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An archive and a collection of rare music scores: the William Crawford III Collections.

ABSTRACT

William (Bill) Crawford III (1932-2013), a collector of first-edition printed music, left his prized collection and its accompanying papers to the University of Washington's Music Library. The collection focuses on vocal music, especially opera piano-vocal scores. The collection spans six centuries, beginning with Palestrina's second book of madrigals (1586), and ends with Peter Schickele's Music for Judy (2013). The bulk of the publications, however, date from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The accompanying materials include purchase records and research on the items in the collection; collected letters including some from Rossini, Puccini, and Britten; photographs of performers; and photographs taken during the Spoleto Festival (Italy) when Crawford was manager. The paper highlights some of the treasures of the collection, the acquisition history and Crawford's collection plan, and the principles on which the archival collection is arranged.

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On 7 February 2014, sixty-four boxes and one packing tube left apartment 17B of 161 West 16th Street in the Chelsea neighborhood of New York City for their journey west. Fifteen days later, the William Crawford III Collection of Printed Music-over 700 first-edition rare vocal scores-arrived at the loading dock of the University of Washington Libraries together with its complement, the William Crawford III Papers: an archive of research notes, correspondence, photographs, and other documents. The materials were a bequest from the Crawford estate to the University of Washington's Music Library.

The journey of the collections started much earlier. Fourteen years before, Crawford visited the university's Music Library and offered the possibility of donating his collection, but was also considering other institutions for the gift. In 2001, he made his decision to give us the collection, and invited me to view the materials in New York City. But there were terms that we needed to agree upon, such as climate controlled storage, and publication of his catalog, before finalizing the bequest. Six years later, he solidified the gift agreement in his will. One of the reasons for his decisions, in addition to meeting the conditions, is that his collection complemented our small but important rare opera and vocal-score collection. He cited another reason, too: not only were there no such opera collections north of Berkeley in this country (his gift would fill the void), the Pacific Northwest was one of his favorite areas in the country.

This essay begins with an introduction to William Crawford, the collector and donor of the scores and associated papers. An overview of the collection follows, including a discussion of Crawford's principles for his collecting activities. The paper will highlight some of the treasures, including autographs and first editions of opera scores, and the extensive documents of Crawford's research. The archival collection (discussed in the final section of this paper) that accompanied the scores had many surprises-including autographed letters from composers such as Rossini, Puccini, and Britten-that Crawford never mentioned. In addition, there are materials from his days as the manager of the Spoleto Festival.

BIOGRAPHY

William (Bill) Crawford III, born in New York City on 18 August 1932, died in the same city on 13 August 2013, and left his prized collection to a university in the Pacific Northwest, a region he loved, especially for its scenic beauty. (1) Crawford's mother, Anne King Weld (1910-1982), came from the famed Weld family of Massachusetts, (2) and his father, William Crawford Jr. (1908-1972), a manager of Boston's department store Bonwit Teller, was originally from New York. Bill Crawford III was educated at the Brunswick School, a private school in Connecticut, where he was immersed in drama and stage performances as documented in photographs found in the Crawford archive.

Similarly, he was involved in the performing arts at Bard College, from which he received his bachelor's degree in 1955. He was in the production crew for a dance concert in 1952, gave a solo (baritone) vocal recital during his junior year, (3) and he was a soloist in a series of Bard College choral concerts the same year. (4) In his senior year, he gave several recitals as part of his senior project. (5) He continued singing after he graduated, playing the role of Giorgio Germont in Giuseppe Verdi's La Traviata in community productions. (6) His early love of vocal music is evidenced in ticket stubs or signed opera programs dating back to 1949, when he was seventeen years old. (7)

After graduation from Bard, Crawford joined the navy, and then worked for a bank. (8) Even while serving in the navy, he attended an opera at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples while his ship was in port. (9) In 1960, he returned to the performing arts and became the general manager of the U.S. division of the Festival of Two Worlds of Spoleto, Italy. Crawford traveled to Italy every summer to help manage the festival there. Photographs and letters from the Spoleto days in the archive document the performers' and staff's hard work while having fun. Crawford worked directly with Gian-Carlo Menotti, the founder of the festival. Menotti trusted Crawford, and his letters discussed fund-raising, hiring, and arranging trips for the performers. On occasion, Menotti asked Crawford to investigate performers and performances in New York.

In 1968, Crawford left Spoleto and became the artistic administrator of the Santa Fe Opera, (10) but after two years, joined the American Ballet Company as general administrator until its dissolution in 1971. (11) He then joined the Joffrey Ballet as its general manager in September 1971, where he remained until the late 1970s, when he became the manager for Peter Schickele (P.D.Q. Bach). (12) In that capacity, he produced the recording P.D.Q. Bach: Black Forest Bluegrass, (13) and was coeditor of The Peter Schickele Rag. Crawford spent his retirement years focused on collecting first-edition scores, and compiling his catalog. (14)

Crawford had a lifelong passion for opera, and was a long-time subscriber to the Metropolitan Opera. He had many close friends in the performing arts, including composers Samuel Barber and Menotti, conductor and music director at the Spoleto Festival Thomas Schippers, choreographer Glen Tetley, stage designer Rouben Ter-Arutunian, pianists John Browning and John Ogdon, music biographer Mary Jane Phillips-Matz, and musicologist and antiquarian dealer Nigel Simeone.

OVERVIEW OF THE CRAWFORD COLLECTION OF PRINTED MUSIC

The printed-music collection comprises 743 scores and two historical posters. Crawford was clear about his collection scope, as shown in a letter to Chris Collins, stating that he collects "first edition, earliest issues, vocal music as well as some ballet and some chamber music," with geographic boundaries of Europe and the United States. (15) In addition to the British and American materials, he also collected a number of scores in Czech, thanks to the help of his friend Nigel Simeone, an antiquarian dealer and scholar on Janacek and Czech music.

