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An annotated distributional checklist of solitary wasps of the subfamily Eumeninae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) of Vietnam.

Abstract--A total of 45 species belonging to 26 genera of the solitary wasp subfamily Eumeninae are listed, including 13 species and six genera that are newly recorded for Vietnam. The references for distribution in Vietnam are provided. Ectopioglossa keiseri nigra Giordani Soika is synonymized under Eclopioglossa keiseri van der Vecht; the male of this species is also described for the first time.

Key words: Vespidae, Eumeninae, checklist, new record, Vietnam.


Wasps of the family Vespidae, consisting of more than 5,000 species worldwide, are distributed in all the zoogeographical regions (Pickett and Carpenter, 2010). Four of the six vespid subfamilies are distributed in the Oriental region. These are the solitary wasp subfamily Eumeninae (potter wasps), the largest subfamily in the Vespidae, which includes more than 3,500 described species (Pickett and Carpenter, 2010), and the three social wasp subfamilies, that is, Stenogastrinae, Polistinae, and Vespinae. The three social wasp subfamilies in Vietnam have been the focus of numerous studies (such as in Nguyen and Carpenter, 2002; Nguyen et al., 2006a, b; Nguyen et al., 2011) but this is not the case for the solitary wasps. There is little known about the eumenine fauna in Indochina including Vietnam, even though the Indo-Burma hotspot (encompassing Indochina, nearly all of Myanmar, part of southern and western Yunnan Province in China, the vast majority of Thailand and a small part of Peninsular Malaysia) may be predicted to be the area with richest solitary wasp fauna in South East Asia. To study the solitary wasp fauna in Vietnam, a checklist of the group is necessary, to provide basic taxonomic information and distribution records from Vietnam. We present here the result of our recent work on the taxonomy of these Vietnamese solitary wasps.

Species and subspecies names are listed alphabetically in each genus insofar as they are considered valid in the most recent citation. Each species-group taxon name is accompanied by the original citation, followed by primary synonymies). Sex(es) if mentioned and locality(ies) in the original citation are given together with the depository(ies) of name-bearing type specimen(s) in parentheses. Distributional data are summarized under the heading "Distribution:" by country, with references only for records from Vietnam. Genera and species with an asterisk mark (*) are newly recorded for Vietnam.

The acronyms of the museums/institutions in which the type material is deposited are as follows:

BMNH:     The Natural History Museum, London.
ETHZ:     Entomologisches Institut, Technische
          Hochschule, Zurich.
IEBR:     Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources.
IRSNB:    Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles
          de Belgique, Brussels.
MCSN:     The Museo Civico de Storia Naturale, Venezia.
MHN:      Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneve.
MNHN:     Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
MRSN:     Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino.
MSNG:     Museo Civico di Storia Naturale
          di Genova Giacomo Doria. Genova.
NHMB:     Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel.
OLM:      Oberosterreichischen Landesmuseum, Linz.
OUM:      Oxford University Museum, Oxford.
RMNH:     Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum
          (formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke
          Historie), Leiden.
USNM:     National Museum of Natural History,
          Washington, D.C.
UZM:      Universitetets Zoologiske Museum, Copenhagen.
ZMB:      Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt
          Universitat, Berlin.
ZMUC:     Universitets Kobenhavn, Zoologisk
          Museum, Kobenhavn.

List of Genera and Species

Subfamily Eumeninae

Genus Allorhynchium van der Vecht, 1963

Allorhynchium van der Vecht, 1963, Zool. Verh., Leiden 60: 57, 58, genus.

Type Species: Vespa argentata Fabricius, 1804, by original designation.

Allorhynchium chinense (de Saussure, 1862)

Rhynchium chinense de Saussure, 1862, Stett. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 186, female, male (in division Prorhynchium)--"La Chine" (MHN).

Distribution: China; Taiwan; Philippines; Vietnam (Giordani Soika, 1986).

Allorhynchium snelleni snelleni (de Saussure) (*)

Rhynchium snelleni de Saussure, 1862, Stettin. Entomol. Ztg. 23: 185, female (in subgenus Prorhynchium)--"Borneo" (RMNH).

Distribution: Indonesia: Sumatra (Bangka, Biliton, Sangijang, Sunda Straits), Java (Karimunjawa, Bawean, Kangean), Kalimantan; Philippines; Vietnam: Kien Giang.

Genus Antepipona de Saussure, 1855

Antepipona de Saussure, 1855, Et. Fam. Vesp. 3: 244, name for section C of division V of subgenus Leionotus de Saussure of genus Odynerus Latreille in de Saussure, 1853, Et. Fam. Vesp. 1: 213; declared available from date of publication by Opinion 893 (ICZN, 1970).

Type Species: Odynerus silaos de Saussure, 1853, by subsequent designation of van der Vecht, 1967, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 24: 30; confirmed by Opinion 893.

