An Ethnobotanical Study of the Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Inflammatory Remedies in Gampaha District, Western Province, Sri Lanka.
Inflammation is a pathophysiological response to injury, infection, or irritants and is characterized by heat, redness, pain, swelling, and disturbed function of the organs. Since ancient times, inflammatory disorders and related diseases have been treated with plants and plant-derived formulations . Over the last two decades, a significant amount of evidence has emerged indicating that chemically diverse classes of plant secondary metabolites are of potential interest for therapeutic interventions in several inflammatory diseases. A number of studies revealed the ability of plant extracts or plant secondary metabolites to control the levels of various inflammatory cytokines or inflammatory mediators including IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-[alpha] , NF-[kappa]B, NO, iNOS, COX-2 , and 5-LO .
Plants and their products have been systematically used in Sri Lanka for treating illnesses for over a thousand years. Among the native flora of Sri Lanka, more than 1400 plants are used in indigenous medicine , and a large number of plants are extensively used to alleviate the pathological conditions associated with inflammation . However, there has been a dearth of published information on ethnobotanical studies on anti-inflammatory remedies within the Sri Lankan context.
Four systems of traditional medicine have been adopted in Sri Lanka: Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and Deshiya Chikitsa. The Ayurveda and Deshiya Chikitsa systems use mainly plant and herbal preparations for the treatment of diseases . Different regions of the country have their unique traditional medicine systems (known as Deshiya Chikitsa) and practitioner pedigrees. Out of these different regions, Gampaha District is considered as the home for several well-known traditional practitioners in the country. Although the modern health care facilities are readily available in this area, traditional medicinal practices are quite popular and widely accepted by the people. Ten Ayurvedic hospitals governed under the Ministry of Indigenous Medicine are located within the district to meet this demand . Therefore, the study area for this research has a rich potential for utilization and consumption of medicinal plants. However, an in-depth study has not been pursued yet to assess the significance and contribution of medicinal plants/herbal therapeutics to the day-to-day life of the inhabitants of Gampaha District. In order to fill this gap in knowledge, the traditional medicinal uses of plants for inflammatory conditions have been documented in the form of an ethnobotanical inventory in order to assess the popularity and usage of medicinal plants in the study area.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area. Gampaha District is located in the Western Province of Sri Lanka (Figure 1) and has an area of 1,387 [km.sup.2]. The district is divided into 13 divisional secretariat divisions, which are further subdivided into 1,177 grama niladhari divisions. There are 1,784 villages, and the total population of the district is reported as 2,280,860 . According to the geographical location, this district belongs to the coastal plain and shows plain geographical characteristics in most of the areas and mountainous geographical characteristics in northern and eastern parts. The forest coverage of the district is estimated as 240.8 ha, and the district contains three isolated natural forest patches: Horagolla National Park, Maimbulkanda sanctuary, and Yakadawala forest reserve .
2.2. Ethnobotanical Field Survey and Data Collection. Ethnobotanical information in the study area about the use of plant species for the treatment of inflammatory conditions was documented from all thirteen divisional secretariat areas, that is, Attanagalla, Mirigama, Minuwangoda, Gampaha, Mahara, Dompe, Ja-Ela, Divulapitiya, Katana, Biyagama, Negombo, Wattala, and Kelaniya. This survey was carried out from December 2014 to December 2016, and the data were collected through semistructured and open-ended interviews using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was pretested by administering to a selected group of the population with a similar sociocultural background in different administrative districts of Sri Lanka. The random sampling method was used to recruit 458 volunteers from the general population of the district who were aged above 30 years. The participants were selected randomly from a list of households in each divisional secretariat area, and visits were made to each of those households for data collection. Written informed consent was obtained prior to the study. The number of informants for a species mentioning its uses was assessed and categorized. The questionnaire used to compile ethnobotanical information comprised the local name, source, part(s) used, method of traditional preparation, and demographic information of the informants such as age, gender, experience, and educational background.
The ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka (permit issued on 15/09/2014). Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics package version 20.
2.3. Plant Specimen Collection and Preservation. Plant species used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions were collected, dried, preserved, and mounted on herbarium sheets. Botanical names and families were verified using the book series titled "Flora of Sri Lanka" by one of the authors (MTN), who is a botanist. The botanical names have also been checked with the data available at http://www. theplantlist.org. The specimens were deposited at the Herbarium in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka.
