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An Ethnobotanical Study of the Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Inflammatory Remedies in Gampaha District, Western Province, Sri Lanka.

1. Introduction

Inflammation is a pathophysiological response to injury, infection, or irritants and is characterized by heat, redness, pain, swelling, and disturbed function of the organs. Since ancient times, inflammatory disorders and related diseases have been treated with plants and plant-derived formulations [1]. Over the last two decades, a significant amount of evidence has emerged indicating that chemically diverse classes of plant secondary metabolites are of potential interest for therapeutic interventions in several inflammatory diseases. A number of studies revealed the ability of plant extracts or plant secondary metabolites to control the levels of various inflammatory cytokines or inflammatory mediators including IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-[alpha] [2], NF-[kappa]B, NO, iNOS, COX-2 [3], and 5-LO [4].

Plants and their products have been systematically used in Sri Lanka for treating illnesses for over a thousand years. Among the native flora of Sri Lanka, more than 1400 plants are used in indigenous medicine [5], and a large number of plants are extensively used to alleviate the pathological conditions associated with inflammation [6]. However, there has been a dearth of published information on ethnobotanical studies on anti-inflammatory remedies within the Sri Lankan context.

Four systems of traditional medicine have been adopted in Sri Lanka: Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and Deshiya Chikitsa. The Ayurveda and Deshiya Chikitsa systems use mainly plant and herbal preparations for the treatment of diseases [7]. Different regions of the country have their unique traditional medicine systems (known as Deshiya Chikitsa) and practitioner pedigrees. Out of these different regions, Gampaha District is considered as the home for several well-known traditional practitioners in the country. Although the modern health care facilities are readily available in this area, traditional medicinal practices are quite popular and widely accepted by the people. Ten Ayurvedic hospitals governed under the Ministry of Indigenous Medicine are located within the district to meet this demand [8]. Therefore, the study area for this research has a rich potential for utilization and consumption of medicinal plants. However, an in-depth study has not been pursued yet to assess the significance and contribution of medicinal plants/herbal therapeutics to the day-to-day life of the inhabitants of Gampaha District. In order to fill this gap in knowledge, the traditional medicinal uses of plants for inflammatory conditions have been documented in the form of an ethnobotanical inventory in order to assess the popularity and usage of medicinal plants in the study area.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study Area. Gampaha District is located in the Western Province of Sri Lanka (Figure 1) and has an area of 1,387 [km.sup.2]. The district is divided into 13 divisional secretariat divisions, which are further subdivided into 1,177 grama niladhari divisions. There are 1,784 villages, and the total population of the district is reported as 2,280,860 [9]. According to the geographical location, this district belongs to the coastal plain and shows plain geographical characteristics in most of the areas and mountainous geographical characteristics in northern and eastern parts. The forest coverage of the district is estimated as 240.8 ha, and the district contains three isolated natural forest patches: Horagolla National Park, Maimbulkanda sanctuary, and Yakadawala forest reserve [10].

2.2. Ethnobotanical Field Survey and Data Collection. Ethnobotanical information in the study area about the use of plant species for the treatment of inflammatory conditions was documented from all thirteen divisional secretariat areas, that is, Attanagalla, Mirigama, Minuwangoda, Gampaha, Mahara, Dompe, Ja-Ela, Divulapitiya, Katana, Biyagama, Negombo, Wattala, and Kelaniya. This survey was carried out from December 2014 to December 2016, and the data were collected through semistructured and open-ended interviews using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was pretested by administering to a selected group of the population with a similar sociocultural background in different administrative districts of Sri Lanka. The random sampling method was used to recruit 458 volunteers from the general population of the district who were aged above 30 years. The participants were selected randomly from a list of households in each divisional secretariat area, and visits were made to each of those households for data collection. Written informed consent was obtained prior to the study. The number of informants for a species mentioning its uses was assessed and categorized. The questionnaire used to compile ethnobotanical information comprised the local name, source, part(s) used, method of traditional preparation, and demographic information of the informants such as age, gender, experience, and educational background.

The ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka (permit issued on 15/09/2014). Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics package version 20.

2.3. Plant Specimen Collection and Preservation. Plant species used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions were collected, dried, preserved, and mounted on herbarium sheets. Botanical names and families were verified using the book series titled "Flora of Sri Lanka" by one of the authors (MTN), who is a botanist. The botanical names have also been checked with the data available at http://www. theplantlist.org. The specimens were deposited at the Herbarium in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka.

2.4. Quantitative Analysis of the Ethnobotanical Information. The knowledge of medicinal plant usage was quantitatively assessed using the relative frequency of citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV), and use value (UV). The RFC and FIV were calculated to quantitatively determine the consensus between informants on the use of medicinal plants in the region as it gives the local importance of a species or a family. The RFC was calculated using the standard method of Vitalini et al. [11] and Savikin et al. [12]:

RFC = [FC/N] (0 < RFC < 1). (1)

The value of RFC for species and families of medicinal plants is based on the citing percentage of informants for that particular species and plant family. FC is the number of informants who mentioned the species, while N is the total number of informants participating in the study.

The family importance value (FIV) was calculated by taking the percentage of informants mentioning the family:

FIV = [FC(family)/N] x 100, (2)

where FC is the number of informants mentioning the family, while N is the total number of informants participating in the study.

The use value demonstrates the relative importance of plant species known locally and was determined by the following formula [13, 14]:

[UV.sub.i] = [summation][U.sub.i]/[N.sub.i], (3)

where [U.sub.i] is the number of use reports described by each informer for species i, while Ni is the total number of informers describing the specific species i.

