Printer Friendly

An art school of their own: women's ateliers in England, 1880-1920.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

In 1898 journalist Ralph W. Maude was tasked with conducting one of The Strand Magazine's "Illustrated Interviews" with the famed artist and teacher Henrietta Ward. He arrived at Ward's studio early. The afternoon drawing class was still in session and, as men were not allowed to take part, he waited outside, listening to the faint hum of voices emanating from the workroom. After class ended, and the flock of chattering young women had dissipated into the streets of Chelsea, Maude entered. "Surely there could not be a more business-like looking studio than Mrs. Ward's," he noted with surprise. (1) The workroom was crowded with easels and canvases of various sizes and shapes, busts, plaster models, and animal casts, along with paints, pencils, oils, charcoal, and drawing pins. Also on display were the works of pupils, awaiting criticism from Ward and one of the visiting academicians that attended the school regularly. Radiating enthusiasm, Ward was at home within the chaos. "Isn't this place a terrible mess?" I am always trying to keep it tidy; but it's quite impossible." (2) This scene of chaotic artistic industry is at odds with the image of female-run art schools as places of upper middle class amateurism.

In 1872, Magazine of Art declared that art teaching "is universally admitted to be women's special work, and we should naturally expect to find women teaching drawing and painting as generally as they teach music." (3) Even so, such professional opportunities for women remained circumscribed. At government schools of design and large private academies, women were largely confined to junior and entry-level positions. Rarely progressing to senior roles, they were not able to influence educational systems or guide the development of their female students. The greatest opportunities for female art teachers were found in private schools founded or co-founded by such women artists as Ward, Louise Jopling, and Elizabeth Armstrong Forbes of the Newlyn School (Fig. 1). Inevitably, these schools faced criticism, as they were largely seen as more interested in catering to wealthy "accomplishment" students than providing a rigorous art education. However, as well as providing income to practicing women artists, these schools were unique spaces of female authority and autonomy. While government art schools and large private academies often treated women as "other," prejudging their talent and potential as artists, female run art schools adopted a more individualized approach, encouraging and mentoring talented women students. These institutions, as discussed here, were established by professional women artists, in part, to pass on their knowledge and experience to the next generation. Drawing on the methods of French ateliers as well as their own educational experiences, they opened their personal studios to students, providing individualized supervision in an intimate, familial environment. Teaching brought to a number of women opportunities for status and a secure income while allowing personal time to maintain exhibiting careers.

The "master and disciple," or atelier, method of teaching originated in Italy, evolving out of the apprenticeship system, and took root firmly in France in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. "In France it is almost as incumbent upon a great man to have a studio full of pupils as to paint pictures," noted Thomas Ward in 1887. (4) Although near ubiquitous on the Continent, this teaching method was never as popular in England. (5) While a number of female art teachers adopted atelier methods, little has been written on the subject in histories of women artists or art education in England. Deborah Cherry notes the increase of female run art classes in the late nineteenth century, but she does not comment on their use of atelier methods. (6) Enid Zimmerman and Graeme Chalmers mention Louise Jopling's and Henrietta Ward's schools briefly in their studies of female art education but do not discuss their teaching methods. (7) Charlotte Yeldham acknowledges that Jopling based her school on the atelier style but does not consider the rationale behind her decision or the extent to which other female art teachers shared this preference. (8) There is space within this literature for a reappraisal of female run art schools at the turn of the twentieth century, and the educational and artistic significance of these institutions.

Henrietta Ward (1832-1924) and Louise Jopling (1843-1933), both leading female artists of late Victorian England, relied on art as their primary source of income. Their schools were intended to supplement revenue from picture sales but were also underpinned by a serious interest in female education and professionalism. (9) Jopling was a vocal advocate of suffrage and women's economic independence. She received her initial art training in Paris in the 1860s at the atelier of Charles Chaplin, a painter who encouraged serious academic study and gave his female students access to the nude model, a rarity in England before the 1890s. (10) Following her return to London and second marriage, Jopling's art became her family's principal source of income, requiring her to constantly seek out new commissions and clients and to exhibit frequently. She believed that "every girl should have a vocation, either artistic or otherwise, by which, if the necessity arose, she could earn her own bread, and be independent," and she did all she could to encourage this end, publishing books and lectures with practical career advice to female art students. (11) Although Mrs. Jopling's School of Art was an economic necessity, it also gave her the opportunity to put into practice her ideas about art and art education, and to encourage professionalism for female art students.