The collection in toto, however, spans six centuries. The earliest item is Palestrina's Il secondo libro de madrigali a quatro voci, published by the heir of Girolamo Scotto in 1586. There are four other extant complete copies of this work, all in Europe. (16) Other early scores include Purcell's Te Deurn & Jubilate (1697), John Gay's Beggar's Opera (1728), (17) and Mozart's operas, including his Don Giovanni (1791). The most recent work is Peter Schickele's Music for Judy (2013). (18)

The greatest number of the scores are from the twentieth century, followed by the nineteenth century. There are far fewer scores representing other centuries: one item from the sixteenth century, three from the seventeenth, thirty-seven from the eighteenth, and three from the twentyfirst century. Of the composers collected, Verdi is represented by the greatest number of scores (66), followed by Stravinsky (54), Mozart (41), Rossini (40), and Britten (40). Figure 1 represents the distribution of score holdings for each composer; the larger the font, the more scores in the collection.

In addition to composers including Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Donizetti, Poulenc, Prokofiev, Schoenberg, and Wagner, Crawford also collected works by lesser-known composers, such as the Georgi Sviridov, Arvo Part, Reynaldo Hahn, and Siegfried Matthus.

ACQUISITION OF THE SCORES

Crawford worked with the music-antiquarian dealers H. Baron, Burnett and Simeone, Lisa Cox, J & J Lubrano, and Richard Macnutt, but also bought music and autographs from other dealers such as Librairie de l'Abbaye in Paris. (19) He enjoyed visiting antiquarian stores, and wrote specific dealers to inquire for materials within the scope of his collection. Crawford also bought scores from the auction houses Christie's and Sotheby's. In fact, he had such a close relationship with them that some letters involved long discussions on specific pieces (sometimes even about personal matters), and could result in advanced proofs of auction catalogs. (20) Crawford would often use a dealer as his surrogate at these auctions when they were held abroad.

Although Crawford discussed an overall plan for his collection with Christel Wallbaum of H. Baron, (21) such a plan was not found among his papers. Whether or not he ever had a written plan, he certainly did pursue specific items. He had done extensive research on the first edition of Orfeo, possibly in preparation toward a purchase. (22) Ultimately, he was unable to find one available, but he did purchase the first French edition and a copy of Berlioz's arrangement.

Crawford maintained a desirata list. In the same letter exchange with Wallbaum, Crawford wrote, "I am quite sure that my 'list' does not have another item which I should love to have: a first of the Ravel's 'Scheherazade.'" He did eventually acquire a first edition, first issue of Scheherazade from Nigel Simeone, in addition to the engraved proof sheets for the first edition with the composer's corrections in blue pencil.

He began collecting in 1954 by acquiring a single title, Mozart's Missa pro defunctis (1800). For the next three decades, he purchased one or two items per year, adding not only operas by Mozart, but works by a wide array of composers: Britten, Debussy, Donizetti, Handel, Prokofiev, Puccini, Purcell, Ravel, Rossini, Schubert, Shostakovich, Richard Strauss, Stravinsky, Verdi, Wagner, and others. Among the treasures from this period is Joseph Haydn's VI Original Canzonettas (1794), with Haydn's autograph on the cover (fig. 2). He bought this in 1960 and paid $185 for it; in 2014, the item was appraised for the Crawford estate by Lubrano at $11,000.

From 1985 on, his collecting activities intensified; he added thirty-seven items to his collection that single year. For the next eleven years, he added an average of about nineteen items a year. As a result, his collection quadrupled in size from 56 in 1984 to 224 in 1996. Crawford continued to add to his collection at a high rate until the end of his life. From 1997 to 2002, he acquired an average of thirty-eight items per year. On 1 September 2006, Crawford e-mailed me: "I have added a great deal to my music library over the past summer. I suppose the Prize Pig would be the 1st edition-a piano/vocal score-of Marriage of Figaro. It was Albi Rosenthal's copy and is in beautiful condition. But I have also bought three or four of Mozart's earliest operas. They were not published until well after his death but they are, indeed, first editions." Almost a year later, on 9 May 2007, Crawford wrote, "I honestly don't have much that is new to my collection. Our chief cook and bottle washer, George W. Whatshisname [Bush], wants to keep the dollar as low as he can in order to fill his economic vision, but it does cramp my collecting." The recession years, beginning in 2007 until about 2011, did curtail his collecting activities, but did not stop him. He acquired an average of thirteen items per year during this period. Although there are no purchase summaries from the last two years of Crawford's life, he did buy materials until the very end. While Crawford was in the hospital for the last time in August 2013, an item arrived from a dealer; it was Verdi's romanza, Lo spazzacamino (1845), the last item he would acquire. The collection now stands at 745 items, including two historical posters for the premieres of Bizet's Carmen and Massenet's Manon.

Because many first issues of opera scores tended to be in the pianovocal arrangement, which are convenient for rehearsals, the majority in the collection are in that format. Crawford also collected nonvocal music. Some examples are Brahms's Clarinet Quintet (op. 115), and twelve of Shostakovich's string quartets. Instrumental works compose about 10 percent of the collection.

PRINTING, BINDING, AND PRESERVATION

The Crawford Collection provides countless opportunities to explore the history of music printing and binding, as well as of music history. Published in 1586 by the heir of the famed publisher Girolamo Scotto (1505-1572), Palestrina's second book of madrigals for four voices, mentioned earlier, serves as an excellent example of early printing technique. (23) By 1586, Girolamo's nephew, Melchiorre Scotto (ca. 1540-1614), had inherited the firm, but Girolamo's name remained in the imprint, and the title page bears one of Scotto's several printer's marks (see fig. 3). Il secondo libro de madrigali exhibits the one note, one-type element technique in music printing, for which a single-impression per note is used. The telltale sign of this kind of printing is the small gaps on the staff lines between each note (fig. 4).