3. Results

Out of the total participants, 232 (50.7%) claimed the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as fever, cough, asthma, joint pain, and swellings. 46.16% have mentioned the reason for their choice as their belief in the safety and low adverse effects associated with the herbal formulations. The majority of the users (65.91%) claimed that they use these herbal preparations at the initial stage of a disease before using any other medications, while 18.94% have mentioned the simultaneous usage of other medications. A considerable proportion (12.12%) claimed that the herbal therapeutics will be used as a last resort, when other treatment methods have failed. These people diagnose the inflammatory conditions by their signs and symptoms rather than specific laboratory tests. The knowledge of the herbal remedies had transferred through generations, while the media have also contributed in promoting the usage of herbal therapeutics (Table 1).

A total of 43 medicinal plants belonging to 28 plant families were mentioned, out of which Coriandrum sativum (RFC = 0.23) was the most cited species, followed by Coscinium fenestratum (RFC = 0.13) and Adhatoda vasica (RFC = 0.12). The most cited plant family was Fabaceae, and the family importance value was highest in Apiaceae (23.58%) (Table 2). The most dominant life form of the species reported includes herbs (39.5%) (Figure 2). The most frequently used plant part was leaves (33.3%) (Figure 3), followed by twigs/stems/barks/bulbs/rhizomes (26.7%). Medicinal plants used in folk herbal remedies were prepared and administered in various forms, and the most common preparation method was infusion (31.4%) (Figure 4). The percentage of oral administration (47%) of herbal preparation was almost higher than that of external or topical application (43.2%) and inhalation (9.8%). Most of the crude drugs were prepared from single plant species; however, combinations of multiple species were also reported, while some preparations were administered along with honey, sugar, sugar candy, salt, coconut oil, and so on. Although various commercial preparations of herbal origin were mentioned by some of the participants, these were not considered during the data analysis. The summary of the medicinal plant species used in Gampaha District to treat inflammatory conditions is given in Table 3.

Majority of the people belonging to the nonuser category (70.9%) had used some kind of herbal therapeutics at some stage of their lives and mentioned that the usage was discontinued due to the difficulty in preparation (24.69%) and collection of plant materials (22.22%). Other reasons that hindered the usage of herbal preparations have been identified as a relatively long period of time taken for healing and the unpleasant smell and the taste. Some of these people have mentioned that they do not have any faith as the effectiveness of the herbal formulations is not scientifically proven. Interestingly, 71.43% of the nonusers mentioned that they would shift to herbal products if the efficacy of these products could be scientifically validated.

4. Discussion

Sri Lanka has a rich source of medicinal plants distributed in different geographical regions, and a large section of the Sri Lankan population still rely on traditional plant medicines that are abundantly available, economical, and believed to be of little or no side effects. Indigenous knowledge of the remedies has been transferred from one generation to the next through traditional healers, knowledgeable elders, or ordinary people, mostly without any written documents.

However, factors such as cultural change, particularly the influence of modernization, lack of written documents, deforestation, environmental degradation, and lack of interests shown by the younger generations impose a serious threat to the enhancement of existing knowledge and practices of medicinal plants. Thus, ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are urgently required to prevent the loss of valuable indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants. Furthermore, the importance of ethnobotanical research has been increasing, since potential sources of drugs could disappear in the future as a result of the rapid loss of biodiversity. This is the first report of an in-depth ethnobotanical study in Sri Lanka, and it enabled us to make some contribution in the preservation of the traditional systems of medicine by proper documentation and identification of specimens.

Owing to the high global prevalence of pathophysiological conditions linked with inflammation, a substantial number of ethnobotanical studies have specifically been focused on assessing the indigenous knowledge of traditional anti-inflammatory remedies. The study conducted in five local government areas in Ogun State of Nigeria has led to the identification of 83 different plant species that have been used in the management of inflammatory diseases [15]. A total of 34 species in 32 genera and 22 families were encountered during the field study conducted to gather ethnobotanical information on traditional medicinal plants exclusively used for the management of inflammation-related ailments by the Khampti community of Arunachal Pradesh, India [16]. Despite the wide utility of medicinal plants for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, surprisingly, no such studies have been conducted in Sri Lanka yet. Furthermore, there is a rich reserve of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants due to a large number of practitioners of traditional medicine; however, the scientific validation of theses traditional claims is still at its infancy.

The study revealed that the medicinal uses of some of the plant species mentioned by the participants have not been documented in the literature, for example, the usage of Calotropis gigantea for sprains/swellings and Strychnos potatorum for swellings in the joints. The medicinal plants with a higher frequency of citation as determined from the current study would signpost the probable existence of valuable phytochemical compounds, and it requires a search for prospective new drugs to cure many inflammatory disorders. Therefore, the effectiveness and the safety of the identified plants will be assessed by phytochemical and pharmacological investigations in the follow-up studies. Therefore, the present study based on indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants would contribute towards the national development agenda of the country, a subarea of the National Research and Development Framework (NRDF) in Sri Lanka [17].

However, there are certain limitations of the current study, which need to be improved to conduct a more comprehensive island-wide study in the future. For example, when the households were selected randomly from a list, households with strong beliefs on herbal medicine could have been overlooked as well as households who profusely refuse such remedies. Furthermore, only the people who can speak English or Sinhala have been recruited to this study; therefore, it may not represent the whole population of the country. If the above limitations could be overcome, then it would enable the documentation and preservation of indigenous knowledge of herbal medicine restricted among different segments of the Sri Lankan population.