Antepipona biguttata (Fabricius)

Vespa biguttata Fabricius, 1787, Mant. Ins. 1: 291, 2755- "China," male (type ZMUC). Distribution: China: Hainan, Kwangtung, Kiangsi, Chekiang, Fukien, Yunnan; Taiwan; Thailand; Laos; Myanmar; Malaysia; India; Vietnam: Yen Bay [probably = current Yen Bai Province], Phu Lang Thoung [= Phu Lang Thuong, part of Bac Giang Province] (Giordani Soika, 1982 (1981)).

Genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863

Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve 17 (1): 205, name for division I of genus Rhynchium Spinola in de Saussure, 1852, Et. Fam. Vesp. 1: 103, and 1855, loc. cit. 3: 175.

Type Species: Rygchium synagroides de Saussure, 1852, by subsequent designation of van der Vecht, 1963, Zool. Verh., Leiden 60: 73.

Subgenus Anterhynchium de Saussure

Anterhynchium abdominale abdominale (Illiger) (*) Vespa abdominalis Illiger, 1802, Magaz. Insektenk. 1: 192- "Bengalen" (? ZMB).

Distribution: Pakistan; India; Sri Lanka; Vietnam: Son La, Bac Giang, Hoa Binh, Ninh Binh, Dak Lak.

Anterhynchium mellyi (de Saussure)

Rygchium mellyi de Saussure, 1852, Et. Fam. Vesp. 1: 116, female--"Les Indes, La Chine" (MNHN and MHN).

Distribution: China; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam: Hoa Binh (van der Vecht, 1963), Vinh Phuc, Dak Lak (new records).

Genus Apodynerus Giordani Soika, 1993

Apodynerus Giordani Soika, 1993, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 42: 155, genus; reference to Apodynerus Gusenleitner, 1988.

Type Species: Odynerus troglodytes de Saussure, 1855, by original designation and monotypy.

Apodynerus formosensis continentalis Giordani Soika

Apodynerus formosensis continentalis Giordani Soika, 1994, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. "G. Doria" 90: 208 (key), 217, female, male--"Cina: Kukien, Kuatun" (holotype female MCSN).

Distribution: China; Laos; Vietnam: Tandao, Vinhphu [probably = Tam Dao, part of current Vinh Phuc province] (Giordani Soika, 1994).

Apodynerus nitidiclypeus Gusenleitner

Apodynerus nitidiclypeus Gusenleitner, 2013, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 45 (1): 121, 125, figs. 11-15, female, male--"Vietnam, Dak Lak Prov., Easo, 12[degrees]55'N 108[degrees]38'E" (holotype female OLM).

Distribution: Vietnam: Dak Lak (Gusenleitner, 2013).

Apodynerus troglodytes troglodytes (de Saussure)

Odynerus Troglodytes de Saussure, 1855, Et. Fam. Vesp. 3: 249, male (in subgenus Odynerus division Parodynerus)--"Le Senegal" (MRSN).

Distribution: India: Karnataka, Kerala, Andaman Islands; China (Hong Kong); Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Malaysia: Sarawak, Sabah; Singapore; Indonesia: Sumatra, Java (Kangean), Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Moluccas; Vietnam: Hoa Binh (Nugroho et al., 2014), Cao Bang, Dien Bien, Son La, Phu Tho, Ha Noi, Kon Turn, Gia Lai (new records).

Genus Calligaster de Saussure, 1852 (*)

Calligaster de Saussure, 1852, Et. fam. Vesp. 1: 22, genus.

Type Species: Calligaster cyanoptera de Saussure, 1852, by subsequent designation of Ashmead, 1902, Can. Entomol. 34: 205.

Calligaster himalayensis (Cameron) (*)

Zethus himalayensis Cameron, 1904, Zeitschr. Hymenopterol. Dipterol. 4: 13, female--"Sikkim" (BMNH).

Distribution: India; China; Laos; Vietnam: Tuyen Quang, Vinh Phuc, Bac Giang, Quang Nam, Gia Lai.

Genus Coeleumenes van der Vecht, 1963

Coeleumenes van der Vecht, 1963, Zool. Verh., Leiden 60: 45, genus.

Type Species: Montezumia impavida Bingham, 1897, by original designation.

Coeleumenes burmanicus (Bingham)

Montezumia burmanica Bingham, 1897, Fauna Brit. India, Hym. 1: 350, fig. 101, female, male "Tenasserim" (BMNH).

Distribution: India; Malaysia: Malay Peninsula; Thailand; Vietnam: Than Moi [part of current Yen Bai province] (van der Vecht, 1963), Bac Kan, Hoa Binh, Gia Lai (new records).