Items from subsequent centuries illustrate a history of music printing techniques, including engraved music, with the hallmark square blind impression of the block on the rag paper. There are numerous examples of etching, offset, and modern printing techniques as well.

Many exquisite bindings can be found among these volumes. From the original leather bindings with gold tooling of George Frideric Handel's Messiah (1767), to the art work by Lovis Corinth (1858-1925) on the cover of Richard Strauss's Elektra (1908) in figure 5, the methods of printing and binding are noted in each of Crawford's entries in his catalog. Mindful of the preservation of his scores, Crawford asked his conservators to keep the original bindings of the volumes if possible. He also vetted his conservators carefully. Prospective conservators sent him resumes, and he undoubtedly checked the references. Crawford also provided specific instructions on the rebinding of his scores (when necessary), or on the kind of boxes made for them. (24) One example is evidenced in his detailed instructions for the spine repair of Richard Wagner's Rheingold volume. In a 24 July 1995 letter to Daniel Gehnrich, one of his long-time conservators, he wrote:
   Please repair spine as we discussed. You said you would be able to
   "blacken" the leather somewhat which I would also like. Please make
   a label for the spine on dark green ... leather with the
   following imprint:

   R. WAGNER DAS RHEINGOLD

   (you can eliminate the "R" if you want, but please make sure to
   have "DAS" which is not on the front cover). Please make a small
   label for the bottom of the spine with: 1861. (25)


Other pieces received similar treatment. On an estimated bill dated 29 April 1989, Gehnrich listed forty-five items that he was to work on for Crawford. (26) Work done included restoring paper on specific pages, or rebinding items. Crawford also kept samples of leather for book covers, as well as newly-made marbled paper to match an old cover. Examples of the boxes made for the scores include a beautiful blood-red linen box made for Strauss's Salome, evoking the story line. Similarly, for the Billy Budd volume, a black-and-gold-wave background cutout for the title reflects the maritime theme and the dark nature of the opera (fig. 6). Crawford made sure that the bindings matched the subject matter of the operas. In addition to paper restoration, spine repairs, rebinding, and new boxes, Crawford also had some of his scores deacidified because the paper was yellowing and showing signs of deterioration. (27) The collection, as a whole, is in remarkably good condition.

MULTIPLE VERSIONS

Crawford's primary goal, of course, was to collect opera scores in first issues of first editions. When presenting important changes, however, other issues of the first edition were of interest as well. For example, seven first editions of Giuseppe Verdi's Aida can be found in his collection: six were published by Ricorcli, and the seventh is the first edition published in Russia (Moscow and St. Petersburg) by P. Jurgenson, fourteen years later. The earliest edition among the seven was never truly published, but according to Crawford, it was possibly issued in early 1872 as a prepublication, for in-house use.'-8 Several copies are in existence, and one copy, used by Verdi for corrections, is now held at Villa Verdi in Sant'Agata, Italy. The British Library and the University of California, Berkeley, have copies of this engraved prepublication version in their holdings. The first published version, however, was not engraved but lithographed, probably in April of 1872, according to Crawford's catalog. The front cover of this edition has a colorful picture with an Egyptian theme (fig. 7). In the catalog entry for the first edition, third issue, Crawford noted that there no longer is a pictorial front. Crawford combed through reference volumes by Cecil Hopkinson, James Fuld, The Verdi Newsletter, (29) copyright records, and other sources to come to the following conclusion on this particular issue which had "transfer" printing:

The present copy was published after the lithographed and engraved copies because close inspection reveals vestiges of plate numbers and engravers' initials on eighteen pages. Page 102 in particular has a very clear "m" at the proper position for the engraver's initial and this is corroborated by other lithographed copies having page numbers, as well as the engraved copy at Berkeley.

There was a large folio format and a smaller format of the first issue; the larger folio was used for copyright registration at Santa Cecilia (Rome) on 17 August 1872, and Crawford collected both. Crawford also bought a copy of a later issue of the folio format and compared the copies with that at the Morgan Library. He noted the minor differences between the copies. (30)

In addition to collecting different issues of a particular edition, Crawford also collected different versions of the same opera, such as Tchaikovsky's little-known opera Kuznets Vakula (Vakula the Smith), which later became Cherevichki (The Slippers). The first editions of both versions are in the collection (figs. 8 and 9). (31) The Vakula version was published in Moscow on 22 February 1876 (censor's approval date). The opera won the first prize in a competition sponsored by the Imperial Russian Music Society in memory of the late Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna; she originally commissioned the libretto for an opera to be written by Aleksandr Serov, but Serov died unexpectedly. The Cherevichki version was extensively revised, taking away the comic nature of the original. Because of the extensive changes, Tchaikovsky decided a new title was warranted, (32) which was published in 1898, twenty-two years after the first one.

Another example of reworked music is Mozart's reorchestration of Handel's Messiah. The first edition of Messiah, published in 1767, as well as Mozart's version, Der Messias, in German translation by C. D. Eberling, published posthumously in 1803 in Leipzig by Breitkopf & Hartel, can be found in Crawford's collection. The arrangement was commissioned by the Viennese Baron Gottfried van Swieten, who was a Handel enthusiast. He requested that Mozart fill out the accompaniment of the piece for performance in his series of Handel oratorio concerts that benefitted the Tonkunstler Societat. (33)

Hector Berlioz, too, reworked an earlier composition, Christoph Willibald Cluck's Orphee et Eurydice, to make it his own. As discussed earlier, Crawford collected both Gluck's 1774 French edition (34) and Berlioz's 1859 arrangement, but not the original. Berlioz based his arrangement on the 1774 edition. The accompaniment in the score in Crawford's collection is reduced for piano. Crawford noted in his catalog that this was the only Berlioz version ever published. The preface, written by Berlioz, indicates that the arrangement was commissioned by Leon Carvalho, the theater impresario of the Theatre-Lyrique, where Berlioz's version was premiered. It was written for Pauline Viardot-Garcia, who played the role of Orphee, which was originally cast for a castrato in the 1762 Italian version, and for a tenor in the 1744 version. Crawford also had an interest in Pauline Viardot and the Garcia family, which will be discussed later in this article.