2.4. Quantitative Analysis of the Ethnobotanical Information. The knowledge of medicinal plant usage was quantitatively assessed using the relative frequency of citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV), and use value (UV). The RFC and FIV were calculated to quantitatively determine the consensus between informants on the use of medicinal plants in the region as it gives the local importance of a species or a family. The RFC was calculated using the standard method of Vitalini et al.  and Savikin et al. :
RFC = [FC/N] (0 < RFC < 1). (1)
The value of RFC for species and families of medicinal plants is based on the citing percentage of informants for that particular species and plant family. FC is the number of informants who mentioned the species, while N is the total number of informants participating in the study.
The family importance value (FIV) was calculated by taking the percentage of informants mentioning the family:
FIV = [FC(family)/N] x 100, (2)
where FC is the number of informants mentioning the family, while N is the total number of informants participating in the study.
The use value demonstrates the relative importance of plant species known locally and was determined by the following formula [13, 14]:
[UV.sub.i] = [summation][U.sub.i]/[N.sub.i], (3)
where [U.sub.i] is the number of use reports described by each informer for species i, while Ni is the total number of informers describing the specific species i.
Out of the total participants, 232 (50.7%) claimed the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as fever, cough, asthma, joint pain, and swellings. 46.16% have mentioned the reason for their choice as their belief in the safety and low adverse effects associated with the herbal formulations. The majority of the users (65.91%) claimed that they use these herbal preparations at the initial stage of a disease before using any other medications, while 18.94% have mentioned the simultaneous usage of other medications. A considerable proportion (12.12%) claimed that the herbal therapeutics will be used as a last resort, when other treatment methods have failed. These people diagnose the inflammatory conditions by their signs and symptoms rather than specific laboratory tests. The knowledge of the herbal remedies had transferred through generations, while the media have also contributed in promoting the usage of herbal therapeutics (Table 1).
A total of 43 medicinal plants belonging to 28 plant families were mentioned, out of which Coriandrum sativum (RFC = 0.23) was the most cited species, followed by Coscinium fenestratum (RFC = 0.13) and Adhatoda vasica (RFC = 0.12). The most cited plant family was Fabaceae, and the family importance value was highest in Apiaceae (23.58%) (Table 2). The most dominant life form of the species reported includes herbs (39.5%) (Figure 2). The most frequently used plant part was leaves (33.3%) (Figure 3), followed by twigs/stems/barks/bulbs/rhizomes (26.7%). Medicinal plants used in folk herbal remedies were prepared and administered in various forms, and the most common preparation method was infusion (31.4%) (Figure 4). The percentage of oral administration (47%) of herbal preparation was almost higher than that of external or topical application (43.2%) and inhalation (9.8%). Most of the crude drugs were prepared from single plant species; however, combinations of multiple species were also reported, while some preparations were administered along with honey, sugar, sugar candy, salt, coconut oil, and so on. Although various commercial preparations of herbal origin were mentioned by some of the participants, these were not considered during the data analysis. The summary of the medicinal plant species used in Gampaha District to treat inflammatory conditions is given in Table 3.
Majority of the people belonging to the nonuser category (70.9%) had used some kind of herbal therapeutics at some stage of their lives and mentioned that the usage was discontinued due to the difficulty in preparation (24.69%) and collection of plant materials (22.22%). Other reasons that hindered the usage of herbal preparations have been identified as a relatively long period of time taken for healing and the unpleasant smell and the taste. Some of these people have mentioned that they do not have any faith as the effectiveness of the herbal formulations is not scientifically proven. Interestingly, 71.43% of the nonusers mentioned that they would shift to herbal products if the efficacy of these products could be scientifically validated.
Sri Lanka has a rich source of medicinal plants distributed in different geographical regions, and a large section of the Sri Lankan population still rely on traditional plant medicines that are abundantly available, economical, and believed to be of little or no side effects. Indigenous knowledge of the remedies has been transferred from one generation to the next through traditional healers, knowledgeable elders, or ordinary people, mostly without any written documents.
However, factors such as cultural change, particularly the influence of modernization, lack of written documents, deforestation, environmental degradation, and lack of interests shown by the younger generations impose a serious threat to the enhancement of existing knowledge and practices of medicinal plants. Thus, ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are urgently required to prevent the loss of valuable indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants. Furthermore, the importance of ethnobotanical research has been increasing, since potential sources of drugs could disappear in the future as a result of the rapid loss of biodiversity. This is the first report of an in-depth ethnobotanical study in Sri Lanka, and it enabled us to make some contribution in the preservation of the traditional systems of medicine by proper documentation and identification of specimens.