5. Conclusion

This study reports the first ethnobotanical survey in Sri Lanka. Among 43 medicinal plants belonging to 28 reported plant families, Fabaceae was the most cited plant family. The most popular medicinal plants among the inhabitants in Gampaha District include Coriandrum sativum, Cosciniumfenestratum, and Adhatoda vasica. The investigations revealed that the indigenous herbal medicines are still common among the local communities, and even the nonusers are ready to shift to herbal products if systematic scientific information is available. Therefore, the present study signifies the necessity of the scientific validation of herbal remedies.
Abbreviations

RFC: Relative frequency of citation
FIV: Family importance value
UV:  Use value.


https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9395052

Ethical Approval

The ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka.

Consent

Written informed consent was obtained prior to the study.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Acknowledgments

"Faculty of Medicine-Research Grant 2015" from the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka, is gratefully acknowledged.

References

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[2] C. Bodet, V. D. La, F. Epifano, and D. Grenier, "Naringenin has anti-inflammatory properties in macrophage and ex vivo human whole-blood models," Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 400-407, 2008.

[3] J. B. Calixto, M. F. Otuki, and A. R. S. Santos, "Anti-inflammatory compounds of plant origin. Part I. Action on arachidonic acid pathway, nitric oxide and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B)," Planta Medica, vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 973-983, 2003.

[4] M. Napagoda, J. Gerstmeier, S. Wesely et al., "Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase as anti-inflammatory mode of action of Plectranthus zeylanicus Benth and chemical characterization of ingredients by a mass spectrometric approach," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 800-809, 2014.

[5] D. S. A. Wijesundera, "Inventory, documentation and medicinal plant research in Sri Lanka," Medicinal Plant Research in Asia, vol. 1, pp. 184-195, 2004.

[6] D. M. A. Jayaweera, Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon, National Science Council, Sri Lanka, 1982.

[7] P. B. Weragoda, "The traditional system on medicine in Sri Lanka," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 71-73, 1980.

[8] Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Indigenous Medicine, 2017, http://www.indigenousmedimini.gov.lk/Statistics.html.

[9] Department of Census & Statistics, Area of Sri Lanka by Province and District. Statistical Abstract 2011, Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka, 2011.

[10] P. M. Senarathna, Sri Lankawe Wananthara, Sarasavi Publishers, Sri Lanka, 1st edition, 2005.

[11] S. Vitalini, M. Iriti, C. Puricelli, D. Ciuchi, A. Segale, and G. Fico, "Traditional knowledge on medicinal and food plants used in Val San Giacomo (Sondrio, Italy)-an alpine ethnobotanical study," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 517-529, 2013.

[12] K. Savikin, G. Zdunic, N. Menkovic et al., "Ethnobotanical study on traditional use of medicinal plants in South-Western Serbia, Zlatibor district," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 803-810, 2013.

[13] O. Phillips and A. H. Gentry, "The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: I. Statistical hypotheses tests with a new quantitative technique," Economic Botany, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 15-32, 1993.

[14] J. N. Andriamparany, K. Brinkmann, V. Jeannoda, and A. Buerkert, "Effects of socio-economic household characteristics on traditional knowledge and usage of wild yams and medicinal plants in the Mahafaly region of south-western Madagascar," Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 82, 2014.

[15] O. O. Ogbole, A. A. Gbolade, and E. O. Ajaiyeoba, "Ethnobotanical survey of plants used in treatment of inflammatory diseases in Ogun State of Nigeria," European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 43, pp. 183-191, 2010.

[16] N. D. Namsa, H. Tag, M. Mandal, P. Kalita, and A. K. Das, "An ethnobotanical study of traditional anti-inflammatory plants used by the Lohit community of Arunachal Pradesh, India," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 234-245, 2009.

[17] Ministry of Science, Technology and Research, National Research and Development Framework National Science and Technology Commission, Ministry of Science, Technology and Research, Sri Lanka, 2014.

Mayuri Tharanga Napagoda (iD), (1) Thamudi Sundarapperuma, (2) Diroshi Fonseka, (2) Sachinthi Amarasiri, (2) and Prabath Gunaratna (2)

(1) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle 80000, Sri Lanka

(2) Allied Health Science Degree Programme, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle 80000, Sri Lanka

Correspondence should be addressed to Mayuri Tharanga Napagoda; mayurinapagoda@yahoo.com

Received 30 November 2017; Revised 18 February 2018; Accepted 15 March 2018; Published 3 June 2018

Academic Editor: Joshua Lambert

Caption: Figure 1: Location of Gampaha District.
Table 1: Statistics on the usage of herbal therapeutics
as anti-inflammatory remedies.

Parameter                                     Percentage
                                                  (%)

1. Demographic data of regular users
1.1. Gender
  Male                                           39.28
  Female                                         60.72
1.2. Age group (years)
  30-45                                          39.17
  46-60                                          44.17
  61-75                                          8.33
  >75                                            8.33
1.3. Educational background
  University degree/diploma and above            12.18
  Up to university entrance exam *               37.39
  Ordinary-level education and below **          46.95
  No schooling                                   3.48

2. Source of information/knowledge
  From ancestors/family members                  60.42
  Neighbours/friends                             13.89
  Doctors/traditional physicians                 7.64
  Media                                          13.19
  Own experience                                 4.86

3. Reason for usage
  Safe/less side effects                         46.16
  Previous success                               35.67
  Easy access to the plant materials             6.29
  High cost of other treatment methods           3.49
  Nonavailability of modern health care            0
    facilities
  Failure of other treatment methods             8.39

* The highest educational qualification which can be obtained at
school (13 years of school education); ** 1-11 years of school
education.

