated results of the benchmark problems by EGA (Best makespan sequence) Benchmark Problem Best makespan sequence No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=5 TA001 3 17 9 8 15 14 11 16 13 19 6 4 5 18 1 TA002 6 10 17 7 19 14 20 3 9 18 12 15 1 13 16 TA003 16 14 19 11 3 20 18 7 1 12 10 5 2 9 4 TA004 13 9 16 17 11 19 10 6 7 15 1 12 5 20 2 TA005 3 5 12 10 19 9 18 17 15 13 4 16 6 2 14 TA006 11 5 8 17 20 13 6 16 1 7 12 14 18 10 15 TA007 5 2 15 11 6 20 13 19 1 17 7 9 12 3 8 TA008 17 12 9 2 14 10 18 4 16 19 7 8 6 5 20 TA009 4 2 10 12 1 18 17 6 16 3 13 11 9 5 20 TA010 7 19 11 12 16 6 1 13 10 2 18 17 5 20 3 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=10 TA011 4 5 9 10 15 18 2 17 3 6 12 20 13 8 14 TA012 12 17 5 13 15 7 20 9 11 19 10 1 6 2 3 TA013 4 7 9 2 16 5 12 13 11 15 1 20 6 14 17 TA014 18 20 3 11 9 13 4 16 15 1 10 2 7 8 6 TA015 16 8 4 20 18 14 15 13 9 6 1 7 3 17 2 TA016 19 8 20 3 18 16 11 14 6 15 13 4 5 7 12 TA017 19 6 7 10 17 1 4 8 20 18 9 2 5 16 14 TA018 17 8 20 4 7 18 14 2 5 9 19 3 6 11 1 TA019 20 11 16 14 12 8 17 4 2 1 19 3 13 18 7 TA020 5 12 14 13 17 9 19 4 7 8 16 6 20 2 10 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=20 TA021 8 9 10 12 13 15 16 17 11 5 1 20 14 2 18 TA022 18 3 11 4 5 13 1 12 16 19 15 6 14 10 20 TA023 19 4 1 13 5 20 11 9 16 8 15 17 18 3 12 TA024 14 3 18 5 2 8 12 4 6 20 15 13 1 7 19 TA025 10 2 5 19 9 11 15 13 3 18 17 4 20 12 14 TA026 18 6 11 2 8 20 16 9 17 4 13 15 10 14 5 TA027 10 12 16 14 5 19 18 6 7 17 4 2 11 15 20 TA028 4 2 16 10 20 5 1 14 6 7 3 11 17 19 13 Benchmark Objective Problem Best makespan sequence function Makespan No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=5 TA001 2 10 7 20 12 1286 TA002 5 4 11 2 8 1359 TA003 17 6 8 13 15 1132 TA004 3 8 14 4 18 1325 TA005 11 1 7 8 20 1250 TA006 9 4 19 3 2 1220 TA007 4 16 14 18 10 1251 TA008 15 1 3 13 11 1221 TA009 14 7 15 8 19 1257 TA010 14 8 4 15 9 1145 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=10 TA011 19 11 1 7 16 1652 TA012 4 18 16 8 14 1729 TA013 10 3 18 19 8 1534 TA014 19 12 14 17 5 1419 TA015 5 19 12 11 10 1502 TA016 17 10 9 2 1 1433 TA017 15 13 11 12 3 1545 TA018 13 15 10 16 12 1604 TA019 15 10 5 6 9 1617 TA020 3 18 1 15 11 1644 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=20 TA021 6 7 3 4 19 2380 TA022 17 7 9 8 2 2150 TA023 2 10 14 6 7 2393 TA024 16 10 17 9 11 2250 TA025 1 16 8 7 6 2373 TA026 1 3 7 12 19 2290 TA027 8 9 3 1 13 2362 TA028 12 8 18 15 9 2249 Table 4 Comparison of results of Taillard benchmark problems with different heuristics Benchmark UB/ Best Rajendran [8] Ravindran et al. [9] Yagmahan and Problem Known HAMC1 HAMC2 HAMC3 Yenisey [11] No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=5 TA001 1278 1359 1297 1324 1307 1297 TA002 1358 1378 1373 1409 1409 1383 TA003 1073 1230 1206 1210 1210 1203 TA004 1292 1393 1402 1423 1418 1377 TA005 1231 1307 1334 