Owing to the high global prevalence of pathophysiological conditions linked with inflammation, a substantial number of ethnobotanical studies have specifically been focused on assessing the indigenous knowledge of traditional anti-inflammatory remedies. The study conducted in five local government areas in Ogun State of Nigeria has led to the identification of 83 different plant species that have been used in the management of inflammatory diseases . A total of 34 species in 32 genera and 22 families were encountered during the field study conducted to gather ethnobotanical information on traditional medicinal plants exclusively used for the management of inflammation-related ailments by the Khampti community of Arunachal Pradesh, India . Despite the wide utility of medicinal plants for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, surprisingly, no such studies have been conducted in Sri Lanka yet. Furthermore, there is a rich reserve of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants due to a large number of practitioners of traditional medicine; however, the scientific validation of theses traditional claims is still at its infancy.
The study revealed that the medicinal uses of some of the plant species mentioned by the participants have not been documented in the literature, for example, the usage of Calotropis gigantea for sprains/swellings and Strychnos potatorum for swellings in the joints. The medicinal plants with a higher frequency of citation as determined from the current study would signpost the probable existence of valuable phytochemical compounds, and it requires a search for prospective new drugs to cure many inflammatory disorders. Therefore, the effectiveness and the safety of the identified plants will be assessed by phytochemical and pharmacological investigations in the follow-up studies. Therefore, the present study based on indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants would contribute towards the national development agenda of the country, a subarea of the National Research and Development Framework (NRDF) in Sri Lanka .
However, there are certain limitations of the current study, which need to be improved to conduct a more comprehensive island-wide study in the future. For example, when the households were selected randomly from a list, households with strong beliefs on herbal medicine could have been overlooked as well as households who profusely refuse such remedies. Furthermore, only the people who can speak English or Sinhala have been recruited to this study; therefore, it may not represent the whole population of the country. If the above limitations could be overcome, then it would enable the documentation and preservation of indigenous knowledge of herbal medicine restricted among different segments of the Sri Lankan population.
This study reports the first ethnobotanical survey in Sri Lanka. Among 43 medicinal plants belonging to 28 reported plant families, Fabaceae was the most cited plant family. The most popular medicinal plants among the inhabitants in Gampaha District include Coriandrum sativum, Cosciniumfenestratum, and Adhatoda vasica. The investigations revealed that the indigenous herbal medicines are still common among the local communities, and even the nonusers are ready to shift to herbal products if systematic scientific information is available. Therefore, the present study signifies the necessity of the scientific validation of herbal remedies.
Abbreviations RFC: Relative frequency of citation FIV: Family importance value UV: Use value.
The ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka.
Written informed consent was obtained prior to the study.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article.
"Faculty of Medicine-Research Grant 2015" from the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka, is gratefully acknowledged.
 J. R. Vane and R. M. Bolting, "New insights into the mode of action of anti-inflammatory drugs," Inflammation Research, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 1-10, 1995.
 C. Bodet, V. D. La, F. Epifano, and D. Grenier, "Naringenin has anti-inflammatory properties in macrophage and ex vivo human whole-blood models," Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 400-407, 2008.
 J. B. Calixto, M. F. Otuki, and A. R. S. Santos, "Anti-inflammatory compounds of plant origin. Part I. Action on arachidonic acid pathway, nitric oxide and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B)," Planta Medica, vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 973-983, 2003.
 M. Napagoda, J. Gerstmeier, S. Wesely et al., "Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase as anti-inflammatory mode of action of Plectranthus zeylanicus Benth and chemical characterization of ingredients by a mass spectrometric approach," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 800-809, 2014.
 D. S. A. Wijesundera, "Inventory, documentation and medicinal plant research in Sri Lanka," Medicinal Plant Research in Asia, vol. 1, pp. 184-195, 2004.
 D. M. A. Jayaweera, Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon, National Science Council, Sri Lanka, 1982.
 P. B. Weragoda, "The traditional system on medicine in Sri Lanka," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 71-73, 1980.
 Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Indigenous Medicine, 2017, http://www.indigenousmedimini.gov.lk/Statistics.html.
 Department of Census & Statistics, Area of Sri Lanka by Province and District. Statistical Abstract 2011, Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka, 2011.
 P. M. Senarathna, Sri Lankawe Wananthara, Sarasavi Publishers, Sri Lanka, 1st edition, 2005.
 S. Vitalini, M. Iriti, C. Puricelli, D. Ciuchi, A. Segale, and G. Fico, "Traditional knowledge on medicinal and food plants used in Val San Giacomo (Sondrio, Italy)-an alpine ethnobotanical study," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 517-529, 2013.
 K. Savikin, G. Zdunic, N. Menkovic et al., "Ethnobotanical study on traditional use of medicinal plants in South-Western Serbia, Zlatibor district," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 803-810, 2013.
 O. Phillips and A. H. Gentry, "The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: I. Statistical hypotheses tests with a new quantitative technique," Economic Botany, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 15-32, 1993.