Genus Delta de Saussure, 1855

Delta de Saussure, 1855, Et. Fam. Vesp. 3: 130, 132, 143, name for divisions II and III of genus Eumenes Latreille in de Saussure, 1852, loc. cit. 1: 44, 60.

Type Species: Vespa maxillosa DeGeer, 1775 [= Vespa emarginata Linnaeus, 1758], by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1925, Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 20: 137 [erroneously as Splie.x maxillosus DeGeer, correctly in 1926, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 23: 487].

Delta campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius) Vespa campaniformis Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 371- "Nova Hollandia" (holotype female BMNH).

Distribution: Nepal; China; Thailand; Cambodia; Vietnam (de Saussure et al., 1904, as Eumenes esuriens [misidentification]); Indonesia: Sumatra, Java, Moluccas, Papua; Papua New Guinea; Australia; Philippines; adventive in U.S.A.: Hawaii.

Delta esuriens esuriens (Fabricius)

Vespa esuriens Fabricius, 1787, Mant. Ins. 1: 293-"India" (ZMUC).

Distribution: Saudi Arabia; Qatar; United Arab Emirates; Oman; Mauritius; Israel; Iraq; Iran; Pakistan; India: Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Sri Lanka; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; New Caledonia; Vietnam: Ninh Binh (Nguyen et al., 2007), Dien Bien, Hai Duong, Hoa Binh, Thanh Hoa, Ha Tinh, Quang Nam, Dak Lak, Gia Lai, Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Ba Ria--Vung Tau, Kien Giang (new records).

Delta pyriforme pyriforme (Fabricius) (*)

Vespa pyriformis Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 371-"China" (?).

Distribution: Pakistan; India; Arunachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Sri Lanka; Bhutan; Nepal; China; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam: Bac Giang, Phu Tho, Hoa Binh, Thanh Hoa, Ha Tinh, Gia Lai, Dak Lak.

Genus Ectopioglossa Perkins, 1912

Ectopioglossa Perkins, 1912, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 9: 118, genus.

Type Species: Ectopioglossa australensis Perkins, 1912 [= Eumenes australensis Meade-Waldo, 1910 = Ectopioglossa polita australensis (Meade Waldo)], by monotypy.

Ectopioglossa keiseri van der Vecht, 1963

Ectopioglossa keiseri van der Vecht, 1963, Zool. Verh., Leiden 60: 30 (key), 34, female "Ceylon, Centr. Prov., Kandy" (NHMB).

Ectopioglossa keiseri nigra Giordani Soika (1993): 159. Junior primary homonym of Ectopioglossa samariensis nigra van der Vecht, 1963. NEW SYNONYMY.

Distribution: India; Sri Lanka; Laos; Vietnam: Hoa Binh (Giordani Soika, 1993), Son La, Vinh Phuc, Gia Lai (new records).

Ectopioglossa sublaevis (Smith) (*)

Eumenes sublaevis Smith, 1857, Cat. Hym. Br. Mus. 5: 23, female--"Borneo (Sarawak)" (BMNH).

Distribution: Malaysia: Sarawak; Indonesia: Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan; Philippines; Vietnam: Kien Giang.

Genus Eumenes Latreille, 1802

Eumenes Latreille, 1802, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 360, genus.

Type Species: "Eumenes coarctata Fab." [= Vespa coarctata Linnaeus, 1758], by subsequent designation of Latreille, 1810, Consid. Gen. Crust. Arachn. Ins.: 438.

Subgenus Eumenes Latreille

Eumenes multipictus de Saussure (*)

Eumees multipictus de Saussure, 1855, Rev. Mag. Zool. (2) 7: 372, male--"Sumatra" (type depository unknown).

Distribution: Malaysia: Sarawak; Singapore; Indonesia: Sumatra (Bangka), Java, Kalimantan; China: Hainan; Vietnam: Gia Lai.

Eumenes quadratus quadratus Smith

Eumenes quadratus Smith, 1852, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (2) 2: 37, female [non male]--[China] "near Ning-po-foo" (lectotype female, BMNH).

Distribution: China; Korea; Laos; Vietnam (Bequaert, 1928).

Genus Euodynerus Dalla Torre, 1904

Euodynerus Dalla Torre, 1904, Gen. Ins. 19: 38, name for section II of division III of subgenus Leionotus of genus Odynerus Latreille in de Saussure, 1853, Et. Fam. Vesp. 1: 177; declared available from date of publication by Opinion 893.

Type Species: Vespa dantici Rossi, 1790, by subsequent designation of Bliithgen, 1938 (1937), Konowia 16: 277; confirmed by Opinion 893.

Subgenus Euodynerus Dalla Torre

Euodynerus dantici violaceipennis Giordani Soika

Euodynerus dantici violaceipennis Giordani Soika, 1973, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 24: 114, female, male--"China: Canton" (holotype female MCSN).