Table 2: Family importance value (FIV).

Family               FIV

Acanthaceae         11.35
Amaryllidaceae      0.22
Apiaceae            23.58
Asclepiadaceae      0.22
Asphodelaceae       0.44
Bignoniaceae        0.87
Clusiaceae          0.44
Combretaceae        0.44
Crassulaceae        0.22
Cyperaceae          0.44
Euphorbiaceae       1.31
Fabaceae            3.49
Lamiaceae           0.44
Lauraceae           0.65
Loganiaceae         0.44
Malvaceae           0.87
Meliaceae           0.44
Menispermaceae      13.53
Molluginaceae       0.22
Moringaceae         0.87
Piperaceae          1.31
Poaceae             0.44
Rutaceae            13.32
Sapindaceae         0.22
Sapotaceae          0.87
Solanaceae          10.92
Verbenaceae         3.49
Zingiberaceae       12.23

Table 3: Medicinal plant species used in Gampaha District to treat
inflammatory conditions.

Family             Scientific name     Vernacular           Life
                                           name             form

Acanthaceae        Adhatoda vasica      Adhathoda          Shrub
                        Nees

Amaryllidaceae     Allium sativum        Sudulunu           Herb
                         L.

Apiaceae             Coriandrum        Koththamalli         Herb
                     sativum L.

Asclepiadaceae       Calotropis            Wara            Shrub
                    gigantea (L.)
                       Dryand.

Asphodelaceae      Aloe vera (L.)        Komarika           Herb
                       Burm.f.

Bignoniaceae          Oroxylum           Thotila            Tree
                    indicum (L.)
                        Kurz

Clusiaceae           Calophyllum          Domba             Tree
                    inophyllum L.

Combretaceae         Terminalia           Aralu             Tree
                    chebula Retz.

Crassulaceae          Kalanchoe          Akkapana           Herb
                   laciniata (L.)
                         DC.

Cyperaceae             Cyperus           Kaladuru           Herb
                     rotundus L.

Euphorbiaceae        Phyllanthus          Nelli             Tree
                     emblica L.

                       Ricinus            Enderu           Shrub
                     communis L.

                     Glycyrrhiza          Welmi             Herb
                      glabra L.

                     Pterocarpus       Rath-handun          Tree
                   santalinus L.f.

Fabaceae             Tamarindus          Siyabala           Tree
                      indica L.

                      Desmodium         Undupiyali          Herb
                   triflorum (L.)
                         DC.

                     Trigonella           Uluhal            Herb
                   foenum-graecum
                         L.

Lamiaceae           Plectranthus        Iriweriya           Herb
                     zeylanicus
                       Benth.

Lauraceae            Cinnamomum           Kapuru            Tree
                    camphora (L.)
                       J.Presl

                       Litsea              Bomi             Tree
                      glutinosa
                    (Lour.) C.B.
                        Rob.

Loganiaceae           Strychnos           Ingini            Tree
                   potatorum L.f.

Malvaceae            Sida acuta           Babila            Herb
                       Burm.f.

Meliaceae            Azadirachta         Kohomba            Tree
                   indica A.Juss.

                      Coscinium        Veniwelgata     Woody climber
                     fenestratum
                      (Goetgh.)
                       Colebr.

Menispermaceae        Tinospora          Rasakida         Climber
                     cordifolia
                   (Willd.) Miers

Molluginaceae          Mollugo         Pathpadagum          Herb
                    cerviana (L.)
                        Ser.

Moringaceae            Moringa           Murunga           Shrub
                    oleifera Lam.

Piperaceae         Piper longum L.       Thippili           Herb

Poaceae            Eleusine indica      Bela-tana           Herb
                    (L.) Gaertn.

                   Aegle marmelos          Beli             Tree
                     (L.) Correa

Rutaceae              Atalantia         Yakinarang         Shrub
                      ceylanica
                    (Arn.) Oliv.

                       Citrus          Embul-Dodam          Tree
                    aurantium L.

                       Citrus              Dehi             Tree
                    aurantifolia
                     (Christm.)
                       Swingle

Sapindaceae         Cardiospermum       Wel-penela        Climber
                   halicacabum L.

Sapotaceae             Madhuca             Mee              Tree
                     longifolia
                    (J.Koenig ex
                   L.) J.F.Macbr.

                       Solanum         Katuwelbatu          Herb
                    xanthocarpum
                    Schrad. & H.
                       Wendl.

Solanaceae             Solanum           Ela-batu           Herb
                     surattense
                      Burm. f.

                       Solanum        Wel-Thithbatu        Shrub
                    trilobatum L.

Verbenaceae        Lantana camara       Gandapana          Shrub
                         L.

                    Vitex negundo          Nika            Shrub
                         L.

Zingiberaceae      Alpinia galanga       Araththa           Herb
                     (L.) Willd.

                      Zingiber            Inguru            Herb
                     officinale
                       Roscoe

                       Curcuma          Haran-kaha          Herb
                      zedoaria
                     (Christm.)
                       Roscoe

Family             Scientific name      Parts used

Acanthaceae        Adhatoda vasica    Leaves, twigs,
                        Nees               roots

Amaryllidaceae     Allium sativum          Bulbs
                         L.