AUTOGRAPHED SCORES

Like other collectors and bibliophiles, Crawford had a fondness for scores with the composer's or other relevant signatures. In addition to the Canzonettas by Haydn mentioned earlier is the self-published edition of Charles Ives's 114 Songs, which has a dedication to "Franklin Carter-a singer and canoist [sic]," and is signed by Charles Ives, dated October 1922.

Crawford also had a Stravinsky-autographed score dedicated to ballet great Vaslav Nijinsky (1890-1950). Stravinsky's admiration for Nijinsky is well known, especially relating to his creation of the role of Petrouchka. (35) It is no wonder that he wrote a heartfelt dedication (in Russian) on the Petrouchka piano four-hands score he gave Nijinsky a year after its premiere at the Theatre du Chatelet in Paris, 13 June 1911. He wrote, "To my dear friend Vaclav Nijinski in memory of our work together and in the knowledge of our artistic like-mindedness. In addition to which, my eternal thanks for Petrouchka, Igor Stravinsky, Berlin 6/XII 1912." (36) The owner before Crawford was another ballet great, Serge Lifar (1905-1986), a student of Nijinsky's sister, Bronislava Nijinska (1891-1972); his signature is on the front fly leaf in the same volume. One can conjecture that the volume passed from Nijinsky to Nijinska, and then to Lifar. Crawford bought the copy from Lifar's estate.

Other scores contain autographs of another kind: signatures from the cast of a premiere performance, such as Britten's Turn of the Screw, which originally belonged to Colin Graham, the stage manager of the world premiere of the opera in Teatro La Fenice on 16 September 1954. during the seventeenth Festival internazionale di musica contemporanea, sponsored by La Biennale di Venezia. (37) The score was inscribed by the composer, the librettist Myfanwy Piper, and the entire cast, including Peter Pears, Jennifer Vyvyan, David Hemmings, Olive Dyer, Joan Cross, and Arda Mandikian. The collection also includes the poster for the premiere. Although the score originally did not include the prologue--which Britten did not compose until the cast was in rehearsal-Graham subsequently copied it and bound it into the score.- The rest of the score is a facsimile of the manuscript of Imogen Hoist's piano-vocal reduction. (38)

COLLECTION INSERTS AND RELATED MATERIALS

Materials like the Turn of the Screw poster were often found tucked in the corresponding score in the collection. This kind of accompanying material is now housed in the archival collection under the subseries "Collection inserts." Most inserts are newspaper or magazine clippings about the work, reviews, programs of particular performances Crawford attended (often with the ticket stubs), or even obituaries of performers. Other inserts include photographs of singers, such as those autographed by sopranos Kirsten Flagstad, (39) Rosa Ponselle, (40) and Birgit Nilsson. (41)

Among the inserts is a particularly noteworthy program for the first staged performance of Manuel de Falla's El retablo de maese Pedro on 25 June 1923, which was held at the home of Princess Edmond de Polignac in Paris. Wanda Landowska played the harpsichord, and Hector Dufranne sang the role of Quixote. This program card (fig. 10) includes a watercolor in the top portion by Hernando Vines, who was also the set designer. The program was signed by Vines and his codesigner, Manuel Angeles-Ortiz, among others. (42) There are also more substantial inserts in these scores. For example, there was a cache of letters and clippings related to the Garcia family in a box of music by sisters Maria Malibran (1808-1836, one letter) and Pauline Viardot-Garcia (1821-1910, two letters). In addition, there are two letters by their brother, Manuel Garcia (1805-1906). (43)

Crawford's keen interest in the Garcia family may have been prompted by a gift of three Malibran letters from his great-aunt Flora MacMillan, presumably many years before he started collecting autographs and letters. (44) Only one of these letters remains in the collection. (45) Another group of inserts of note is a series of letters from Benjamin Britten to the English poet Edith Sitwell found in the Midsummer Night's Dream score. These letters date from 1960, (46) when Britten was composing the opera, and refer to the collaboration with Peter Pears on the libretto, a performance of the opera at Covent Garden in February 1961, and Britten's struggle with depression. (47) In sum, they reveal a close and warm relationship between the composer and Sitwell.

THE CATALOG AND RARE MUSIC COLLECTION

In addition to the inserts in the scores, there is important bibliographic research for this collection that became the subseries "Invoices, correspondence, and research notes" in the archival collection. From these research notes, Crawford created his catalog, which is now available freely as a PDF on the University of Washington Music Library's Web site (see n. 14).

Crawford's alphabetical catalog includes bibliographic details of each volume: composer, title, publisher, date of publication, collation, plate number, and format. In addition, he added notes on the binding, and printing method, as shown in the following example.

STRAVINSKY, Igor

Persephone

Edition: Piano-vocal score by Sviatoslav Stravinsky.

Publisher: Edition Russe de Musique, Berlin.

Collation: Title; blank; prefatory note by the composer; blank; music on pp. 1-82; blank; blank.

Plate number: r.M.V. 581 throughout except for p. 56 which has no plate number.

Date of publication: 1934.

Binding: Original wrappers with blue and black illustration (artist unidentified) on the front wrapper. Back wrapper blank.

Format: 270 x 340.

Printing method: Transfer.