 J. N. Andriamparany, K. Brinkmann, V. Jeannoda, and A. Buerkert, "Effects of socio-economic household characteristics on traditional knowledge and usage of wild yams and medicinal plants in the Mahafaly region of south-western Madagascar," Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 82, 2014.
 O. O. Ogbole, A. A. Gbolade, and E. O. Ajaiyeoba, "Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in treatment of inflammatory diseases in Ogun State of Nigeria," European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 43, pp. 183-191, 2010.
 N. D. Namsa, H. Tag, M. Mandal, P. Kalita, and A. K. Das, "An ethnobotanical study of traditional anti-inflammatory plants used by the Lohit community of Arunachal Pradesh, India," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 234-245, 2009.
 Ministry of Science, Technology and Research, National Research and Development Framework National Science and Technology Commission, Ministry of Science, Technology and Research, Sri Lanka, 2014.
Mayuri Tharanga Napagoda (iD), (1) Thamudi Sundarapperuma, (2) Diroshi Fonseka, (2) Sachinthi Amarasiri, (2) and Prabath Gunaratna (2)
(1) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle 80000, Sri Lanka
(2) Allied Health Science Degree Programme, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle 80000, Sri Lanka
Correspondence should be addressed to Mayuri Tharanga Napagoda; email@example.com
Received 30 November 2017; Revised 18 February 2018; Accepted 15 March 2018; Published 3 June 2018
Academic Editor: Joshua Lambert
Caption: Figure 1: Location of Gampaha District.
Table 1: Statistics on the usage of herbal therapeutics as anti-inflammatory remedies. Parameter Percentage (%) 1. Demographic data of regular users 1.1. Gender Male 39.28 Female 60.72 1.2. Age group (years) 30-45 39.17 46-60 44.17 61-75 8.33 >75 8.33 1.3. Educational background University degree/diploma and above 12.18 Up to university entrance exam * 37.39 Ordinary-level education and below ** 46.95 No schooling 3.48 2. Source of information/knowledge From ancestors/family members 60.42 Neighbours/friends 13.89 Doctors/traditional physicians 7.64 Media 13.19 Own experience 4.86 3. Reason for usage Safe/less side effects 46.16 Previous success 35.67 Easy access to the plant materials 6.29 High cost of other treatment methods 3.49 Nonavailability of modern health care 0 facilities Failure of other treatment methods 8.39 * The highest educational qualification which can be obtained at school (13 years of school education); ** 1-11 years of school education. Table 2: Family importance value (FIV). Family FIV Acanthaceae 11.35 Amaryllidaceae 0.22 Apiaceae 23.58 Asclepiadaceae 0.22 Asphodelaceae 0.44 Bignoniaceae 0.87 Clusiaceae 0.44 Combretaceae 0.44 Crassulaceae 0.22 Cyperaceae 0.44 Euphorbiaceae 1.31 Fabaceae 3.49 Lamiaceae 0.44 Lauraceae 0.65 Loganiaceae 0.44 Malvaceae 0.87 Meliaceae 0.44 Menispermaceae 13.53 Molluginaceae 0.22 Moringaceae 0.87 Piperaceae 1.31 Poaceae 0.44 Rutaceae 13.32 Sapindaceae 0.22 Sapotaceae 0.87 Solanaceae 10.92 Verbenaceae 3.49 Zingiberaceae 12.23 Table 3: Medicinal plant species used in Gampaha District to treat inflammatory conditions. Family Scientific name Vernacular Life name form Acanthaceae Adhatoda vasica Adhathoda Shrub Nees Amaryllidaceae Allium sativum Sudulunu Herb L. Apiaceae Coriandrum Koththamalli Herb sativum L. Asclepiadaceae Calotropis Wara Shrub gigantea (L.) Dryand. Asphodelaceae Aloe vera (L.) Komarika Herb Burm.f. Bignoniaceae Oroxylum Thotila Tree indicum (L.) Kurz Clusiaceae Calophyllum Domba Tree inophyllum L. Combretaceae Terminalia Aralu Tree chebula Retz. Crassulaceae Kalanchoe Akkapana Herb laciniata (L.) DC. Cyperaceae Cyperus Kaladuru Herb rotundus L. Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus Nelli Tree emblica L. Ricinus Enderu Shrub communis L. Glycyrrhiza Welmi Herb glabra L. Pterocarpus Rath-handun Tree santalinus L.f. Fabaceae Tamarindus Siyabala Tree indica L. Desmodium Undupiyali Herb triflorum (L.) DC. Trigonella Uluhal Herb foenum-graecum L. Lamiaceae Plectranthus Iriweriya Herb zeylanicus Benth. Lauraceae Cinnamomum Kapuru Tree camphora (L.) J.Presl Litsea Bomi Tree glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob. Loganiaceae Strychnos Ingini Tree potatorum L.f. Malvaceae Sida acuta Babila Herb Burm.f. Meliaceae Azadirachta Kohomba Tree indica A.Juss. Coscinium Veniwelgata Woody climber fenestratum (Goetgh.) Colebr. Menispermaceae Tinospora Rasakida Climber cordifolia (Willd.) Miers Molluginaceae Mollugo Pathpadagum Herb cerviana (L.) Ser. Moringaceae Moringa Murunga Shrub oleifera Lam. Piperaceae Piper longum L. Thippili Herb Poaceae Eleusine indica Bela-tana Herb (L.) Gaertn. Aegle marmelos Beli Tree (L.) Correa Rutaceae Atalantia Yakinarang Shrub ceylanica (Arn.) Oliv. Citrus Embul-Dodam Tree aurantium L. Citrus Dehi Tree aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Sapindaceae Cardiospermum Wel-penela Climber halicacabum L. Sapotaceae Madhuca Mee Tree longifolia (J.Koenig ex L.) J.F.Macbr. Solanum Katuwelbatu Herb xanthocarpum Schrad. & H. Wendl. Solanaceae Solanum Ela-batu Herb surattense Burm. f. Solanum Wel-Thithbatu Shrub trilobatum L. Verbenaceae Lantana camara Gandapana Shrub L. Vitex negundo Nika Shrub L. Zingiberaceae Alpinia galanga Araththa Herb (L.) Willd. Zingiber Inguru Herb officinale Roscoe Curcuma Haran-kaha Herb zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe Family Scientific name Parts used Acanthaceae Adhatoda vasica Leaves, twigs, Nees roots Amaryllidaceae Allium sativum Bulbs L. Apiaceae Coriandrum Seeds sativum L. Asclepiadaceae Calotropis Whole plant gigantea (L.) Dryand. Asphodelaceae Aloe vera (L.) Leaves Burm.f. Bignoniaceae Oroxylum Barks indicum (L.) Kurz Clusiaceae Calophyllum Seeds inophyllum L. Combretaceae Terminalia Fruits chebula Retz. Crassulaceae Kalanchoe Leaves laciniata (L.) DC. Cyperaceae Cyperus Whole plant rotundus L. Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus Fruits emblica L. Ricinus Leaves communis L. Glycyrrhiza Twigs glabra L. Pterocarpus Stems santalinus L.f. Fabaceae Tamarindus Leaves indica L. Desmodium Leaves triflorum (L.) DC. Trigonella Seeds foenum-graecum L. Lamiaceae Plectranthus Roots zeylanicus Benth. Lauraceae Cinnamomum Fruits camphora (L.) J.Presl Litsea Barks glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob. Loganiaceae Strychnos Seeds potatorum L.f. Malvaceae Sida acuta Roots Burm.f. Meliaceae Azadirachta Leaves indica A.Juss. Coscinium Stems fenestratum (Goetgh.) Colebr. Menispermaceae Tinospora Stems cordifolia (Willd.) Miers Molluginaceae Mollugo Whole plant cerviana (L.) Ser. Moringaceae Moringa Barks oleifera Lam. Piperaceae Piper longum L. Fruit Poaceae Eleusine indica Whole plant (L.) Gaertn. Aegle marmelos Leaves, roots (L.) Correa Rutaceae Atalantia Leaves ceylanica (Arn.) Oliv. Citrus Fruits aurantium L. Citrus Leaves aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Sapindaceae Cardiospermum Whole plant halicacabum L. Sapotaceae Madhuca Seeds longifolia (J.Koenig ex L.) J.F.Macbr. Solanum Leaves xanthocarpum Schrad. & H. Wendl. Solanaceae Solanum Leaves surattense Burm. f. Solanum Leaves trilobatum L. Verbenaceae Lantana camara Leaves L. Vitex negundo Leaves L. Zingiberaceae Alpinia galanga Rhizome (L.) Willd. Zingiber Rhizomes officinale Roscoe Curcuma Rhizomes zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe Family Scientific name Preparation Acanthaceae Adhatoda vasica Infusion, Nees poultice Amaryllidaceae Allium sativum Infusion L. Apiaceae Coriandrum Infusion sativum L. Asclepiadaceae Calotropis Poultice gigantea (L.) Dryand. Asphodelaceae Aloe vera (L.) Paste Burm.f. Bignoniaceae Oroxylum Poultice indicum (L.) Kurz Clusiaceae Calophyllum Oil, poultice inophyllum L. Combretaceae Terminalia Powder chebula Retz. Crassulaceae Kalanchoe Infusion laciniata (L.) DC. Cyperaceae Cyperus Infusion rotundus L. Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus Poultice emblica L. Ricinus Poultice communis L. Glycyrrhiza Infusion glabra L. Pterocarpus Paste santalinus L.f. Fabaceae Tamarindus Paste indica L. Desmodium Paste triflorum (L.) DC. Trigonella Poultice foenum-graecum L. Lamiaceae Plectranthus Infusion, zeylanicus decoction Benth. Lauraceae Cinnamomum Oil camphora (L.) J.Presl Litsea Paste glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob. Loganiaceae Strychnos Paste potatorum L.f. Malvaceae Sida acuta Infusion, Burm.f. decoction Meliaceae Azadirachta Poultice indica A.Juss. Coscinium Infusion fenestratum (Goetgh.) Colebr. Menispermaceae Tinospora Infusion cordifolia (Willd.) Miers Molluginaceae Mollugo Infusion cerviana (L.) Ser. Moringaceae Moringa Infusion, oleifera Lam. poultice Piperaceae Piper longum L. Infusion, decoction Poaceae Eleusine indica Poultice (L.) Gaertn. Aegle marmelos Decoction (L.) Correa Rutaceae Atalantia Infusion, ceylanica smoke (Arn.) Oliv. Citrus Juice aurantium L. Citrus Smoke aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Sapindaceae Cardiospermum Infusion halicacabum L. Sapotaceae Madhuca Oil, poultice longifolia (J.Koenig ex L.) J.F.Macbr. Solanum Infusion xanthocarpum Schrad. & H. Wendl. Solanaceae Solanum Porridge, surattense smoke Burm. f. Solanum Porridge, trilobatum L. salad Verbenaceae Lantana camara Smoke L. Vitex negundo Smoke, paste L. Zingiberaceae Alpinia galanga Infusion (L.) Willd. Zingiber Infusion officinale Roscoe Curcuma Poultice zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe Family Scientific name Inflammatory RFC conditions treated Acanthaceae Adhatoda vasica Swellings in 0.12 Nees joints, cough, asthma, catarrh Amaryllidaceae Allium sativum Asthma 0.002 L. Apiaceae Coriandrum Cold, fever, 0.23 sativum L. asthma Asclepiadaceae Calotropis Sprains, 0.002 gigantea (L.) swellings Dryand. Asphodelaceae Aloe vera (L.) Cough, asthma 0.004 Burm.f. Bignoniaceae Oroxylum Swellings in 0.009 indicum (L.) joints Kurz Clusiaceae Calophyllum Swellings in 0.004 inophyllum L. joints Combretaceae Terminalia Fever 0.004 chebula Retz. Crassulaceae Kalanchoe Cough, asthma, 0.002 laciniata (L.) cold DC. Cyperaceae Cyperus Fever 0.004 rotundus L. Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus Redness and 0.004 emblica L. swellings in the eye Ricinus Headache, joint 0.009 communis L. pains, swellings Glycyrrhiza Catarrh, asthma 0.022 glabra L. Pterocarpus Headache, pain, 0.004 santalinus L.f. swellings in joints Fabaceae Tamarindus Swellings in 0.006 indica L. joints Desmodium Swellings in 0.004 triflorum (L.) joints DC. Trigonella Pain in joints 0.002 foenum-graecum L. Lamiaceae Plectranthus Fever 0.004 zeylanicus Benth. Lauraceae Cinnamomum Fever, 0.002 camphora (L.) swellings in J.Presl joints, asthma Litsea Swellings in 0.004 glutinosa joints (Lour.) C.B. Rob. Loganiaceae Strychnos Swellings in 0.004 potatorum L.f. joints Malvaceae Sida acuta Fever 0.009 Burm.f. Meliaceae Azadirachta Pain in joints 0.004 indica A.Juss. Coscinium Fever, cough, 0.13 fenestratum asthma (Goetgh.) Colebr. Menispermaceae Tinospora Fever 0.009 cordifolia (Willd.) Miers