Apiaceae             Coriandrum            Seeds
                     sativum L.

Asclepiadaceae       Calotropis         Whole plant
                    gigantea (L.)
                       Dryand.

Asphodelaceae      Aloe vera (L.)         Leaves
                       Burm.f.

Bignoniaceae          Oroxylum             Barks
                    indicum (L.)
                        Kurz

Clusiaceae           Calophyllum           Seeds
                    inophyllum L.

Combretaceae         Terminalia           Fruits
                    chebula Retz.

Crassulaceae          Kalanchoe           Leaves
                   laciniata (L.)
                         DC.

Cyperaceae             Cyperus          Whole plant
                     rotundus L.

Euphorbiaceae        Phyllanthus          Fruits
                     emblica L.

                       Ricinus            Leaves
                     communis L.

                     Glycyrrhiza           Twigs
                      glabra L.

                     Pterocarpus           Stems
                   santalinus L.f.

Fabaceae             Tamarindus           Leaves
                      indica L.

                      Desmodium           Leaves
                   triflorum (L.)
                         DC.

                     Trigonella            Seeds
                   foenum-graecum
                         L.

Lamiaceae           Plectranthus           Roots
                     zeylanicus
                       Benth.

Lauraceae            Cinnamomum           Fruits
                    camphora (L.)
                       J.Presl

                       Litsea              Barks
                      glutinosa
                    (Lour.) C.B.
                        Rob.

Loganiaceae           Strychnos            Seeds

                   potatorum L.f.

Malvaceae            Sida acuta            Roots
                       Burm.f.

Meliaceae            Azadirachta          Leaves
                   indica A.Juss.

                      Coscinium            Stems
                     fenestratum
                      (Goetgh.)
                       Colebr.

Menispermaceae        Tinospora            Stems
                     cordifolia
                   (Willd.) Miers

Molluginaceae          Mollugo          Whole plant
                    cerviana (L.)
                        Ser.

Moringaceae            Moringa             Barks
                    oleifera Lam.

Piperaceae         Piper longum L.         Fruit

Poaceae            Eleusine indica      Whole plant
                    (L.) Gaertn.

                   Aegle marmelos      Leaves, roots
                     (L.) Correa

Rutaceae              Atalantia           Leaves
                      ceylanica
                    (Arn.) Oliv.

                       Citrus             Fruits
                    aurantium L.

                       Citrus             Leaves
                    aurantifolia
                     (Christm.)
                       Swingle

Sapindaceae         Cardiospermum       Whole plant
                   halicacabum L.

Sapotaceae             Madhuca             Seeds
                     longifolia
                    (J.Koenig ex
                   L.) J.F.Macbr.

                       Solanum            Leaves
                    xanthocarpum
                    Schrad. & H.
                       Wendl.

Solanaceae             Solanum            Leaves
                     surattense
                      Burm. f.

                       Solanum            Leaves
                    trilobatum L.

Verbenaceae        Lantana camara         Leaves
                         L.

                    Vitex negundo         Leaves
                         L.

Zingiberaceae      Alpinia galanga        Rhizome
                     (L.) Willd.

                      Zingiber           Rhizomes
                     officinale
                       Roscoe

                       Curcuma           Rhizomes
                      zedoaria
                     (Christm.)
                       Roscoe

Family             Scientific name     Preparation

Acanthaceae        Adhatoda vasica      Infusion,
                        Nees             poultice

Amaryllidaceae     Allium sativum        Infusion
                         L.

Apiaceae             Coriandrum          Infusion
                     sativum L.

Asclepiadaceae       Calotropis          Poultice
                    gigantea (L.)
                       Dryand.

Asphodelaceae      Aloe vera (L.)         Paste
                       Burm.f.

Bignoniaceae          Oroxylum           Poultice
                    indicum (L.)
                        Kurz

Clusiaceae           Calophyllum      Oil, poultice
                    inophyllum L.

Combretaceae         Terminalia           Powder
                    chebula Retz.

Crassulaceae          Kalanchoe          Infusion
                   laciniata (L.)
                         DC.

Cyperaceae             Cyperus           Infusion
                     rotundus L.

Euphorbiaceae        Phyllanthus         Poultice
                     emblica L.

                       Ricinus           Poultice
                     communis L.

                     Glycyrrhiza         Infusion
                      glabra L.

                     Pterocarpus          Paste
                   santalinus L.f.

Fabaceae             Tamarindus           Paste
                      indica L.

                      Desmodium           Paste
                   triflorum (L.)
                         DC.

                     Trigonella          Poultice
                   foenum-graecum
                         L.

Lamiaceae           Plectranthus        Infusion,
                     zeylanicus         decoction
                       Benth.

Lauraceae            Cinnamomum            Oil
                    camphora (L.)
                       J.Presl

                       Litsea             Paste
                      glutinosa
                    (Lour.) C.B.
                        Rob.

Loganiaceae           Strychnos           Paste
                   potatorum L.f.

Malvaceae            Sida acuta         Infusion,
                       Burm.f.          decoction

Meliaceae            Azadirachta         Poultice
                   indica A.Juss.

                      Coscinium          Infusion
                     fenestratum
                      (Goetgh.)
                       Colebr.

Menispermaceae        Tinospora          Infusion
                     cordifolia
                   (Willd.) Miers

Molluginaceae          Mollugo           Infusion
                    cerviana (L.)
                        Ser.