Notes: First edition. The printer, S.I.M.A.G.--Asnieres--Paris. 2 et 4 Avenue de la Marne--xxxiv, is noted at the bottom of the title page as well as on the lower left of the last page of music (without street address). At the lower right of the last page of music: Grandjean Grav. White pp. 374-5.

Because Crawford collected more than one issue of the first edition of the work, he included the unique details of each. The following figure is a typical example of earlier printings. Note that the catalog includes the plate number of every page of the score with the initials of the engraver for each page when available (fig. 11). In the "Notes" field of the record, Crawford described die discrepancy between his finding, which pointed to many engravers working on a single score, and the declaration by Ricordi that only one engraver worked on the entire score.

Crawford's passion for chasing down the last details of the various issues of the first edition can be seen in his record for Vincenzo Bellini's I Puritani and his research file. There are four copies in his collection, and the catalog notes the slight differences: first edition, first issue, published on 7 February 1836 (257 pages); first edition, second issue, published in late 1836 (251 pages); first edition, second issue, the same as the previous except lacking the portrait of Bellini; and second edition, first issue, published on 10 September 1836 (270 pages). (48)

The first-edition copies were all published by Pacini, and the second edition, by Ricordi. Richard Macnutt, a music antiquarian, wrote:
   The 251 pp. version is the first. It was later re-expanded ... to
   257 pp. This is principally shown by the c1840 re-issue (BI.
   H.401.in) being also 257 pp. and having some of the plate number
   variations of the earlier 257 pp. edition (H.401,1)--see the
   overture especially. Also, some of the pagination of the 257 pp.
   version (after p. 220, until which point both versions are similar)
   shows the earlier page-numerals are not quite erased beneath the
   new ones. There are also some minor corrections in the longer
   version. (49)

   MACNUTT CONTINUED:

   The whole position is complicated by the morceaux detaches [.sic],
   which appeared earlier than either version. These were first
   published with no through-pagination at the top centre and then
   evidently re-issued as a set with through-pagination. Between the
   issue of that set and the issue of the 251 pp. version it was
   evidently decided to make a cut at p. 221, which was reengraved for
   the 251-page score (one can detect different clef-tools on that
   page). For the definitive version (257 pp.) the cut was restored.


Macnutt indicated that he had extensive discussions with Tim Neighbour, the former music librarian at the British Library and a collector, and Jean-Marie Martin, a French conductor and an opera-score collector. They both concurred with Macnutt's findings. Macnutt concluded by saying, "Well Bill, I hope that this adds something to your existing knowledge or helps you to clarify the situation." Crawford, in a notation on a printed e-mail from 1 September 2005, wrote, "Yes Richard! And please remember that it was I who found and gave you the info regarding the journal and date of the announcement of the Pacini score--the first edition." Indeed, among Crawford's research files is a photocopy of the 7 February 1836 issue of La revue et gazette musicale, where there was an announcement of the publication of the opera. (50)

There are also other photocopies, from Bibliographie de la France (volume 24), which included the specifics on the publication of the libretto and the morceaux detaches of the opera, and a page from Lubrano's catalog no. 47 (December 1993) that included the morceaux detaches from the opera. The morceaux detaches were first published on 18 April 1835, which was what Macnutt described as the no-through pagination version. In 2004, Simon Maguire from Sotheby's wrote and asked Crawford for help in listing his 251-page score in the next auction catalog, acknowledging that Crawford was the authority on this particular score. The research and information circulation of this one item is an exemplar of the thorough research Crawford undertook in composing each entry in his catalog.

In addition to Crawford's "book" catalog, each item from the collection has been cataloged by the University of Washington and merged with the library's online catalog, where material in the collection is now searchable.

ARCHIVAL COLLECTION

In addition to his collection of rare printed music, Crawford also willed his papers to the University of Washington Music Library, to form the William Crawford III Papers. These files contain extremely valuable materials, including his research, autographed letters he collected, correspondence and photographs relating to his work at the Spoleto Festival, as well as private correspondence.

The University of Washington processed the materials according to Crawford's original order. The papers are now arranged into the following main series and subseries:
Biographical material

* Personal materials
* Gifts
* Invoices
* Concert programs
* Travel notes
* Miscellany

Rare collection

* Appraisals and catalogs
* Invoices, correspondence, and research notes
* Collection inserts
* Antiquarian catalogs
* Reference books

Correspondence and clippings

* Collected letters
* Performance and personal

Photographs

* Biographical materials
* School productions
* Spoleto Festival
* Opera--Philadelphia
* Music photographs
* Art photographs
* Miscellaneous photographs


The "Biographical material" series comprises materials found scattered throughout Crawford's papers. Of special interest are: "Personal material," concert programs from performances in which Crawford took part, as well as a file on his mother's family, the Welds; gifts Crawford received from the stage designer Rouben Ter-Arutunian and the composer Louis Weingarden; ballet and opera programs from performances Crawford attended; and travel notes from three trips taken, 1981-94.

The largest portion of the archival collection is the "Rare collection" series. There are eight versions of Crawford's catalog, and many appraisals of the collection through the years, from 1991 to 2014. The earlier appraisals were performed by Nigel Simeone, and the last, after Crawford's death, was performed by John Lubrano. The catalog, which began in 1991 with the help of Nigel Simeone, was about 250 pages long. (51) Since then, many editions were made as Crawford continued to add materials to his collection. The last version (2014) was emended by various people, including Crawford's assistant Claire Spiezio, Nigel Simeone, and myself, after Crawford's death, from 2013 to 2016.