In creating her curriculum, Jopling drew on her experiences with Chaplin, whose atelier was one of the few that catered exclusively to women, ensuring, in Jopling's words, that "careful mothers could send their daughters there without complication between the sexes." (12) The school's popularity was also due to the familial atmosphere Chaplin created within the studio, which facilitated his personal, individualized teaching method. Students felt themselves part of an artistic community, and Chaplin encouraged his pupils to define themselves as professionals, and to forge an original style that would make them successful in the art marketplace. (13)

Jopling's school replicated both the atmosphere of Chaplin's atelier and the French style of teaching art, which privileged practical experience in the studio and drawing from a live model. In England, art students started by drawing "from the antique," that is, copying from plaster casts of classical statuary. Drawing "from the life" was typically reserved for older and more advanced students who had proved their technique in the antique room. Both the Royal Academy (RA) Schools and the Slade School, considered the most progressive art school in England, followed this convention. However, Jopling's students, regardless of age or experience, worked from living models from the beginning. Jopling believed she could better "judge the capacity" of her students through their study of a living model, and arranged for a model to sit in costume for three days a week, and nude for the remaining three classes. (14) As in Paris, all classes were under the immediate supervision of the principal, and Jopling visited the studio with "strict regularity several times during the day," acting as judge and critic as well as demonstrating techniques and skills on her easel placed in the midst of the class. (15) She often asked students to complete life studies of the model, and then to draw the "same figure again with all the muscles to teach anatomy." (16) Jopling found that teaching in this way not only improved her own technique but, more importantly, it encouraged students to take the study of art "severely." (17)

By 1895 Jopling employed three female teaching assistants: Miss Bell taught sculpture, and Miss Collie and Miss Speckman instructed the watercolor class. (18) An all-female staff was rare, and indicates the importance of women principals in guiding the professional progression of younger teachers. The originality of the Jopling School's program was noted in the contemporary art press. Artist magazine commented on the success of Jopling's novel methods, which saw students "begin, continue, and end from the life." The work of the students and "lady teachers" displayed on the studio walls was praised for its freshness, originality, and occasional humor, a trait women were not "generally credited with." (19) Jopling considered the study of art a serious endeavor, which required patience, perseverance, observation, and a well-developed memory, the kind of mental discipline associated with mathematics. (20) Her school formed an intimate nucleus of art education which emanated a singular influence to students.

Henrietta Ward, another strong advocate for female education and professionalism, was born into an artistic dynasty. Her grandfather was the famed animal painter James Ward RA, and both her parents were practicing artists. A supportive and liberal environment in their home "brought out [her] many gifts at an early age." (21) Ward received most of her art education from her mother. This one-on-one instruction echoed the intimate atmosphere of an atelier, and resulted in Ward exhibiting her first painting at the Royal Academy at age fifteen, attesting to the seriousness of her education and intentions. She and her husband, the Royal Academician E. M. Ward, were well-known figures in London's art circles.

Ward established her school after the death of her husband in 1879, and claimed that it was "the only one of its kind in London." (22) Her professional interactions with the royal family, including several commissions, and her reputation in elite cultural circles made the school popular with members of the aristocracy and the daughters of the city's upper classes. Ward decried the view that gender put restrictions on talent, imagination, or originality. She spoke of the "pure [male] selfishness" that restricted women from membership of the Royal Academy, and in her own career she modelled the determination and professionalism so often described as lacking in female artists. (23) Ward "was never an amateur anything," saying "I believe in good, serious drawing, and I don't believe a bit in tricks." (24) Her pupils may have lacked an economic imperative to study art, but they were expected to take their lessons seriously and practice in earnest. "No one has a higher standard," noted one journalist. (25)

Surveying London art schools in 1899, Frederick Dolman noted that Louise Jopling started her school "in the spirit of the old masters, who admitted pupils to their studios and in them preserved some of their inspiration for future years." (26) Ward, too, approached teaching in this way. Women had long prospered under the mentorship and supervision of other women, and before women gained entry into the Royal Academy schools, many were taught by distinguished female art "mistresses." (27) The relationship between teacher and student at the Jopling and Ward schools was familial, referencing the dynamic of personal tuition in a collegial setting. A journalist visiting Jopling's Kensington studio in 1893 reported that the artist acted as a "guide, philosopher and friend" to her "earnest" students, who regarded their teacher with "loving respect and reverence." (28) Theirs were unique spaces of female autonomy, where the influence and authority of women was privileged.