Moringaceae            Moringa          Infusion,
                    oleifera Lam.        poultice

Piperaceae         Piper longum L.      Infusion,
                                        decoction

Poaceae            Eleusine indica       Poultice
                    (L.) Gaertn.

                   Aegle marmelos       Decoction
                     (L.) Correa

Rutaceae              Atalantia         Infusion,
                      ceylanica           smoke
                    (Arn.) Oliv.

                       Citrus             Juice
                    aurantium L.

                       Citrus             Smoke
                    aurantifolia
                     (Christm.)
                       Swingle

Sapindaceae         Cardiospermum        Infusion
                   halicacabum L.

Sapotaceae             Madhuca        Oil, poultice
                     longifolia
                    (J.Koenig ex
                   L.) J.F.Macbr.

                       Solanum           Infusion
                    xanthocarpum
                    Schrad. & H.
                       Wendl.

Solanaceae             Solanum          Porridge,
                     surattense           smoke
                      Burm. f.

                       Solanum          Porridge,
                    trilobatum L.         salad

Verbenaceae        Lantana camara         Smoke
                         L.

                    Vitex negundo      Smoke, paste
                         L.

Zingiberaceae      Alpinia galanga       Infusion
                     (L.) Willd.

                      Zingiber           Infusion
                     officinale
                       Roscoe

                       Curcuma           Poultice
                      zedoaria
                     (Christm.)
                       Roscoe

Family             Scientific name      Inflammatory       RFC
                                         conditions
                                           treated

Acanthaceae        Adhatoda vasica      Swellings in      0.12
                        Nees           joints, cough,
                                       asthma, catarrh

Amaryllidaceae     Allium sativum          Asthma         0.002
                         L.

Apiaceae             Coriandrum         Cold, fever,      0.23
                     sativum L.            asthma

Asclepiadaceae       Calotropis           Sprains,        0.002
                    gigantea (L.)         swellings
                       Dryand.

Asphodelaceae      Aloe vera (L.)       Cough, asthma     0.004
                       Burm.f.

Bignoniaceae          Oroxylum          Swellings in      0.009
                    indicum (L.)           joints
                        Kurz

Clusiaceae           Calophyllum        Swellings in      0.004
                    inophyllum L.          joints

Combretaceae         Terminalia             Fever         0.004
                    chebula Retz.

Crassulaceae          Kalanchoe        Cough, asthma,     0.002
                   laciniata (L.)           cold
                         DC.

Cyperaceae             Cyperus              Fever         0.004
                     rotundus L.

Euphorbiaceae        Phyllanthus         Redness and      0.004
                     emblica L.         swellings in
                                           the eye

                       Ricinus         Headache, joint    0.009
                     communis L.           pains,
                                          swellings

                     Glycyrrhiza       Catarrh, asthma    0.022
                      glabra L.

                     Pterocarpus       Headache, pain,    0.004
                   santalinus L.f.      swellings in
                                           joints

Fabaceae             Tamarindus         Swellings in      0.006
                      indica L.            joints

                      Desmodium         Swellings in      0.004
                   triflorum (L.)          joints
                         DC.

                     Trigonella        Pain in joints     0.002
                   foenum-graecum
                         L.

Lamiaceae           Plectranthus            Fever         0.004
                     zeylanicus
                       Benth.

Lauraceae            Cinnamomum            Fever,         0.002
                    camphora (L.)       swellings in
                       J.Presl         joints, asthma

                       Litsea           Swellings in      0.004
                      glutinosa            joints
                    (Lour.) C.B.
                        Rob.

Loganiaceae           Strychnos         Swellings in      0.004
                   potatorum L.f.          joints

Malvaceae            Sida acuta             Fever         0.009
                       Burm.f.

Meliaceae            Azadirachta       Pain in joints     0.004
                   indica A.Juss.

                      Coscinium         Fever, cough,     0.13
                     fenestratum           asthma
                      (Goetgh.)
                       Colebr.

Menispermaceae        Tinospora             Fever         0.009
                     cordifolia
                   (Willd.) Miers

Molluginaceae          Mollugo          Fever, asthma     0.065
                    cerviana (L.)
                        Ser.

Moringaceae            Moringa             Asthma,        0.009
                    oleifera Lam.       swellings in
                                            pain

Piperaceae         Piper longum L.     Fever, asthma,     0.013
                                            cough

Poaceae            Eleusine indica       Swellings,       0.004
                    (L.) Gaertn.           sprains

                   Aegle marmelos       Asthma, fever     0.009
                     (L.) Correa

Rutaceae              Atalantia         Cough, cold,      0.01
                      ceylanica           breathing
                    (Arn.) Oliv.        difficulties,
                                           asthma

                       Citrus          Cough, to draw     0.026
                    aurantium L.         out phlegm

                       Citrus          Cough, headache    0.08
                    aurantifolia
                     (Christm.)
                       Swingle

Sapindaceae         Cardiospermum       Swellings in      0.002
                   halicacabum L.          joints

Sapotaceae             Madhuca          Swellings and     0.009
                     longifolia        pain in joints
                    (J.Koenig ex
                   L.) J.F.Macbr.

                       Solanum          Fever, cough,     0.087
                    xanthocarpum           asthma
                    Schrad. & H.
                       Wendl.

Solanaceae             Solanum          Cough, asthma     0.013
                     surattense
                      Burm. f.

                       Solanum         Prolonged cough    0.009
                    trilobatum L.