In general, the invoices and materials are in one alphabetical file. These items form the bibliographic history of the scores, mainly because of Crawford's passion for history and attention to detail. As Christel Wallbaum of H. Baron noted to Crawford in a letter from 13 February 1993, "[I]t is always interesting to have a chat with you because so much bibliographical detail is coming from you, and your enthusiasm is quite infectious." (52)

Research notes, photocopied pages, and other materials yield much about the compositions. Crawford carefully documented his acquisitions with precise information from scholars before making purchases. Letters between Crawford and scholars-such as Delius scholar Robert Threlfall and Rossini scholar Philip Gossett-detail his purchases. He corresponded with Dr. Gertraut Haberkamp about three Mozart works: Ave verum corpus, La clemenza di Tito, and Cosi fan tutte, before he purchased the rare scores. (53)

The information passed between Crawford and the dealers indicates the breadth of his inquisitiveness about works that eventually came to his collection. One note from Christel Wallbaum to Crawford (54) refers to Crawford's speculation that Robert Schumann's Der Contrabandists being "kind of a copying job" of Manuel Garcia's El contrabandista insofar as the text of the Schumann song is a German translation of Garcia's, and the melodies are remarkably similar. Another letter from antiquarian Derek Hulme reveals that Crawford shared information about some Shostakovich string quartets, noting that "the information on the Shostakovich scores and parts ... filled four gaps." (55) Similarly, he wrote to Falla scholar Chris Collins informing him of the different metronome markings on an El sombrero de tres picos score. (56)

Although the "Collected letters" subseries includes but a few letters, they are nevertheless extremely rich in content. For example, two letters by Giacomo Puccini to his childhood friend, Luigi Pieri (1861-1929), whom he called "Ciospo," are included. In one, Puccini wrote about attending performances of his own operas, Manon and lose a in London: Manon being a "complete triumph," (57) and Tosca was to be performed that evening. Puccini also complained that the good wine has too much sugar, perhaps in reference to his own diabetic condition. Another letter written from his home in Torre del Lago on 12 April 1909, reported that a performance of Fedora, presumably Umberto Giordano's opera, went "a little badly." (58) The first edition, first issue of Fedora? is in Crawford's collection.

Letters written to Crawford from performers or personal friends, many of whom had connections with the Spoleto Festival, form the second subseries, "Performance and personal." Some letters are more formal, obviously business letters, such as those from actor Joan Crawford and cellists Leonard Rose and Pablo Casals. A letter from clarinetist Richard Stolzman details a recording contract, and film director Louis Malle wrote in French, 9 March 1964, about directing his first opera, Der Rosenkavalter, at the Spoletto Festival in 1964. A letter of 11 February 1969 from composer Krzysztof Penderecki regards the publicity for his opera The Devils of Loudon to be performed at the Santa Fe Opera when Crawford was its manager.

Many musicians and artists became Crawford's close personal friends, as evidenced in letters such as those by Gian-Carlo Menotti and Samuel Barber; pianists John Browning and John Ogdon; Spoleto music director and conductor Thomas Schippers; dancers and choreographers Glen Tetley and Paul Taylor; and stage designer Rouben Ter-Arutunian. Other noteworthy letters include those from artists Louis Schanker and Ben Shahn, and one from Alice Toklas, written in a shaky hand on 11 September 1963, three and a half years before her death, inviting Crawford to have tea at her Paris apartment. These letters provide a sample of the friends Crawford made, and the rich intellectual life he led.

The University of Washington Music Library is fortunate to have received the treasure trove that is the William Crawford III Collection. The collection nearly doubles the size of the Music Library's rare score collection, and significantly increases the library's resources for opera research. The collection is a rich source on the history of printing, and includes superb exemplars of fine binding, with bibliographic details on each item that are extremely helpful to bibliographers and musicologists. Performers and scholars will appreciate Crawford's careful bibliographic work and comparisons of editions, which also provide opportunities for students seeking dissertation topics. Crawford's vision toward an invaluable resource for music scholarship in the Pacific Northwest has been richly realized.

(1.) In the 30 December 2006 e-mail regarding a picture of Mount Rainier I sent Crawford earlier, he wrote, u Beautiful picture! Rut what was of interest to me was your comment that ten minutes later it was all different. That, in particular, is what I LOVE about the weather in the Pacific Northwest. You can just sit yourself down and watch weather change right in front of you ... it is like some grand magic show! It is even better to watch it lying on the ground." On 4 November 2010, Nigel Simeone wrote, "[Bill] was speaking enthusiastically about how happy he is that everything is going [to be] safe and sound in Washington State."

(2.) Nicholas Benton, The Seven Weld Brothers ... 1800 to 2000: A Contemporary Genealogy (New York: iUniverse Inc., 2004), 54, 58.

(3.) 28 February 1954, accompanied by Frank Cusumano, at Bard Hall (Crawford Papers-'Biographical material-Concert programs). For an outline of the organization of the Crawford Papers, see the "Archival Collection" section of this article, below.

(4.) On 2, 7, 10, and 12 June 1954 (Ibid.).

(5.) On 2 November 1954, 25 April 1955, and 14 June 1955 (Ibid.).

(6.) Brooklyn Museum's Community Opera on 3 April 1960. and at the New York Historical Society on 29 January 1961 (Ibid.).

(7.) In 1949 he attended Richard Strauss's Salome, with the debuts of soprano Lujuba Welitsch and conductor Fritz Reiner at the Metropolitan Opera. There is a signed program in the file (Crawford Papers-Rare collection-Collection inserts-Strauss, Salome). In the same year, he attended a concert version of Elektra, sung by Astrid Varnay under the direction of Dimitri Mitropoulos. There is a ticket stub and a signed program for the December 1949 performance (Ibid.-Strauss, Elektra).

(8.) Author's conversation with Crawford in the year 2000.

(9.) Letter from Crawford lo Teatro San Carlo (Naples) dated 28 April 2006: "12 December 1956 was the opening night of San Carlo. I was in the U.S. Navy and we were 'in port' at Napoli for a few days" (Crawford Papers-Rare collection-Collection inserts-Verdi. Falstaff).