Distribution: China; Taiwan; Vietnam: Cao Bang, Lao Cai, Son La (Dang et al., 2012; Korea; Japan (including Ryukyu Islands).

Subgenus Pareuodynerus Bliithgen

Euodynerus nipanicus nipanicus (von Schulthess) Lionotus tomentosus var. nipanicus von Schulthess, 1908, Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 11: 287, male--"Japan" (ETHZ).

Distribution: China; Vietnam: Dien Bien, Son La (Dang et ah, 2012); Korea; Japan (including Ryukyu Islands); ? Thailand.

Euodynerus nipanicus tonkinensis Giordani Soika

Euodynerus nipanicus tonkinensis Giordani Soika, 1973, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 24: 118, female (in subgenus Parueodynerus)--[Vietnam:] "Tonchino: Region di Hoa Binh" (MNHN).

Distribution: Vietnam: Hoa Binh (Giordani Soika, 1973), Lao Cai, Phu Tho, Hanoi, Bac Giang, Thanh Hoa (Dang et ah, 2012) Quang Ninh (new record); China.

Euodynerus trilobus (Fabricius)

Vespa triloba Fabricius, 1787, Mant. Ins. 1: 290 "China" (ZMUC).

Distribution: Mauritius; Reunion; Chagos Archipelago; China; Vietnam (Giordani Soika, 1994), Ha Noi, Phu Tho, Vinh Phuc, Hanoi, Bac Giang, Hoa Binh, Ha Tinh (Dang et ah, 2012); Malaysia: Malay Peninsula; Java; Taiwan; Japan: Ryukyu Islands.

Genus Labus de Saussure, 1867 (*)

Labus de Saussure, 1867, Reise Novara, Zool. 2 (1), Hym.: 3, genus.

Type Species: Labus spiniger de Saussure, 1867, by subsequent designation of Bingham, 1897, Fauna Brit. India, Flym. 1: 348.

Labus clypeatus van der Vecht (*)

Labus clypeatus van der Vecht, 1935, Treubia 15: 162, 166, male, female, fig. 11-m--"Semarang, Central Java" (holotype male, RMNH).

Distribution: Indonesia: Java; Vietnam: Dien Bien.

Labus lofuensis Giordani Soika (*)

Labus lofuensis Giordani Soika, 1973, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 24: 99, male, female--China: Lofu Mount" (holotype male BMNH).

Distribution: China; Vietnam: Bac Giang.

Genus Lissodynerus Giordani Soika

Lissodynerus Giordani Soika, 1993, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 42: 135, genus; reference to Lissodynerus Giordani Soika, 1973, and Trichodynerus Giordani Soika and Kojima, 1988.

Type Species: Odynerus septemfasciatus Smith, 1857, by original designation.

Lissodynerus septemfasciatus feanus (Giordani Soika)

Ancistrocerus septemfasciatus var. feanus Giordani Soika, 1941, Boll. Soc. Venez. Stor. Nat. 2 (3): 239, female (in subgenus Ancistrocerus) "Carin Cheba, Burma" (lectotype MSNG).

Distribution: Myanmar; Vietnam: Hoa Binh (Giordani Soika, 1994); Malaysia: Malay Peninsula.

Genus Malayepipona Giordani Soika

Malayepipona Giordani Soika, 1993, Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 42: 151, genus.

Type Species: Malayepipona pagdeni Giordani Soika, 1993, by original designation and monotypy.

Mcdayepipona clypeata Nguyen & Carpenter

Malayepipona clypeata Nguyen & Carpenter, 2013, Raff. Bull. Zool. 61(2): 727-734, female--Vietnam: Lang San, Nari, Bac Kan" (holotype female IEBR).

Distribution: Vietnam: Bac Kan (Nguyen & Carpenter, 2013).

Malayepipona furva Nguyen & Carpenter

Malayepipona clypeata Nguyen & Carpenter, 2013, Raff. Bull. Zool. 61(2): 727-734, female--Vietnam: Tam Dao, Vinh Phuc" (holotype female IEBR).

Distribution: Vietnam: Vinh Phuc (Nguyen & Carpenter, 2013).

Malayepipona malickyi (Gusenleitner)

Indodynerus malickyi Gusenleitner, 2010, Linzer bio'l. Beitr. 42(1):'696-698.

Malayepipona malickyi (Gusenleitner, 2010) Nguyen & Carpenter, 2013, Raff. Bull. Zool. 61(2): 727-734.

Distribution: Vietnam: Vinh Phuc (Gusenleitner, 2010).

Malayepipona seomyty Nguyen & Carpenter

Malayepipona seomyty Nguyen & Carpenter, 2013, Raff. Bull. Zool. 61(2): 727-734, female--"Vietnam: Seomyty, Sa Pa, Lao Cai" (holotype female IEBR).

Distribution: Vietnam: Lao Cai (Nguyen & Carpenter, 2013).