Molluginaceae Mollugo Fever, asthma 0.065 cerviana (L.) Ser. Moringaceae Moringa Asthma, 0.009 oleifera Lam. swellings in pain Piperaceae Piper longum L. Fever, asthma, 0.013 cough Poaceae Eleusine indica Swellings, 0.004 (L.) Gaertn. sprains Aegle marmelos Asthma, fever 0.009 (L.) Correa Rutaceae Atalantia Cough, cold, 0.01 ceylanica breathing (Arn.) Oliv. difficulties, asthma Citrus Cough, to draw 0.026 aurantium L. out phlegm Citrus Cough, headache 0.08 aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Sapindaceae Cardiospermum Swellings in 0.002 halicacabum L. joints Sapotaceae Madhuca Swellings and 0.009 longifolia pain in joints (J.Koenig ex L.) J.F.Macbr. Solanum Fever, cough, 0.087 xanthocarpum asthma Schrad. & H. Wendl. Solanaceae Solanum Cough, asthma 0.013 surattense Burm. f. Solanum Prolonged cough 0.009 trilobatum L. Verbenaceae Lantana camara Fever, cough, 0.009 L. asthma Vitex negundo Swellings in 0.026 L. joints, cough, asthma, fever Zingiberaceae Alpinia galanga Fever 0.026 (L.) Willd. Zingiber Fever, asthma, 0.092 officinale cough Roscoe Curcuma Swellings in 0.004 zedoaria joints (Christm.) Roscoe Family Scientific name UV Reported usage in the literature  Acanthaceae Adhatoda vasica 2.56 Diarrhea, Nees fever, asthma Amaryllidaceae Allium sativum 1.0 Asthma, gout L. Apiaceae Coriandrum 2.59 Inflammation sativum L. Asclepiadaceae Calotropis 1.0 Skin diseases, gigantea (L.) leprosy, Dryand. jaundice, sinus troubles Asphodelaceae Aloe vera (L.) 1.0 Cough Burm.f. Bignoniaceae Oroxylum 1.0 Rheumatic indicum (L.) swellings, Kurz fractures Clusiaceae Calophyllum 1.0 Chronic inophyllum L. rheumatism, swellings in joints Combretaceae Terminalia 1.0 Fever, eye chebula Retz. diseases, piles, chronic dysentery Crassulaceae Kalanchoe 1.5 Urinary laciniata (L.) diseases, DC. diarrhea, dysentery, cough, cold Cyperaceae Cyperus 1.0 Fever, rotundus L. bronchitis Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus 1.0 Inflammation in emblica L. the eye, gonorrhea, diarrhea, urinary diseases Ricinus 1.5 Headache, communis L. boils, rheumatism Glycyrrhiza 1.4 Laryngitis, glabra L. bronchitis Pterocarpus 1.5 Rheumatism, santalinus L.f. insect bites, headache Fabaceae Tamarindus 1.0 Boils, indica L. rheumatism Desmodium 1.0 Ulcers, triflorum (L.) dysentery, DC. inflammation Trigonella 1.0 Dyspepsia, foenum-graecum diarrhea, L. rheumatism Lamiaceae Plectranthus 1.0 Fever, cough, zeylanicus asthma Benth. Lauraceae Cinnamomum 1.5 Inflammation, camphora (L.) bruises, J.Presl sprains, whooping cough, asthma Litsea 1.0 Diarrhea, glutinosa dysentery, (Lour.) C.B. sprains, Rob. bruises, rheumatism Loganiaceae Strychnos 1.0 Eye diseases, potatorum L.f. diarrhea Malvaceae Sida acuta 1.0 Fever, Burm.f. impotency, rheumatism Meliaceae Azadirachta 1.0 Catarrh, indica A.Juss. leprosy and skin diseases, rheumatism, wounds, ulcers Coscinium 2.43 Fever, tetanus, fenestratum dressing (Goetgh.) wounds, ulcers Colebr. Menispermaceae Tinospora 1.0 Fever, skin cordifolia diseases, (Willd.) Miers diabetes, dysentery, rheumatism Molluginaceae Mollugo 1.63 Fever, skin cerviana (L.) diseases, Ser. gonorrhea Moringaceae Moringa 1.5 Asthma, gout, oleifera Lam. rheumatism, remedy for snakebite poisoning Piperaceae Piper longum L. 1.3 Fever, cough, bronchitis Poaceae Eleusine indica 1.5 Sprains and (L.) Gaertn. dislocations Aegle marmelos 1.5 Fever, asthma, (L.) Correa dysentery, piles, dyspepsia Rutaceae Atalantia 2.36 Catarrh, ceylanica bronchitis and (Arn.) Oliv. other chest complaints, lever Citrus 1.25 Chronic cough aurantium L. Citrus 1.11 Cough, aurantifolia stomachache, (Christm.) cleaning Swingle wounds, dysentery Sapindaceae Cardiospermum 1.0 