(10.) Crawford letter dated 30 April 1968 to Renata Petrali-Cicognara: "I don't think I told you that I had left the Spoleto Festival. I am now Artistic Administrator of The Santa Fe Opera." Petrali-Cicognara replied: "I wish, for your first year of work there, all possible success" (Crawford Papers-Correspondence and clippings-Performance and personal).

(11.) Sasha Anawalt, The Jeffrey Ballet: Robert Joffrey and the Making of an American Dance Company (New York: Scribner, 1996), Ixxiv.

(12.) A letter of 25 April 1979 from Crawford to Richard Stolzman was written on Schickele's behalf (probably as manager, though not identified as such), asking him to record Schickele's serious music.

(13.) New York Pick-Up Ensemble, with John Ferrante (tenor) and Professor Schickele (bass), cond. Robert Bernhardt, Vanguard 79427 (1979). 1.P, audiocassette, and CD.

(14.) Catalogue of the William Crawford 111 Collection of Printed Music at the University of Washington Music Library (Seattle: University of Washington Libraries, 2016), http://guides.lib.uw.edu/ld.phpPcontent _id=24035465 (accessed 28 February 2017). I will discuss his catalog later in the article.

(15.) Crawford's letter of 5 September 2002 to Chris Collins stated: "I am able to cope with German, French, Italian, and Russian scores" (Crawford Papers-Collection inserts-Falla, El sombrero de tres picos). He repeated this characterization to other dealers as well.

(16.) According to RISM (Repertoire international des sources musicales) A/I (P 763), the complete copies are at Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbuttel (but Crawford's own research found that this copy may be a later issue), the British Library, Civico museo bibliografico musicale (Bologna), and the Conservatorio di musica "Arrigo Boito" di Parma. The latter three are identical to Crawford's copy. The only other copy in the United States is at Harvard's Loeb Music Library, and is incomplete.

(17.) According to the scholars compiling John Gay's complete works, this libretto is the only copy that includes music.

(18.) Henry Purcell, Te Deum & Jubilate (London: Printed by J. Heptinstall, for the author's widow, and are to be sold by Henry Playford, 1694); John Gay, The Beggar's Opera (London: Printed by John Watts, at the Printing-Office in Wild-Court, near Lincoln's-Inn-Fields, 1728); Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, II dissoluto punito osia Il Don Giovanni ([Mainz]: Presso B. Schott, 1791); Peter Schickele, Music for Judy: For Trumpet and String Quartet (King of Prussia, PA: Theodore Presser, 2013). For fuller details of scores mentioned in this essay, consult the catalog referenced in n. 14.

(19.) Among other ileitis. Crawford bought his Rossini letter (to tenor Adolphe Nourrit) on 5 April 1967 from Librairie de l'Abbaye. I will discuss this letter later in the article. No scores were bought from this dealer.

(20.) An e-mail of 5 April 2004 from Simon Maguire of Sotheby's stated: "As before I am sending you the advance text proof of our next catalogues (sale on Friday 21 May)" (Crawford Papers-Rare collection-invoices, correspondence, and research notes-Bellini, IPuritani).

(21.) Letter from Wallbaum on 5 May 1992: "I quite agree with you: you should set yourself a goal for your collecting and stick to it" (Ibid.-Baron, II.).

(22.) In his Orfeo file, there are articles by scholar Bruce Alan Brown, letters from Wallbaum (of H. Baron) discussing the fine points of the true first edition, photocopied pages from the first edition, and many more documents.

(23.) For more information on Girolamo Scotto's publishing firm and sixteenth-century printing, see Jane Bernstein's Print Culture and Music in Sixteenth-Century Venice (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).

(24.) Fie often kept the original spine tucked in the rebound volume or box.

(25.) Handwritten letter to Gehnrich (Crawford Papers-Rare collection-invoices, correspondence, and research notes-Gehtirich, Daniel [bookbinder]).

(26.) The unusually large number of items for repair was probably due to a water leak from the apartment above. This information is from Nigel Simeone. Crawford was residing on East 72d Street at the time.

(27.) Several invoices from Appelfeld Gallery of New York show such work. Crawford used many conservators other than Gehnrich, and art galleries in New York for the preservation of his scores.

(28.) The opera was premiered in December 1871.

(29.) Cecil Hopkinson,,4 Bibliography of the Works of Giuseppe Verdi, 1813-1901, 2 vols. (New York: Broude Bros., 1973-78), 2:149-55; James Fuld, The Hook of World-Famous Music: Classical, Popular, and Folk, 4th ed. (New York: Dover Publications, 1995), 589-90; David Lawton, "The Autograph of Aida and the New Verdi Edition," Verdi Newsletter 14 (1986): 4-14.

(30.) Another almost identical copy is also in the collection, with minor differences in the page numbering. Crawford also precisely dated the Russian edition (17 September 1896) using the date of the censor's approval. See the catalog for details.

(31.) Sometimes, the title is translated its Fmpress' Slippers, or the Golden Slippers. According to New Grove Dictionary of Opera, the term cherevichki is usually mistranslated. Cherevichki are actually "high-heeled, narrow-toed women's holiday boots." See Richard Taruskin, "Cherevichki," Grove Music Online [Opera, 1992], http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com (accessed 28 February 2017).

(32.) Ibid.

(33.) Tonkunstler Societal was a benevolent society that raised money to support retired musicians in Vienna. It operated from the mid-eighteenth to the mid-twentieth centuries. For more information, see Derek Beal, "1740-1806," sec. IV of "Vienna," Grove Music Online (2001), http://www.oxfordmusic online.com (accessed 28 February 2017).