Genus Nortozumia van der Vecht, 1937

Nortozumia van der Vecht, 1937, Treubia 16:263, genus.

Type Species: Zethus rufofemoratus Cameron, 1903, by original designation.

Nortozumia picea van der Vecht, 1963

Nortozumia picea van der Vecht, 1963, Zool. Verh., Leiden 60: 40, female--"Indo-China: Cochinchine, Phuquoc" (IRSNB). Distribution: Vietnam: Phuquoc [= Phu Quoc island, Kien Giang Province] (van der Vecht, 1963); Phu Quoc (present study).

Genus Omicroides Giordani Soika (*)

Omicroides Giordani Soika, 1935 (1934), Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova 57: 129, subgenus of Eumenes Latreille.

Type Species: Eumenes singularis Smith, 1858, by monotypy.

Omicroides singularis (Smith) (*)

Eumenes singularis Smith, 1858, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 2: 109, female--"Borneo (Sarawak)" (OUM).

Distribution: Myanmar; Thailand; Malaysia (Sarawak); Singapore; Indonesia: Sumatra, Kalimantan; Vietnam: Gia Lai.

Genus Orancistrocerus van der Vecht, 1963

Orancistrocerus van der Vecht, 1963, Zool. Verh. Leiden 60: 58, 99, genus.

Type Species: Odynerus drewseni de Saussure, 1857, by original designation.

Orancistrocerus aterrimus nigriceps van der Vecht

Orancistrocerus aterrimus nigriceps van der Vecht, 1963, Zool. Verh., Leiden 60:102 (key), 106, male-Indo-China: Cochinchine, Phuquoc (IRSNB).

Distribution: Vietnam: Phuquoc [=Phu Quoc island, Kien Giang province] (van der Vecht, 1963).

Genus Parancistrocerus Bequaert, 1925

Parancistrocerus Bequaert, 1925, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 51: 64, subgenus of Ancistrocerus Wesmael.

Type Species: Odynerus fulvipes de Saussure, 1855 [= O. "flavipes Fabricius" sensu de Saussure, 1852, non Vespa flavipes Fabricius, 1775], by original designation.

Parancistrocerus androcles androcles (Meade-Waldo)

Odynerus androcles Meade-Waldo, 1910, Ann. Mag. Nat. FTist. (8) 6: 103, female (in subgenus Ancistrocerus)--"Shillong, Assam" (BMNFI). Distribution: India; Sri Lanka; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam: Kontum (Giordani Soika, 1994); Malaysia (Sabah); Singapore; Sumatra; Java; Borneo; Sulawesi; Philippines.

Parancistrocerus assamensis Meade-Waldo

Odynerus assamensis Meade-Waldo, 1910, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 6: 103, male, female (in subgenus Ancistrocerus)--"Shillong, Assam" (female BMNH).

Distribution: India; Nepal; Myanmar; Laos; Vietnam: (Giordani Soika, 1994).

Parancistrocerus insolitus Gusenleitner

Parancistrocerus insolitus Gusenleitner, 2012, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 44(2): 1045, figs. 1-3, female-"Vietnam, Cao Bang Pr., Phia-Oac Mts.,--1000 m,105[degrees]52'N 22[degrees]34'E" (OLM). Distribution: Vietnam: Cao Bang (Gusenleitner, 2012).

Genus Pareumenes de Saussure, 1855 (*)

Pareumenes de Saussure, 1855, Et. Fam. Vesp. 3: 133, division of genus Eumenes Latreille.

Type Species: Eumenes quadrispinosus de Saussure, 1855, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 39: 271.

Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu (*) Pareumenes acutus Liu, 1941, Notes Entomol. Chin. 8: 255 (key), 262, female, pi. 1 fig. 5, pi. 2 figs. 3, 13 (in subgenus Pareumenes)--"South China" (coll. Liu).

Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus; van der Vecht, 1963, Zool. Verh., Leiden 60: 22 (India).--Gusenleitner, 2006, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 38(1): 695 (India). Distribution: China; India; Vietnam: Ha Giang, Lao Cai, Bac Giang, Hoa Binh, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An.

Genus Phimenes Giordani Soika, 1992

Phimenes Giordani Soika, 1992, Lavori Soc. Ven. Sci. Nat. 17: 41, 66, genus, replacement name for Phi de Saussure, 1855, non de Saussure. 1854.

Type Species: Vespa arcuata Fabricius, 1775, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1926, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 23: 487, as Type Species of Phi de Saussure, 1855.

Phimenes Jlavopictus continentalis (Zimmermann)

Eumenes arcuata continentalis Zimmermann, 1931, Z. Morph. Okol. Tiere 22: 205, 224, 226, fig. 26 no. 3, female, male--"Sikhim" (holotype female, ZMB).