Rheumatism, halicacabum L. dropsy, earache, bronchitis Sapotaceae Madhuca 1.5 Fractures, longifolia rheumatism, (J.Koenig ex snakebites L.) J.F.Macbr. Solanum 2.22 Cough, asthma, xanthocarpum colic fever, Schrad. & H. toothache Wendl. Solanaceae Solanum 1.67 Rheumatism, surattense cough, diarrhea Burm. f. Solanum 1.0 Cough trilobatum L. Verbenaceae Lantana camara 2.25 Asthma, fever, L. cough Vitex negundo 1.92 Rheumatic L. swellings, headache, catarrh, asthma Zingiberaceae Alpinia galanga 1.0 Rheumatism, (L.) Willd. bronchitis Zingiber 1.69 Cold, cough, officinale fever, asthma Roscoe Curcuma 1.0 Sprains, zedoaria dermatitis, (Christm.) wound healing Roscoe Family Scientific name Voucher specimen number Acanthaceae Adhatoda vasica MNWP-01 Nees Amaryllidaceae Allium sativum MNWP-02 L. Apiaceae Coriandrum MNWP-03 sativum L. Asclepiadaceae Calotropis MNWP-04 gigantea (L.) Dryand. Asphodelaceae Aloe vera (L.) MNWP-05 Burm.f. Bignoniaceae Oroxylum MNWP-06 indicum (L.) Kurz Clusiaceae Calophyllum MNWP-07 inophyllum L. Combretaceae Terminalia MNWP-08 chebula Retz. Crassulaceae Kalanchoe MNWP-09 laciniata (L.) DC. Cyperaceae Cyperus MNWP-10 rotundus L. Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus MNWP-11 emblica L. Ricinus MNWP-12 communis L. Glycyrrhiza MNWP-13 glabra L. Pterocarpus MNWP-14 santalinus L.f. Fabaceae Tamarindus MNWP-15 indica L. Desmodium MNWP-16 triflorum (L.) DC. Trigonella MNWP-17 foenum-graecum L. Lamiaceae Plectranthus MNWP-18 zeylanicus Benth. Lauraceae Cinnamomum MNWP-19 camphora (L.) J.Presl Litsea MNWP-20 glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob. Loganiaceae Strychnos MNWP-21 potatorum L.f. Malvaceae Sida acuta MNWP-22 Burm.f. Meliaceae Azadirachta MNWP-23 indica A.Juss. Coscinium MNWP-24 fenestratum (Goetgh.) Colebr. Menispermaceae Tinospora MNWP-25 cordifolia (Willd.) Miers Molluginaceae Mollugo MNWP-26 cerviana (L.) Ser. Moringaceae Moringa MNWP-27 oleifera Lam. Piperaceae Piper longum L. MNWP-28 Poaceae Eleusine indica MNWP-29 (L.) Gaertn. Aegle marmelos MNWP-30 (L.) Correa Rutaceae Atalantia MNWP-31 ceylanica (Arn.) Oliv. Citrus MNWP-32 aurantium L. Citrus MNWP-33 aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Sapindaceae Cardiospermum MNWP-34 halicacabum L. Sapotaceae Madhuca MNWP-35 longifolia (J.Koenig ex L.) J.F.Macbr. Solanum MNWP-36 xanthocarpum Schrad. & H. Wendl. Solanaceae Solanum MNWP-37 surattense Burm. f. Solanum MNWP-38 trilobatum L. Verbenaceae Lantana camara MNWP-39 L. Vitex negundo MNWP-40 L. Zingiberaceae Alpinia galanga MNWP-41 (L.) Willd. Zingiber MNWP-42 officinale Roscoe Curcuma MNWP-43 zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe Figure 2: Life form of the plants used as anti-inflammatory remedies. Herbs 39.5% Shrubs 18.6% Trees 32.6% Climbers 9.3% Note: Table made from pie chart. Figure 3: Plant parts used in herbal preparations. Leaves 33.3% Roots 6.7% Twigs/stems/barks 26.7% bulbs/rhizomes Seeds/fruits 22.2% Whole plant 11.1% Note: Table made from pie chart. Figure 4: Mode of utilization reported to treat inflammatory conditions. Infusion 31.4 Poultice 23.6 Paste 11.8 Smoke 9.8 Oil 7.8 Decoction 7.8 Others: powder, 7.8 porridge juice, and salad Note: Table made from pie chart.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||Napagoda, Mayuri Tharanga; Sundarapperuma, Thamudi; Fonseka, Diroshi; Amarasiri, Sachinthi; Gunaratn|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2018|
|Previous Article:||Effect of Soil Type and Foliar Factors on the Distribution of Imbrasia belina in the Southeastern Lowveld of Zimbabwe.|
|Next Article:||Convergence, Accommodation, Fusion, and Stereopsis: What Keeps the Eyes Aligned in Intermittent Exotropia?|