In the first decades of the twentieth century the number of classes and schools directed by women increased marginally. Most were small operations, offering instruction in just one style or discipline, and run by a single artist seeking additional income. Emily Beatrice Bland (1864-1951) advertised summer classes in sketching and landscape painting in 1913. A graduate of the Slade School, Bland's intelligent studies of nature, which "wrestl[ed] with the difficulties of rendering the effects of sunlight and shade" in the open air were exhibited at the Royal Academy and the New English Arts Club in the 1890s. (29) The miniaturist Josephine Gibson taught pupils privately as well as holding regular larger classes at her studio in Ladbroke Grove. A regular exhibitor at the Royal Academy, she was on the Council of the Society of Miniature Painters, limited to fifty professional artists. (30) An "expert in facial modelling," she received regular commissions from aristocratic clients. (31)

As well as supplementing their income from art sales, teaching also gave these women a degree of authority and influence. Art was a precarious profession for both sexes, but for women, facing additional prejudices and constraints, it was especially rare to experience professional stability or control. Teaching, even on a small scale, allowed women to manage their own careers and to set their own conditions and wages. Opening their studios to students may have been an economic imperative, but it also allowed artists like Bland and Gibson to create "little commonwealths" where their ideas held sway. (32) They could influence students in a way near impossible in large private academies or government schools.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

In 1879, the art patron, artist, and owner of the Grosvenor Gallery, Sir Coutts Lindsay, argued that the prescriptive, standardized methods of England's major art schools had left the nation's art students isolated and neglected. The Royal Academy Schools, Lindsay contended, had failed in its duties to the nation; its foundation and structures were "petrified." (33) Government schools of design, meanwhile, privileged manufacture over art, and any hope that the institutions might develop into worthy national schools of art had withered. Students felt unsupported and disconnected from the traditions of the nation's artistic heritage. The solution, wrote Lindsay, was for England's established artists to open their studios, to "transmit their art and reputation to a younger generation." (34) The male artists Lindsay named in his article did not answer his call. (35) Rather, it was women whose atelier style classes reflected Lindsay's reasoning. Barred from election to the Royal Academy and from positions of prominence in the RA schools and other major art institutions, it is not surprising that the atelier system seemed attractive to women artists and teachers seeking authority, autonomy, and influence, even if only among a small group of students.

Lucy Kemp-Welch's (1869-1958) Bushey School of Painting was one of the largest female run art schools of the early twentieth century. A successful animal and figure painter, Kemp-Welch established the school in 1905, when she took over the studios of Hubert Von Herkomer, the German painter largely responsible for Bushey's reputation as an artistic enclave. (36) The school's premises were vast; new students worked from plaster casts and costumed models in the large preliminary studio, built to accommodate fifty students--men and women--and their easels (Fig. 2) Professional models were used in the life room, where, in a reversal of the traditional power dynamic, two male teaching assistants were employed as aides. Pupils were housed in rented rooms in the village, and had access to a school library, reading room, tennis court, and smoking room. Fancy dress and garden parties were held in the summer term, and musical and dramatic entertainments were staged throughout the year, events that contributed to the esprit de corps associated with Parisian ateliers. (37) As well as designing the curriculum and supervising students, Kemp-Welch oversaw every aspect of the school's management, from the distribution of prizes to its extracurricular and student activities. In doing so, she occupied many of the gatekeeping positions from which women had traditionally been absent in educational institutions, while continuing to pursue her own artistic work.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Kemp-Welch drew on her experiences at Herkomer's atelier-style school to inform her teaching. (38) Herkomer prided himself on encouraging the individualism of his pupils. "The world cannot recognise my pupils in their works, and it will probably be said that I have left no 'school' behind me," he commented after his retirement. (39) In the 1890s Kemp-Welch had flourished under this method of instruction; her work was known for its freshness and originality and for refusing to occupy itself "with the cliches of styles at all." (40) The Bushey School advertised that "only such students are accepted as intend to make art a profession," and students were required to attend classes six days a week, with absences accepted only in the case of proven illness. (41) Kemp-Welch added a focus on animal painting, her specialization, to the curriculum, supervising the classes herself, and taking special care to aid her students' progress. Live animals were sourced from the local village as models, and in good weather the students practiced equine painting and large-scale studies in the open air, where a "picturesque horse [was] tethered up to a post for a morning sitting" (Fig. 3), sometimes accompanied by a village model in costume. (42) She believed that the best way to learn animal shapes and anatomy was through modelling figures in clay and introduced this method to her students in thrice weekly modelling sessions. While Kemp-Welch continued to draw on the Herkomer tradition, her Bushey School, like Jopling's, imparted a deeply personal educational experience to students.