Distribution: India; Nepal; China; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam: Hanoi, Chiem Hoa [part of current Tuyen Quang province], Phu Quoc (van der Vecht, 1959), Lao Cai, Bac Can, Thai Nguyen, Vinh Phuc, Bac Giang, Ha Tay, Thanh Hoa (new records); Malaysia: Malay Peninsula; Sumatra, Java.

Genus Pseudozumia de Saussure, 1875

Pseudozumia de Saussure, 1875, Smithson. Misc. Coll. 254(1): 128, division of genus Montezumia de Saussure.

Type Species: Montezumia indica de Saussure, 1855, by monotypy.

Subgenus Pseudozumia de Saussure

Pseudozumia indica indica (de Saussure)

Montezumia indica de Saussure, 1855, Et. Fam. Vesp. 3: 167, pi. 9, fig. 4, 4a, female (in division Parazumia)--"Java" (lectotype MRSN).

Distribution: India; Sri Lanka; China; Taiwan; Malaysia: Malay Peninsula; Indonesia: Java, Lombok, Bali; Vietnam: Chiem Hoa [part of current Tuyen Quang province] (Giordani Soika, 1941). Ninh Binh (new record).

Genus Pseumenes Giordani Soika, 1935

Pseumenes Giordani Soika, 1935, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova 57: 145, subgenus of Pareumenes de Saussure.

Type Species: Eumenes eximius Smith, 1861, by original designation.

Pseumenes depressus depressus (de Saussure)

Eumenes depressus de Saussure, 1855, Et. Fam. Vesp. 3: 135, female (in division Pareumenes) "Les Indes Orientales" (MNHN).

Distribution: India; China; Myanmar; Thailand; Malaysia: Malay Peninsula; Vietnam: Hanoi (van der Vecht, 1963), Ha Giang, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam, Ninh Thuan (new records); Taiwan.

Genus Rhynchium Spinola, 1806

Rhynchium Spinola, 1806, Ins. Ligur. 1: 84, genus, emendation of Rygchium validated by Opinion 747 (ICZN, 1965, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 22: 186-187) (no. 1688 of Official List of Generic Names in Zoology).

Type Species: Rygchium europaeum Spinola, 1806 [= Vespa oculata Fabricius, 1781], by monotypy (no. 2095 of Official List of Specific Names in Zoology).

Rhynchium brunneum brunneum (Fabricius)

Vespa brunnea Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 2: 264-"Tranquebariae (ZMUC)."

Distribution: Seychelles; India: Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Bangladesh; China: Guangdong; Myanmar; Thailand; Cambodia; Laos; Vietnam: Ha Giang, Hoa Binh, Cao Bang, Laokay [= current Lao Cai], Phu-Lang Thoung [= Phu Lang Thuong, part of Bac Giang Province], An Ninh [part of Hai Duong Province], Vin Linh, Prov. Quang Tri [= Vinh Linh, Quang Tri Province] (Giordani Soika, 1994), Lai Chau, Dien Bien, Thai Nguyen, Vinh Phuc, Ha Noi, Bac Giang, Hai Duong, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Thua Thien--Hue, Quang Nam, Kon Turn, Gia Lai, Lam Dong (new records); Malaysia: Malay Peninsula; Indonesia: Tanimbar; Guam; Marianas; Palau.

Rhynchium haemorrhoidale haemorrhoidale (Fabricius)

Vespa haemorrhoidalis Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 366- "ad Cap. b. Spei" (BMNH).

Distribution: Myanmar; Thailand; Cambodia; Vietnam: (Giordani Soika, 1994), Kien Giang (new record); Malaysia: Malay Peninsula, Sabah; Singapore; Indonesia: Sumatra, Java (Krakatau. Bawean), Bali, Sumbawa, Papua.

Genus Stenodyneriellus Giordani Soika, 1962 (*)

Stenodyneriellus Giordani Soika, 1962 (1961), Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia 14: 65, 71, genus.

Type Species: Stenodyneriellus tumeriellus Giordani Soika, 1962, by original designation.

Stenodyneriellus heterospilus (Cameron) (*)

Odynerus heterospilus Cameron, 1907, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 84, female--"Kuching, Borneo" (London, type no. 18.327).

Distribution: Thailand; Malaysia: Sarawak; Singapore; Indonesia: Sumatra, Java; Philippines; Vietnam: Hoa Binh, Thanh Hoa, QuangTri, Quang Nam.

Genus Subancistrocerus de Saussure, 1855

Subancistrocerus de Saussure, 1855, Et. Fam. Vesp. 3: 206, name for division I of subgenus Ancistrocerus Wesmael of genus Odynerus Latreille in de Saussure, 1852, Et. Fam. Vesp. 1: 126 declared available from date of publication by Opinion 893 (ICZN, 1970).