1387 1387 1311 TA006 1193 1282 1238 1281 1281 1245 TA007 1234 1387 1322 1359 1332 1303 TA008 1199 1344 1287 1404 1404 1265 TA009 1210 1335 1307 1382 1382 1303 TA010 1103 1191 1195 1298 1221 1179 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=10 TA011 1560 1711 1774 1812 1787 1681 TA012 1644 1916 1791 1817 1832 1749 TA013 1486 1617 1643 1784 1783 1554 TA014 1368 1533 1531 1595 1584 1490 TA015 1413 1588 1722 1557 1586 1455 TA016 1369 1565 1612 1674 1667 1564 TA017 1428 1622 1594 1624 1628 1590 TA018 1527 1800 1631 1659 1659 1595 TA019 1586 1717 1769 1842 1823 1689 TA020 1559 1831 1744 1831 1793 1719 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=20 TA021 2293 2610 2491 2539 2546 2428 TA022 2092 2301 2491 2491 2586 2281 TA023 2313 2411 2422 2433 2506 2515 TA024 2223 2471 2567 2693 2722 2299 TA025 2291 2427 2420 2453 2493 2473 TA026 2221 2466 2557 2641 2663 2339 TA027 2267 2174 2448 2528 2515 2378 TA028 2183 2418 2464 2473 2472 2418 Benchmark NPFS- RCGA EGA Problem ACO [12] No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=5 TA001 1290 1297 1286 TA002 1389 1371 1359 TA003 1100 1149 1132 TA004 1344 1355 1325 TA005 1250 1276 1250 TA006 1217 1234 1220 TA007 1258 1259 1251 TA008 1235 1280 1221 TA009 1258 1290 1257 TA010 1127 1162 1145 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=10 TA011 1693 1685 1652 TA012 1785 1775 1729 TA013 1583 1636 1534 TA014 1452 1490 1419 TA015 1516 1558 1502 TA016 1445 1522 1433 TA017 1524 1576 1545 TA018 1650 1671 1604 TA019 1659 1686 1617 TA020 1670 1718 1644 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=20 TA021 2396 2446 2380 TA022 2225 2215 2150 TA023 2446 2455 2393 TA024 2346 2363 2250 TA025 2439 2424 2373 TA026 2331 2356 2290 TA027 2428 2396 2362 TA028 2321 2368 2249 Table 5 Percentage improvement of RCGA algorithm over the past literature Benchmark Prob- Imp.% of RCGA Imp.% of RCGA Imp.% of RCGA lem over [8] over HAMC1 over HAMC2 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=5 TA001 4.56 0.00 2.04 TA002 0.51 0.15 2.70 TA003 6.59 4.73 5.04 TA004 2.73 3.35 4.78 TA005 2.37 4.35 8.00 TA006 3.74 0.32 3.67 TA007 9.23 4.77 7.36 TA008 4.76 0.54 8.83 TA009 3.37 1.30 6.66 TA010 2.43 2.76 10.48 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=10 TA011 1.52 5.02 7.01 TA012 7.36 0.89 2.31 TA013 -1.18 0.43 8.30 TA014 2.80 2.68 6.58 TA015 1.89 9.52 -0.06 TA016 2.75 5.58 9.08 TA017 2.84 1.13 2.96 TA018 7.17 -2.45 -0.72 TA019 1.81 4.69 8.47 TA020 6.17 1.49 6.17 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=20 TA021 6.28 1.81 3.66 TA022 3.74 11.08 11.08 TA023 -1.82 -1.36 -0.90 TA024 4.37 7.95 12.25 TA025 0.12 -0.17 1.18 TA026 4.46 7.86 10.79 TA027 -10.21 2.12 5.22 TA028 2.07 3.90 4.25 Benchmark Prob- Imp.% of RCGA Imp.% of Imp.