Another way for women to attain authority in art schools was through spousal partnership, where married couples shared the responsibilities of teaching and management. Two of the most successful art schools established by artist couples were located outside of London. In the 1880s Newlyn, a small village on the west coast of Cornwall, became a hub for artists pursuing painting en plein air in the tradition of the French impressionists. At the center of the Newlyn community were the artist Stanhope Forbes and his wife, Elizabeth Armstrong Forbes. (43) The Canadian-born Armstrong was a confident artist with a successful exhibiting career. She had attended art school in England before moving to New York at age eighteen to study at the Art Students' League, known for its liberal program and inclusion of women. (44) Armstrong then spent time in Munich and Pont-Aven before arriving at Newlyn in 1885, where she found inspiration in the varied landscapes and seaside light. (45) Forbes and Armstrong married in 1889, the same year they founded the Newlyn School, and their home became a center for this artist colony. (46)

Elizabeth Armstrong Forbes had a strong reputation with contemporary critics. Her work "does not ask you for any of that chivalrous gentleness which is in itself so derogatory to the powers of women," noted Studio critic Norman Gastin. "As an artist she stands shoulder to shoulder with the very best...." (47) Her teaching style reflected her progressive education. She supervised classes personally and provided individual critiques and guidance, using flexible teaching methods adaptable to each student's work. (48) Her devotion to the Italian masters and fifteenth century sculptors informed both the atelier style of the school and its focus on draughtsmanship (Fig. 4). (49) The Forbeses created an intimate, familial atmosphere at the Newlyn School, personally approving student accommodations in the village and organizing dances and concerts during the winter months. "The life of an art student at Newlyn ... is very pleasant," noted one journalist. (50)

The Newlyn School's opening was greeted with enthusiasm. "The announcement will be received with great satisfaction by a large numbers of persons, if only because what may be called the master-and-disciple system of teaching has been so little practiced in England," observed The Academy. (51) In working closely with Elizabeth Forbes, the predominantly female student body observed in detail the work of a woman who had gained the respect of the artistic establishment (Fig. 1), and who in turn took the "keenest interest and pleasure" in providing guidance to her pupils. Among those who were drawn to the Newlyn artist colony were Harold and Laura Knight (1877-1970). In a 1913 Self-Portrait made during her time in Cornwall, Knight portrayed herself painting a female nude. Although the painting was considered shocking, even vulgar at the time, her statement is clear about the importance to a serious artist of working "from the life."

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

In Montmartre, the center of Paris's bohemian artistic milieu, where studio schools were common, the Scottish artists and designers Jessie King and E.A Taylor opened the Shealing Atelier in 1911. A graduate and former teacher at the Glasgow School of Art, King subscribed to that institution's "total design" ideology, which promoted synthesis between fine art and applied design. The Glasgow School's principal, Francis Newbery, encouraged students to pursue original and authentic design aesthetics, and King's production, which ranged from book decoration and embroidery to jewellery making and illustration, was praised by Studio as "delicate, refined, imaginative and brimming over with playful detail." (53) In designing Shealing's curriculum, King drew on her experience as an instructor in bookbinding and ceramic design and decoration. (54) Students were encouraged to become proficient in a variety of disciplines, including mural decoration, stained glass, furniture design, and poster illustration. (55) King and Taylor emphasized that pupils would receive "individual tuition in the various mediums" to ensure that "their own personality [is] assisted in its development." (56)

King, Taylor, and their students became involved in the artistic community of Montmartre, and leading French and expatriate artists regularly provided critiques to the Atelier students. (57) King gained a reputation for her warmth and generosity towards students. In the summer months they invited students on sketching tours to their Scottish home in Kirkcudbright and to the island of Arran, an isolated community that allowed female pupils a freedom not found in the urban environment. King and Taylor continued to exhibit, exemplifying for students the very ideas they transmitted through their school, about the value of "total design" and the artist / craftsman ideal.