Type Species: Odynerus sichelii de Saussure, 1855, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1925, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 51:61; confirmed by Opinion 893.

Note: Bliithgen, 1938, Deutsch. Entomol. Zeitschr.: 441, when raising Subancistrocerus to generic rank, overlooked Bequaert's type designation, and selected Odynerus rhodensis de Saussure, 1855, as the Type Species. Subancistrocerus sensu Bliithgen was replaced by Tachyancistrocerus Giordani Soika, 1952.

Subancistrocerus sichelii (de Saussure)

Odynerus sichelii de Saussure, 1855, Et. Fam. Vesp. 3: 206, pi. X fig. 6, female (in subgenus Ancistrocerus division Subancistrocerus)--"Indes Orientales" (MNHN).

Distribution: Mauritius; Seychelles; India; Sri Lanka; Chagos Archipelago; Nepal; Myanmar; Thailand; Cambodia; Vietnam: North of Pleiku (Giordani Soika, 1994), Dak Lak, Gia Lai (new records); Malaysia: Malay Peninsula; Singapore.

Genus Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836 (*)

Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836, Bull. Acad. R. Belg. 3: 45, subgenus of Odynerus Latreille.

Type Species: Odynerus elegans Wesmael, 1833, by subsequent designation of Richards, 1935, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 83: 162.

Subgenus Symmorphus Wesmael

Symmorphus laoticus Gusenleitner (*)

Symmorphus laoticus Gusenleitner, 2010, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 42(1): 695, 702, figs. 11-13, male "Laos, Phongsaly Pr., Phongsaly env., 21[degrees]41'N 102[degrees]06'E, 1,500 m" (OLM).

Distribution: Laos; Vietnam: Lao Cai.

Genus Zethus Fabricius, 1804

Zethus Fabricius, 1804, Syst. Piez.: xii, 282, genus.

Type Species: "Zethus coeruleo-pennis Fab." [= Vespa coeruleopennis Fabricius, 1798], by subsequent

designation of Latreille, 1810, Consider. Gener. Crust. Arachn. Insect.: 328, 438.

Subgenus Zethus Fabricius

Zethus dolosus Bingham (*)

Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897, Fauna Br. India, Hym. 1: 332 (key), 333, female--"Burma (Pegu Hills); Tenasserim" (BMNH).

Distribution: Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam: Ha Giang, Dien Bien, Lao Cai, Bac Giang, Ha Tay (Ha Noi), Hoa Binh, Quang Nam.

Zethus nigerrimus Gusenleitner Zethus nigerrimus Gusenleitner, 2001, Linz. Biol. Beitr. 33(2): 660, 661, female--"N -Vietnam, Vinh Phu, Tam Tao" (NHMW).

Distribution: Vietnam: Tam Tao, Vinh Phu [probably = Tam Dao, part of current Vinh Phuc province or Tam Tao, Bac Kan province] (Gusenleitner, 2001); Laos; Malaysia: Malay Peninsular.


Synonymy of Ectopioglossa keiseri nigra Giordani Soika, 1993 under Ectopioglossa keiseri van der Vecht, 1963 and description of male.

Ectopioglossa keiseri was described by van der Vecht (1963) based on a single female specimen (holotype) from Central Province of Ceylon [= Sri Lanka], which is housed on the Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel. He gave a detailed description of the characters of the holotype female, and no information on the male of this species has been added since then. Later, Giordani Soika (1993) examined specimens from Sri Lanka and Vietnam and gave a subspecific name, nigra, to the Vietnamese color form. The name, nigra Giordani Soika, 1993, as published in the trinomen Ectopioglossa keiseri nigra, is a primary junior homonym of nigra van der Vecht, 1963, as published in the trinomen Ectopioglossa samariensis nigra.

Giordani Soika (1993) stated [in translation] "The typical form, from Sri Lanka, differs from subspecies nigra by having the legs largely ferruginous and without yellow spots, by the presence of yellow spots on the mesepisternum and on the scutellum, and by the apical band of the first tergite that is wide at the sides and narrow in the middle." The Vietnamese specimens listed below show variation in all the characters

that Gordani Soika (1993) used to separate the two subspecies. Thus we synonymize Ectopioglossa keiseri nigra Giordani Soika with the nominate species.

Specimens examined. Son La: 1 female, Nam Pam, Muong La, alt. 660 m, 25.vii.2009, L.T.P. Nguyen, P.H Pham & J. Kojima; Vinh Phuc: 1 female, Ngoc Thanh, Me Linh, 11.x.2000, L.D Khuat; Hoa Binh: 1 female, 1 male, Lac Thinh, Yen Thuy, 2.V.2002, T.V. Hoang; 1 female, Da Phuc, Yen Thuy, 27.iv.2002, H.T. Dang; Gia Lai: 1 female, la Pal, Chu Se, 13[degrees]39'N, 108[degrees]08'E, alt. 369 m, 20.vii.2012, L.T.P. Nguyen.