% of RCGA over lem over HAMC3 RCGA over NPFS-ACO [12] Y&Y [11] No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=5 TA001 0.77 0.00 -0.54 TA002 2.70 0.87 1.30 TA003 5.04 4.49 -4.45 TA004 4.44 1.60 -0.82 TA005 8.00 2.67 -2.08 TA006 3.67 0.88 -1.40 TA007 5.48 3.38 -0.08 TA008 8.83 -1.19 -3.64 TA009 6.66 1.00 -2.54 TA010 4.83 1.44 -3.11 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=10 TA011 5.71 -0.24 0.47 TA012 3.11 -1.49 0.56 TA013 8.24 -5.28 -3.35 TA014 5.93 0.00 -2.62 TA015 1.77 -7.08 -2.77 TA016 8.70 2.69 -5.33 TA017 3.19 0.88 -3.41 TA018 -0.72 -4.76 -1.27 TA019 7.52 0.18 -1.63 TA020 4.18 0.06 -2.87 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=20 TA021 3.93 -0.74 -2.09 TA022 14.35 2.89 0.45 TA023 2.04 2.39 -0.37 TA024 13.19 -2.78 -0.72 TA025 2.77 1.98 0.62 TA026 11.53 -0.73 -1.07 TA027 4.73 -0.76 1.32 TA028 4.21 2.07 -2.02 Table 6 Percentage improvement of EGA algorithm over the past literature Benchmark Prob- Imp.% of RCGA Imp.% of RCGA Imp.% of RCGA Imp.% of lem over [8] over HAMC1 over HAMC2 RCGA over HAMC3 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=5 TA001 5.37 0.85 2.87 1.61 TA002 1.38 1.02 3.55 3.55 TA003 7.97 6.14 6.45 6.45 TA004 4.88 5.49 6.89 6.56 TA005 4.36 6.30 9.88 9.88 TA006 4.84 1.45 4.76 4.76 TA007 9.81 5.37 7.95 6.08 TA008 9.15 5.13 13.03 13.03 TA009 5.84 3.83 9.04 9.04 TA010 3.86 4.18 11.79 6.22 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=10 TA011 3.45 6.88 8.83 7.55 TA012 9.76 3.46 4.84 5.62 TA013 5.13 6.63 14.01 13.97 TA014 7.44 7.32 11.03 10.42 TA015 5.42 12.78 3.53 5.30 TA016 8.43 11.10 14.40 14.04 TA017 4.75 3.07 4.86 5.10 TA018 10.89 1.66 3.32 3.32 TA019 5.82 8.59 12.21 11.30 TA020 10.21 5.73 10.21 8.31 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=20 TA021 8.81 4.46 6.26 6.52 TA022 6.56 13.69 13.69 16.86 TA023 0.75 1.20 1.64 4.51 TA024 8.94 12.35 16.45 17.34 TA025 2.22 1.94 3.26 4.81 TA026 7.14 10.44 13.29 14.01 TA027 -8.65 3.51 6.57 6.08 TA028 6.99 8.73 9.06 9.02 Benchmark Prob- Imp.% of Imp.% of RCGA over lem RCGA over NPFS-ACO [12] Y&Y [11] No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=5 TA001 0.85 0.31 TA002 1.74 2.16 TA003 5.90 -2.91 TA004 3.78 1.41 TA005 4.65 0.00 TA006 2.01 -0.25 TA007 3.99 0.56 TA008 3.48 1.13 TA009 3.53 0.08 TA010 2.88 -1.60 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=10 TA011 1.73 2.42 TA012 1.14 3.14 TA013 1.29 3.10 TA014 4.77 2.27 TA015 -3.23 0.92 TA016 8.38 0.83 TA017 2.83 -1.38 TA018 -0.56 2.79 TA019 4.26 2.53 TA020 4.36 1.56 No.of jobs=20; No.of machines=20 TA021 1.98 0.67 TA022 5.74 3.37 TA023 4.85 2.17 TA024 2.13 4.09 TA025 4.04 2.71 TA026 2.09 1.76 TA027 0.67 2.72 TA028 6.99 3.10

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Author: | Robert, R.B. Jeen; Rajkumar, R. |
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Publication: | Mechanika |

Article Type: | Report |

Date: | Jul 1, 2017 |

Words: | 6999 |

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