In conclusion, these art schools founded or co-founded by women artists were unique in giving their students, both female and male, models of artistic professionalism. They enabled women art professionals to balance teaching with active exhibiting careers, and to reap the benefits of the artist/teacher ideal long enjoyed by their male counterparts. There was no question of whether art was a suitable profession for women or doubts over their creative and intellectual capacity, and female artistic talent and ambition was noticed, encouraged, and mentored without condescension. Significantly, these female-run schools adopted an atelier-style method of teaching art that fostered creative individualism at a time when English art education still emanated from a few major institutions where teaching was highly standardized. In opening their own studios to pupils and taking on the direct supervision of a body of students, women like Louise Jopling, Henrietta Ward, and the others quietly challenged the prescriptive methods of England's major art schools. By establishing sites of female intellectual and artistic authority, these artist/teachers modelled a female professionalism that ultimately would enable barriers of prejudice to fall.

Maria Quirk is a PhD student at the University of Queensland, and has presented papers at conferences at the University of London and Cardiff University.

Notes

Research for this publication was undertaken with the support of the University of Queensland Graduate School International Travel Award.

(1.) Ralph W. Maude, "Illustrated Interviews: Mrs E.M. Ward," The Strand Magazine, 26, no. 94 (1898), 363.

(2.) Ibid.

(3.) "Art Work for Women Part One: The Work to be Done" Magazine of Art (March 1872), 65.

(4.) Thomas Humphry Ward, The Reign of Queen Victoria; A Survey of Fifty Years of Progress, vol. 2 (London: Smith, Elder end Co, 1887), 535.

(5.) See for example, Richard and Samuel Redgrave, A Century of British Painters (London: Phaidon, 1947), 31. Many contemporary scholars credit the Slade School of Art with bringing the atelier system to England. Its first director, Edward Poynter, was a strong advocate of the atelier system of drawing, which privileged study of the live model above drawing "from the antique." Although the Slade's curriculum was inspired by French methods, it was a large institution based at a university and did not provide the intimate, personal environment of a true atelier school.

(6.) Deborah Cherry, Painting Women: Victorian Women Artists (London: Routledge, 1993), 60.

(7.) Graeme F. Chalmers, Women in the Nineteenth Century Art World: Schools of Art and Design for Women in London and Philadelphia (London: Greenwood, 1998), 62; Enid Zimmerman, "Art Education for Women in England from 1890-1910 as Reflected in the Victorian Periodical Press and Current Feminist Histories of Art Education," Studies in Art Education 32, no. 2 (1991): 109.

(8.) Charlotte Yeldham, Women Artists in Nineteenth Century France and England (London: Garland, 1984), 36.

(9.) Katy Deepwell has argued that the dual role of artist and art teacher, a central feature of the successful male artist's career, was largely unavailable to women, because teaching was recommended to them as a full time career rather than a means of supporting artistic practice. Katy Deepwell, Women Artists Between the Wars: 'A Fair Field and No Favour' (Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 2010), 59.

(10.) "Well Known Women: Mrs Louise Jopling-Rowe" The London Journal 31, no. 798 (1899), 272. See also Patricia de Montfort, "Louise Jopling: A Gendered Reading of Late 19th Century Britain," on pages 28-39 of this issue of WAJ.

(11.) Louise Jopling, "On the Education of the Artistic Faculty, Education and Professions," The Women's Library (London: Chapman and Hall, 1893), 102-71; Louise Jopling, Twenty Years of My Life, 1867 to 1887 (London, John Lane and New York, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1925), 29, 266. "No woman has done more to encourage art among women than Mrs Louise Jopling," "Mrs Louise Jopling Rowe," Every Women's Encyclopaedia 4 (1912).

(12.) Jopling, Twenty Years of My Life, 3.

(13.) Chaplin believed that the reputation of his students would outlive his own: "My only claim to fame will be that of having been their master!" Marie Adelaide Belloc, "Lady Artists in Paris," Murray's Magazine 8, no. 45 (1890), 374.

(14.) Jopling, Twenty Years of My Life, 267; Tessa Mackenzie, Art Schools of London (London: Chapman and Hall, 1895), 55.

(15.) A. De Grasse Stevens, "Mrs Jopling: A Monograph," A Novel Review 1, vol. 8 (1892), 728.

(16.) Mackenzie, Art Schools of London, 55.

(17.) "Mrs Louise Jopling," The Strand Magazine, 16, no. 92 (1898), 196.

(18.) Mackenzie, Art Schools of London, 55. The teachers' full names are not recorded.

(19.) "Personal Notes and Studio Gossip--The Jopling and Winchester Schools," Artist, 19 (1897): 178.

(20.) "First Impressions," The Speaker: A Liberal Review, 3 (1891), 174.

(21.) I.G. McAllister, "Mrs. E.M. Ward," English Illustrated Magazine (August 1913), 411.