Verbenaceae        Lantana camara       Fever, cough,     0.009
                         L.                asthma

                    Vitex negundo       Swellings in      0.026
                         L.            joints, cough,
                                        asthma, fever

Zingiberaceae      Alpinia galanga          Fever         0.026
                     (L.) Willd.

                      Zingiber         Fever, asthma,     0.092
                     officinale             cough
                       Roscoe

                       Curcuma          Swellings in      0.004
                      zedoaria             joints
                     (Christm.)
                       Roscoe

Family             Scientific name     UV     Reported usage
                                                  in the
                                              literature [6]

Acanthaceae        Adhatoda vasica    2.56       Diarrhea,
                        Nees                   fever, asthma

Amaryllidaceae     Allium sativum     1.0      Asthma, gout
                         L.

Apiaceae             Coriandrum       2.59     Inflammation
                     sativum L.

Asclepiadaceae       Calotropis       1.0     Skin diseases,
                    gigantea (L.)                leprosy,
                       Dryand.                jaundice, sinus
                                                 troubles

Asphodelaceae      Aloe vera (L.)     1.0          Cough
                       Burm.f.

Bignoniaceae          Oroxylum        1.0        Rheumatic
                    indicum (L.)                swellings,
                        Kurz                     fractures

Clusiaceae           Calophyllum      1.0         Chronic
                    inophyllum L.               rheumatism,
                                               swellings in
                                                  joints

Combretaceae         Terminalia       1.0       Fever, eye
                    chebula Retz.                diseases,
                                              piles, chronic
                                                 dysentery

Crassulaceae          Kalanchoe       1.5         Urinary
                   laciniata (L.)                diseases,
                         DC.                     diarrhea,
                                                dysentery,
                                                cough, cold

Cyperaceae             Cyperus        1.0         Fever,
                     rotundus L.                bronchitis

Euphorbiaceae        Phyllanthus      1.0     Inflammation in
                     emblica L.                  the eye,
                                                gonorrhea,
                                                 diarrhea,
                                                  urinary
                                                 diseases

                       Ricinus        1.5        Headache,
                     communis L.                  boils,
                                                rheumatism

                     Glycyrrhiza      1.4       Laryngitis,
                      glabra L.                 bronchitis

                     Pterocarpus      1.5       Rheumatism,
                   santalinus L.f.             insect bites,
                                                 headache

Fabaceae             Tamarindus       1.0         Boils,
                      indica L.                 rheumatism

                      Desmodium       1.0         Ulcers,
                   triflorum (L.)               dysentery,
                         DC.                   inflammation

                     Trigonella       1.0       Dyspepsia,
                   foenum-graecum                diarrhea,
                         L.                     rheumatism

Lamiaceae           Plectranthus      1.0      Fever, cough,
                     zeylanicus                   asthma
                       Benth.

Lauraceae            Cinnamomum       1.5      Inflammation,
                    camphora (L.)                bruises,
                       J.Presl                   sprains,
                                              whooping cough,
                                                  asthma

                       Litsea         1.0        Diarrhea,
                      glutinosa                 dysentery,
                    (Lour.) C.B.                 sprains,
                        Rob.                     bruises,
                                                rheumatism

Loganiaceae           Strychnos       1.0      Eye diseases,
                   potatorum L.f.                diarrhea

Malvaceae            Sida acuta       1.0         Fever,
                       Burm.f.                  impotency,
                                                rheumatism

Meliaceae            Azadirachta      1.0        Catarrh,
                   indica A.Juss.               leprosy and
                                              skin diseases,
                                                rheumatism,
                                              wounds, ulcers

                      Coscinium       2.43    Fever, tetanus,
                     fenestratum                 dressing
                      (Goetgh.)               wounds, ulcers
                       Colebr.

Menispermaceae        Tinospora       1.0       Fever, skin
                     cordifolia                  diseases,
                   (Willd.) Miers                diabetes,
                                                dysentery,
                                                rheumatism

Molluginaceae          Mollugo        1.63      Fever, skin
                    cerviana (L.)                diseases,
                        Ser.                     gonorrhea

Moringaceae            Moringa        1.5      Asthma, gout,
                    oleifera Lam.               rheumatism,
                                                remedy for
                                                 snakebite
                                                 poisoning

Piperaceae         Piper longum L.    1.3      Fever, cough,
                                                bronchitis

Poaceae            Eleusine indica    1.5       Sprains and
                    (L.) Gaertn.               dislocations

                   Aegle marmelos     1.5     Fever, asthma,
                     (L.) Correa                dysentery,
                                                  piles,
                                                 dyspepsia

Rutaceae              Atalantia       2.36       Catarrh,
                      ceylanica               bronchitis and
                    (Arn.) Oliv.                other chest
                                                complaints,
                                                   lever

                       Citrus         1.25     Chronic cough
                    aurantium L.

                       Citrus         1.11        Cough,
                    aurantifolia               stomachache,
                     (Christm.)                  cleaning
                       Swingle                    wounds,
                                                 dysentery

Sapindaceae         Cardiospermum     1.0       Rheumatism,
                   halicacabum L.                 dropsy,
                                                 earache,
                                                bronchitis

Sapotaceae             Madhuca        1.5       Fractures,
                     longifolia                 rheumatism,
                    (J.Koenig ex                snakebites
                   L.) J.F.Macbr.

                       Solanum        2.22    Cough, asthma,
                    xanthocarpum               colic fever,
                    Schrad. & H.                 toothache
                       Wendl.