Here we give the description of the male for the first time based on the following specimens. Description. Male [female characters in square brackets]: Body length about 9.5 mm [12-12.5 mm]; fore wing length about 8.5 mm [10-10.5 mm].

Head in frontal view about 1.1 X [slightly more than 1.0 X] as wide as high. Vertex slightly [distinctly] raised above the upper level of the eyes, without [with] the fovea. Eye much more strongly swollen laterally than in female; inner eye margins about 1.5 X [about 1.4 X] further apart from each other at vertex than at clypeus. Gena narrow [more or less wide], in lateral view about 0.3 X [slightly less than 0.5 X] as wide as eye. Clypeus in frontal view (Fig. 1) about as wide as high [slightly longer than wide (Fig. 2)], apical margin with two lateral blunt teeth [two lateral sharp teeth], in lateral view slightly convex [weakly swollen anteriorly in dorsal half]. Antenna (Fig. 3) with terminal flagellomere hooked, slightly curved and sharply point at apical tip [bullet shape (Fig. 4)].

Mesoscutum convex, about 0.9 X as long as wide between tegulae; anterior margin broadly rounded. Disc of scutellum flat, in profile at the same level as mesoscutum. Metanotum weakly convex. Propodeum short, shallowly excavated medially, the basal fovea about one third of the length of the median carina which runs from the fovea to the apical margin; lower half of the excavation on each side with three transverse rugae which are one third as long as the median carina; the transition from the convex dorsal areas to the lateral areas is gradual; apical spines sharp.

Metasoma except terminal two segments as in female. Apical margin of tergum 1 distinctly raised; apical margin of tertige 2 and 3 forming a conspicuously raised, thin lamella, which is separated from the segment by a deep groove. Metasomal sternum 7 normal, without tubercle.

Body surface sculpture as in female, except for densely-haired clypeus. Mandible with scattered shallow punctures. Frons and vertex up to level of posterior ocelli with fine punctures. Vertex behind posterior ocelli and gena with sparse fine punctures; spaces between punctures smooth. Pronotum with dense deep punctures; spaces between punctures smoth. Mesoscutum with punctures similar to those on pronotum. Scutellum and metanotum with sparse shallow small punctures, dorsal convex areas of propodeum even less distinctly punctate, strongly shiny, lateral areas of propodeum finely and superficially striate with some scattered punctures. Mesepisternum with sparse shallow large punctures. Dorsal metapleuron with strong striation; ventral metapleuron smooth. First metasomal segment with coarse and large punctures on the sides of the swollen part, in other part punctures smaller and less deep; second metasomal tergum with coarse and large puncture on the sides (nearly as large as those on the sides of the firstmetasomal segment), elsewhere with minute punctures in addition to scattered large punctures.

Color. Similar to female [body black, with following pale yellow markings: anterior surface of first antennal segment, two long longitudinal strips on sides of the clypeus (sometimes reduce to two spots), a dagger-shaped mark between the antennae, ending close to the anterior ocellus; a transversely oval spot in each eye-emargination, a short line in upper half of the temples, a narrow line at anterior margin of dorsal surface of the pronotum (narrowly interrupted in the middle), a subcircular spot on mesepisternum just below the tegulae, a small mark in anterior and posterior angles of tegulae, the posttegulae, two small spots on the scutellum (separated by a distance which is nearly twice their diameter), two spots at apex of propodeum (including the apical spines), a band at apex of gastral petiole (wide laterally, narrowed towards the middle and here narrowly interrupted, deeply incised anteriorly on each side close to the lateral margin)], but more extensively marked with pale yellow as follows: clypeus entirely, fore tibia largely.

Caption: Figs. 1-4. Eetopioglossa keiseri. Male: 1. Head in frontal view, 3. Left antenna. Female: 2. Head in frontal view, 4. Right antenna.


This research is funded by Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under grant number 106.12-2011.30 and Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology grant number VAST04.08/15-16 to L.T.P Nguyen.

Received 3 November 2013; accepted 5 February 2014

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Lien T. P. Nguyen (1), Hoa T. Dang (2), Jun-Ichi Kojima (3) and James M. Carpenter (4)

(1) Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Rd., Nghia Do, Cau giay, Hanoi, Vietnam. E-mail: (corresponding author)

(2) Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Rd., Nghia Do, Cau giay, Hanoi, Vietnam. E-mail:

(3) Natural History Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, 310-8512 Japan. E-mail:

(4) Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 U.S.A. E-mail:


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Author:Nguyen, Lien T.P.; Dang, Hoa T.; Kojima, Jun-Ichi; Carpenter, James M.
Publication:Entomologica Americana
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Geographic Code:9VIET
Date:Jan 1, 2014
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