(34.) Crawford said that his copy is probably the fourth issue of the first edition. It matches everything described in Cecil Hopkinson, A Bibliography of the Printed Works of C. W. von Gluck, 1714-17X7, 2d ed. (New York: Broude, 1967), no. 41A, but the dedication page has print on the verso side, which was not the tradition for first editions. Therefore, he doubted that this is truly a first edition. See the catalog for more detail.

(35.) [N.B.: spelled "Petrushka" in Library of Congress Authorities, http://authorities.loc.gov.] Stravinsky wrote, "I should like ... to pay heartfelt homage to Vaslav Nijinsky's unsurpassed rendering of the role of Petrouchka. The perfection with which he became the very incarnation of the character was all the more remarkable because the purely saltatory work in which he usually excelled was in this case definitely dominated by dramatic action, music and gesture." Entry written by Stravinsky for the book Stravinsky in the Theatre, ed. by Minna Lederman (New York: Pellegrini & Cudahv, 1949; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1975), 147.

(36.) Translation from Crawford's catalog entry for this score.

(37.) Crawford purchased this at a Sotheby's auction on 20 March 1984; Nigel Simeone was his proxy at the auction. The item was "refurbished" and deacidified by Appelfeld Gallery (New York) on 16 April 1984. It was later rebound by Daniel Gehnrich, in February of 1994.

(38.) Imogen Hoist (1907-1984) did many other reductions for Britten as his long-time musical assistant and, later, the artistic director of the Aldeburgh Festival.

(39.) Flagstad as Isolde in 1954 (Crawford Papers~*Rare collection-^Collection inserts-Wagner, Tristan und Isolde).

(40.) Ponselle as Donna Leonora in Verdi's La forza del destino with Enrico Caruso. The signed photograph is dated 1948 (Ibid.-Verdi, La forza del destino).

(41.) Nilsson as Turandot (Ibid.-Puccini, Tumadot).

(42.) Among those who signed were: Ricardo Vines (a well-known pianist), Matilde Cuervas (guitar), Elvira Vines Soto, Josi Vines Rodu, and Hermenegildo Lanz (artist). Of the opera, Carol Hess wrote that "The music was a mix of the old and new: harpsichord, lute (Henri Casadesus), the violin and added the relatively 'modern' clarinet (an instrument invented in the second half of the 18th century)." The orchestra was made up of twenty musicians under Falla's baton. The chamber opera was attended by luminaries, including Igor Stravinsky, Pablo Picasso, Josep Maria Sert (painter), and Paul Valery (poet and essayist) as invited guests. See Hess's review in Annies de la literalura espanola conlempordnea 22, no. 3 (1997): 611-18.

(43.) Viardot's letters are in English and French, two of the six languages in which she was fluent. The contents of the letters are not related to the music in the box; most are thank-you letters. Manuel Garcia's letter was written to his student and singer, Charles Santley (1834-1922).

(44.) A note in Crawford's hand states that his great-aunt gave him these three letters.

(45.) It is a thank-von note to a Miss Ryan, dated 21 March 1836, a day after Malibran's last La Scala performance. Malibran married the Belgian violinist Charles de Beriot later that month, and died of a riding accident six months later.

(46.) One letter is undated but is probably from around the same time.

(47.) Letter of 9 September 1960.

(48.) The copy of the first edition, second issue, without Bellini's portrait, was bought earlier, in July 1993, than the one with the portrait, which came onto the market in 1998 through Erasmushaus in Basel, Switzerland. Crawford bought this more complete copv because it was highly important to him to have the most complete version.

(49.) Letter from Richard Macnutt to Bill Crawford, 17 August 1993 (Crawford Papers-Rare collection-invoices, correspondence, and research notes-Bellini, 1 Purilani).

(50.) This is a posthumous publication, as Bellini had dietl on 23 September 1835.

(51.) E-mail from Nigel Simeone. 8 September 2016. The final catalog is 665 pages long.

(52.) (Crawford Papers-Rare collection-invoice, correspondence, and research notes-Baron, IT).

(53.) Letter dated 30 September 1990 from Haberkamp (Crawford Papers-Rare collection-invoice, correspondence, and research notes-Haberkamp).

(54.) Letter from Wallbaum, dated 5 November 2002 (Ibid.-Baron, II.).

(55.) Dated 25 July 1997 (Ibid-Hulme).

(56.) E-mail dated' 10 September 2002 (Ibid.-F).

(57.) "trionfo completo" (author's translation). Letter dated 19 October 1904 (Crawford Papers-Correspondence and clippings-Collected letters).

(58.) "Pare che la Fedora sia andata maluccio," letter of 12 April 1909 (Ibid.).

Judy Tsou is the head of the Music Library at the University of Washington. The author would like to thank Nigel Simoeone, who Gave sage advice on a draft of this paper. A portion of this article Is based on the preface written for Catalogue of the William Crawford III Collection of Printed Music (see n. 14), hereinafter, "the catalog."

Caption: Fig. 1. Proportional distribution of the collection by composer holdings

Caption: Fig. 2. Haydn's VI Original Canzonettas (London: Corti, Dussek, & Co, 1794), with the composer's autograph

Caption: Fig. 3. Title page of Palestrina's Il secondo libro de madrigali (1586), bearing the "heir of Girolamo Scotto" imprint

Caption: Fig. 4. From Palestrina's Il secondo libro dr madrigali (1586), illustrating printing with movable type

Caption: Fig. 5. Levis Corinth's cover for Strauss's Elektra

Caption: Fig. 6. Box for Billy Budd with black-and-gold waves

Caption: Fig. 7. Cover of First published edition of Aida

Caption: Fig. 8. Vakula the Smith cover

Caption: Fig. 9. The Slippers cover

Caption: Fig. 10. Signed program of Falla's El retablu de maese Pedro

Caption: Fig. 11. Plate numbers for even page of the score of Bellini's Il pirata
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