Solanaceae             Solanum        1.67      Rheumatism,
                     surattense               cough, diarrhea
                      Burm. f.

                       Solanum        1.0          Cough
                    trilobatum L.

Verbenaceae        Lantana camara     2.25    Asthma, fever,
                         L.                        cough

                    Vitex negundo     1.92       Rheumatic
                         L.                     swellings,
                                                 headache,
                                              catarrh, asthma

Zingiberaceae      Alpinia galanga    1.0       Rheumatism,
                     (L.) Willd.                bronchitis

                      Zingiber        1.69     Cold, cough,
                     officinale                fever, asthma
                       Roscoe

                       Curcuma        1.0        Sprains,
                      zedoaria                  dermatitis,
                     (Christm.)                wound healing
                       Roscoe

Family             Scientific name         Voucher
                                       specimen number

Acanthaceae        Adhatoda vasica         MNWP-01
                        Nees

Amaryllidaceae     Allium sativum          MNWP-02
                         L.

Apiaceae             Coriandrum            MNWP-03
                     sativum L.

Asclepiadaceae       Calotropis            MNWP-04
                    gigantea (L.)
                       Dryand.

Asphodelaceae      Aloe vera (L.)          MNWP-05
                       Burm.f.

Bignoniaceae          Oroxylum             MNWP-06
                    indicum (L.)
                        Kurz

Clusiaceae           Calophyllum           MNWP-07
                    inophyllum L.

Combretaceae         Terminalia            MNWP-08
                    chebula Retz.

Crassulaceae          Kalanchoe            MNWP-09
                   laciniata (L.)
                         DC.

Cyperaceae             Cyperus             MNWP-10
                     rotundus L.

Euphorbiaceae        Phyllanthus           MNWP-11
                     emblica L.

                       Ricinus             MNWP-12
                     communis L.

                     Glycyrrhiza           MNWP-13
                      glabra L.

                     Pterocarpus           MNWP-14
                   santalinus L.f.

Fabaceae             Tamarindus            MNWP-15
                      indica L.

                      Desmodium            MNWP-16
                   triflorum (L.)
                         DC.

                     Trigonella            MNWP-17
                   foenum-graecum
                         L.

Lamiaceae           Plectranthus           MNWP-18
                     zeylanicus
                       Benth.

Lauraceae            Cinnamomum            MNWP-19
                    camphora (L.)
                       J.Presl

                       Litsea              MNWP-20
                      glutinosa
                    (Lour.) C.B.
                        Rob.

Loganiaceae           Strychnos            MNWP-21
                   potatorum L.f.

Malvaceae            Sida acuta            MNWP-22
                       Burm.f.

Meliaceae            Azadirachta           MNWP-23
                   indica A.Juss.

                      Coscinium            MNWP-24
                     fenestratum
                      (Goetgh.)
                       Colebr.

Menispermaceae        Tinospora            MNWP-25
                     cordifolia
                   (Willd.) Miers

Molluginaceae          Mollugo             MNWP-26
                    cerviana (L.)
                        Ser.

Moringaceae            Moringa             MNWP-27
                    oleifera Lam.

Piperaceae         Piper longum L.         MNWP-28

Poaceae            Eleusine indica         MNWP-29
                    (L.) Gaertn.

                   Aegle marmelos          MNWP-30
                     (L.) Correa

Rutaceae              Atalantia            MNWP-31
                      ceylanica
                    (Arn.) Oliv.

                       Citrus              MNWP-32
                    aurantium L.

                       Citrus              MNWP-33
                    aurantifolia
                     (Christm.)
                       Swingle

Sapindaceae         Cardiospermum          MNWP-34
                   halicacabum L.

Sapotaceae             Madhuca             MNWP-35
                     longifolia
                    (J.Koenig ex
                   L.) J.F.Macbr.

                       Solanum             MNWP-36
                    xanthocarpum
                    Schrad. & H.
                       Wendl.

Solanaceae             Solanum             MNWP-37
                     surattense
                      Burm. f.

                       Solanum             MNWP-38
                    trilobatum L.

Verbenaceae        Lantana camara          MNWP-39
                         L.

                    Vitex negundo          MNWP-40
                         L.

Zingiberaceae      Alpinia galanga         MNWP-41
                     (L.) Willd.

                      Zingiber             MNWP-42
                     officinale
                       Roscoe

                       Curcuma             MNWP-43
                      zedoaria
                     (Christm.)
                       Roscoe

Figure 2: Life form of the plants used as anti-inflammatory remedies.

Herbs      39.5%
Shrubs     18.6%
Trees      32.6%
Climbers    9.3%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 3: Plant parts used in herbal preparations.

Leaves              33.3%
Roots                6.7%
Twigs/stems/barks   26.7%
 bulbs/rhizomes
Seeds/fruits        22.2%
Whole plant         11.1%

Note: Table made from pie chart.


Figure 4: Mode of utilization reported to treat inflammatory
conditions.

Infusion           31.4
Poultice           23.6
Paste              11.8
Smoke               9.8
Oil                 7.8
Decoction           7.8
Others: powder,     7.8
 porridge juice,
 and salad

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Napagoda, Mayuri Tharanga; Sundarapperuma, Thamudi; Fonseka, Diroshi; Amarasiri, Sachinthi; Gunaratn
Publication:Scientifica
Geographic Code:9SRIL
Date:Jan 1, 2018
Words:5258
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