(22.) Henrietta Ward, Memoirs of Ninety Years (London: Hutchinson, 1924), 196.

(23.) Ibid., 59.

(24.) McAllister, "Mrs. E.M. Ward," 414.

(25.) Ibid.

(26.) Frederick Dolman, "Among the London Art Schools," The Windsor Magazine (June 1899), 100.

(27.) Helen Clayton, English Female Artists (London: Tinsely Brothers, 1876), 78, 125.

(28.) F.M.G., "Famous Women: Lady Artists at Home," The Ludgate Monthly, 5 (1893), 200.

(29.) P.G. Konody, "Miss Beatrice Bland's Exhibition," The Observer (May 9, 1913), 8.

(30.) "The Society of Miniature Painters," Glasgow Herald (August 20, 1896), n.p.

(31.) "Painters in Water Colour," The Morning Post (March 20, 1899), 3.

(32.) "French Studios," British Architect, 13, no. 3 (1880): 26.

(33.) Coutts Lindsay, "Art Education in Great Britain," Time, 25 (March 1879), 60.

(34.) Ibid., 62.

(35.) In his article Lindsay calls upon "such men as Millais, Watts, Burne Jones, Sir J Leighton, Poynter, Hook" to open their studios to students.

(36.) Gladys Beattie Crozier, "Where to Study Art--The Bushey School of Animal Painting," Every Woman's Encyclopaedia, 1 (1910), n.p. When Herkomer re-purchased the site and demolished the studios in 1912, Kemp-Welch moved the school to her home at Rudolph Road, bringing one of the original, glass-walled studios with her, and continued to teach for another 20 years.

(37.) "French Studios," 26.

(38.) "Mr Herkomer has ventured to introduce the Continental system, and to set up a school of his own at Bushey"; Ward, The Reign of Queen Victoria; A Survey of Fifty Years of Progress, vol. 2, 536.

(39.) Hubert Von Herkomer, My School and my Gospel (New York: Doubleday, 1908), 15.

(40.) Marion Hepworth Dixon, "Our Rising Artists: Miss Lucy KempWelch," The Magazine of Art January 1899), 232.

(41.) Prospectus reprinted in Grant Longman, The Herkomer Art School and Subsequent Developments 1901-1918 (Bushey: E.G. Longman, March 1981).

(42.) Crozier, "Where to Study Art--The Bushey School of Animal Painting."

(43.) Frederick Dolman, "Illustrated Interviews: Mr Stanhope Forbes, ARA," The Strand Magazine, 22, no. 131 (1901), 484.

(44.) Gladys Crozier, "Elizabeth Stanhope Forbes" Art Journal (December 1904), 382. See also Kirsten Swinth, Painting Professionals: Women Artists and the Development of Modern American Art, 1870--1930. (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2001), 31.

(45.) Lionel Birch, Stanhope A. Forbes, A. R. A. and Elizabeth Stanhope Forbes, A. R. W. S. (London: Cassell, 1906), 33.

(46.) Norman Gastin, "Stanhope Forbes," Studio, 23, no. 100 (1901), 81.

(47.) Ibid., 88.

(48.) Gladys Beattie Crozier, "The Newlyn Art School," Every Woman's Encyclopaedia, 1 (1910), n.p.

(49.) Ibid.

(50.) TKC. "At a Cornish Art School," Good Words, 46 (1905), 535--36.

(51.) "Memoirs of the Moment," The Academy (Sept.1899), 293.

(52.) Crozier, "Elizabeth Stanhope Forbes," 382.

(53.) "The International Exhibition of Modern Decorative Art at Turin The Scottish Section," Studio, 26 (1902), 99.

(54.) The Annual Report of the Glasgow School of Art, 1900-01 and 1906-07, Glasgow School of Art Archive, GSAA GOV 1/2 and GSAA GOV 1/3

(55.) Studio, 54, no. 223 (1911), xvii.

(56.) "Shealing Atelier Advertisement," Glasgow Univ. Special Collections, MS GEN 1654/1284.

(57.) "Studio Talk--Paris," Studio, 54, no. 225 (1911), 231; Studio, 54, no. 223 (1911), xvii.
COPYRIGHT 2013 Old City Publishing, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2013 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Quirk, Maria
Publication:Woman's Art Journal
Article Type:Essay
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Sep 22, 2013
Words:4867
Previous Article:Louise Jopling: a gendered reading of late 19th Century Britain.
Next Article:Michelle Stuart, Drawn from Nature.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters