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An Attack on Inclusive Education in Secondary Education. Limitations in Initial Teacher Training in Spain.

1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Inclusive education (IE) is presented unanimously and internationally as an ethical imperative that provides a real quality education to all students, taking into account their individual features and devoting no discrimination, equal opportunities, equity and universal accessibility principles (UNESCO, 2008). The IE starts from an inclusive culture, it is organised through the development of educational policies for everybody and it becomes evident in learning, participation and educational coexistence of all the members in the educational community (Booth et al. 2000). The real IE refers to, affects, involves and benefits all the members in the educational community. The IE understood as a professional and social attitude guarantees the inalienable right of every human being to have a complete personal and social development and set the bases of a real inclusive society.

In 1978 the Warnock report already announced that no improvement would take place in the so called "educational integration" without the necessary teacher training (Warnock, 1978). It also recommended that all teacher training courses -including postgraduate courses- included training components referring to it. Therefore, the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994) urged to assure that teacher training programmes, both initial and in-service training, were addressed to deal with the special educational needs in mainstream schools. In 1996 the Charter of Luxembourg of the European Union stated that successful inclusive education involved enhaced initial and in-service training for all the teachers which lead to recognised qualifications (HELIOS II, 1996). On the other hand the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN, 2006) explains that this training is one of the "rights recognized in this Convention so as to better provide the assistance and services guaranteed by those rights" (Art 4.1.9), and also that it "shall incorporate disability awareness" (Art 24.4). More recently, the 48th session of the International Conference on Education with the theme Inclusive Education: The way of the future (2008) urges to improve the status and working conditions of teachers. It points out the convenience of improving their selection based on their qualifications and awareness about special and educational needs and also recommends:
17. To train teachers providing them with the necessary skills and
resources to teach diverse student populations and to satisfy the
different learning needs in the different categories of pupils. We can
provide them with these by methods like the professional development as
for the school, initial training on inclusion and an instruction in
which the development and the strength of each pupil were taken into
account.

18. "To support both the strategical role of the Higher Education in
initial training and also teachers' professional training about
inclusive educational practices through the adequate resources
assignment, among others."


Later, the European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education (EADSNE, 2011) detected this training necessity, specially related to Secondary Education, and highlighted it as one of the basic causes of the inadequate implementation of IE, mainly in this school level.

However, teacher training is not a merely individual task, but a process of improvement of schools and professional development that must reach new roles and tasks, among which inclusive education may be one of the richest and most complicated ones. Therefore, training has to take into account not only the students' needs, but also the limitations (e.g., cultural, political, economic) that secondary schools suffer (Arnaiz, 2003).

Recent research has shown how initial training on IE is determining for its success (Avramidis, & Norwich, 2002; Carpenter & Cai, 2011; Cook 2002; Jimenez-Monteagudo & Hernandez-Alvarez, 2013; Mu et al. 2007; Sharma et al. 2006). Specific training on IE improves future teachers' attitudes and confidence and reduces their concerns (Glumbic et al. 2004; Stella et al. 2007). It also helps to improve their skills and the self-reflection about their own abilities to carry out IE (Cologon, 2012). Specially, it is highlighted the importance of having the adequate knowledge about the different disabilities (Brandes et al. 2012; de Boer et al. 2010; Sharma et al. 2008), the training on special education in graduate and postgraduate courses (Forlin et al. 2010; Sharma et al. 2009), and also the training on inclusive policies and legislation (Forlin et al. 2007). In fact, attitudes towards IE improve in graduate students with better qualifications (Forlin et al. 2009; Sharma et al. 2006), and as they move forward in their training. Some studies have detected the training areas that pre-service teachers are most worried about: the attention to low achieving students, disaffection, antisocial and unhealthy behaviours, and very specially the bullying (Kyriacou et al. 2013).

On the other hand, there is a great number of studies that prove the lack of training that the IE professionals report (Cook, 2002; Forlin & Chambers 2011; Forlin et al. 2010; Forlin et al. 2009; Gokdere 2012; Lambe, 2011; Oliveira and Souza, 2011; Sharma et al. 2009). In the case of Spanish population, Sandoval (2009) found training lacks related to identifying learning disabilities, teachers' responsibilities and the cooperation among teachers.

At the same time, it is assumed the need of investing in teachers' specific training on IE, in the multidisciplinary support, in the curriculum differentiation, in infrastructures and in the participation of all the educational community (Raimundo Martins, 2014; Silva, 2013; Vitalino, 2007). It has been also proved the need of dealing with a provision of services and a previous training, both interdisciplinary, among the areas of health, social services and education (Tetreault et al., 2012).

In the same way, it has been shown the possibility of implementing effective methodologies for the development of a real IE. In this respect, we can take into account the proven results when applying methodologies based on Freire, like: the constructive-collaborative model (Duek, 2014); the training model based on the Theory of Subjectivity of Gonzalez Rey and the concept of creativity of Mitjans Martinez (Vieira &Lucia, 2013); the learning objectives that count on a strategy of distance training (Bardy et al., 2013). It also has been carried out significant attempts to perform specific professional tasks related to IE, like the approach of historical-cultural psychology, based on Vitgotski's theories and developed for the psychologists' professional practice (Barroco & Souza, 2012).

2 INITIAL SECONDARY EDUCATION TEACHER TRAINING IN SPAIN

2.1 The Regulatory Framework

The right to education is included in the Spanish Constitution, in the Art 27. In a more explicit way, the Art 49 highlights the right to "prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and integration of physically, sensory, and mentally handicapped people". Later, this basic right was developed in the Law for the Social Integration of the Disabled (LISMI, 1982) and by a valuable normative process towards a truly inclusive education (Lopez-Torrijo, 1992). Nowadays the Organic Law for Improvement of Quality in Education (LOMCE, 2013) assumes the important commitment that the former law, the Organic Law of Education (LOE, 2006) raised with regard to IE. However, no significant progress has been found, despite the fact that 26.5% of students do not finish the Compulsory Education successfully.

With regard to the initial Secondary Education teacher training, the enactment of the Organic Law of General Organisation of the Educational System (LOGSE, 1990) raised that the Secondary Education teachers' skill levels stopped being exclusively propaedeutic for the university, when ordering that Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) is a general, basic, compulsory and free level. This involved that Secondary Education teachers' roles were similar to those of Primary Education and it supposed a new challenge that most Secondary Education teachers did not feel prepared for.

To cover this initial training various courses were offered for those who wanted to become teachers after finishing their university education. This offer provided a poor instructional and educational psychology training with the so called course, Couse of Pedagogial Aptitude (CAP), or the so called course, Pedagogial Aptitude Certificate (CCP). These qualifications were regulated by the General Law of Education and Financing of the Educational Reform (LGE, 1970) and by the Ministerial Order of 8 July 1971 and they included 159 hours of theoretical training on "1) Principles, objetives and problems of Education in its psychological, sociological and historical aspects; 2) Technology and educational innovation systems; 3) Special education teaching" (second Art). A second stage of 150 hours included a teaching practicum "in the secondary schools that each Institute of Education Sciences determines (...) with two or three different tutors of the corresponding education area" (Art. 3). The inadequate and unsuitable character of this training created a general dissatisfaction. However, the so desired reform was being put off because of financial disagreements between the Ministry of Education and the Ministries of Education in Regional Governments; because of some lack of definition on behalf of the agents in charge of this initial training; because of some associative pressures, and because of the lack of agreement between the different political trends (Barbera, 2010).

The enactment of the LOE (2006) and the incorporation of Spain to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) developed a new model of instructional and educational psychology training in the form of a postgraduate course for the future Secondary Education teachers of the different teaching-related areas (Tiana, 2013). The Royal Decree 1393/2007 and the subsequent Resolution of 17 December 2007 regulated this new qualification.

2.2 Conditions of the New Initial Secondary Education Teacher Training Programme

The central government set the conditions to which the corresponding curricula have to adapt to in order to qualify teachers for the professional practice. Moreover, they have to meet current European regulations. Universities have to adapt curricula to the national regulations in order to obtain the professional competencies assigned by the government (Royal Decree 1393/2007, Art 12.9 and 15.4).

To gain access to this Master's degree it is indispensable to give credit for the achieved competencies related to the specialization the student wants to study, by doing a test designed by universities or by having completed any of the university degrees corresponding to the specialization chosen. Likewise, the student will have to give credit for the fluency in a foreign language, equivalent to the B1 level of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (s. 4.2).

Master's degrees will have a duration of 60 European credits. The 80% of them will be on-site training, including necessarily the Practicum in this obligation (s. 5).

Apart from the general instructional and pedagogical objectives (Order ECI/3858/2007, annex, s. 3), the Master's degree includes specific ones, such as "the development and implementation of individual and group instructional methods adapted to students' diversity" (s. 3.4); "the design and development of learning environments with special attention to equity" (s. 3.5); and "the development of tasks of tutorship and students' guidance in a collaborative and coordinated way" (s. 3.8).

The courses are composed of, at least, the next modules (Table 1):

A first assessment of the programme shows the scanty space dedicated to basic pedagogical training: 12 ECTS credits against the 24 dedicated to specific teaching. Given that most of the contents referring to IE are in the so called generic module, it is obvious the lack of credits to provide the necessary training. This implies that and adequate initial training of future Secondary Education teachers with regard to IE will lack from the beginning.

As for the competencies related directly to IE, the national regulation states the following (Table 2):

The academic perspective, specially extended in the secondary education level, assumes that the main condition to be a good teacher is to have a deep knowledge of the contents of a subject. However, we remind some of the education principles that the LOMCE states in the beginning of its articles:
Art 1 A) Education quality for all the students, no matter their
conditions or circumstances.

B) The equity that assures equal opportunities for the complete
personality development through education, inclusive education, equal
rights and opportunities that help to overcome any discrimination and
universal accessibility, and that they act as a compensatory element in
personal, cultural, economic and social inequalities, with special
attention to those that come from any type of disability.

E) Flexibility to adapt education to students' diverse abilities,
interests, expectations and needs as well as to adapt to the changes
that students and society experience.


From these basic approaches, it is surprising the absence, among others, of specific competencies -both in the generic and specific module and specially in the practicum- that specify teachers' ability to:

* Know the philosophy, principles, conditions and implications of IE.

* Value the normative development in educational policies, highlighting their contributions and lacks to reach a real IE.

* Have a detailed knowledge of the different personal, social, economic barriers, etc. that difficult the access to learning, participation and educational coexistence of everybody in equity.

* Qualify to give an educational response to student diversity through the planning and adaptation of the curriculum, cooperative learning methodologies, individualised attention, monitoring strategies, and continuous and personalised assessment, etc.

* Qualify for the collaborative teaching.

* Guide the family, the educational community and the different educational contexts, and also to favour the participation of all of them in a participative IE project.

Undoubtedly, these skills can hardly be practised if we do not overcome the view of the teacher as a mere transmitter of knowledge and we assure his real identity: a professional that researches, thinks about his practice and improves it within an educational organization; and he, more than a technician, is a critical intellectual aware of the ethical dimension of his profession (Arnaiz, 2003).

2.3 Analysis of some Master's Degrees on Secondary Education

The Decree 1393/2007 and the Order ECI/3858/2007 let the universities the authority of planning their respective Master's degrees on Secondary Education within a regulatory framework. This has allowed them a great level of flexibility and of ability to act (Tiana, 2013).

As an approach to the practical realization of these training plans, we have selected for this study the five best valued Spanish universities in the Education field, according to the rankings I-UGR during the last three periods, as table 3 shows.

Through the study of the curricula designed in these universities we try:

* To know and compare the credits dedicated to the training on IE contents in the different universities.

* To analyse the contents related to IE that are offered in the corresponding Master's degrees, basically regarding three specific fields: IE conceptual framework; curriculum adaptations; tutorship and academic and professional orientation.

* To analyse and compare the necessary skills to carry out an adequate IE.

* To assess and discuss the convenience of contents and skills offered to achieve an adequate initial training on IE in future teachers that complete the Master's degree on Secondary Education in the five universities listed above.

2.3.1. Structure of the Modules and Credits in the Five Universities

As said before, the national regulation that governs the Master's degrees on Secondary Education raised a minimum common structure for all the national territory and let the universities the assignment of up to eight free choice credits.

Figure 1 summarises the assignment that each university has done with the aforementioned free choice credits.
Figure 1. Credits structures and modules assigned by the Universities
of Granada, Valencia, Barcelona, Complutense of Madrid and Alicante in
the Master's degree on Secondary Education.

     Generic  Specific  Practicum  Final Master's  Free Choice
                                   Degree Project

UGR  12       24        10         6               8
UV   16       28        10         6
UB   15       25        15         5
UCM  12       30        12         6
UA   14       30        10         6

Note: Table made from bar graph.


The University of Granada is the only university that kept the structure suggested by the Ministry and has used the free choice credits to design five elective subjects. Each of them has four credits. Students have to choose two from the five subjects. The five optional subjects suggested are: Attention to diversity and multiculturalism; Attention to students with special needs; Education for equality; Towards a culture of peace; Organization and management of educational centres. The three first subjects suppose a direct and extremely valuable contribution to training on IE. This turns the University of Granada into the university with the most complete and adequate curriculum for the students' attention to diversity. However, the fact that these subjects are optional does not assure this training.

The second university in the ranking -the University of Valencia- has decided to distribute the free choice credits among the generic and specific modules assigning four credits to each of them. This kind of "Solomon distribution" reaffirms the Ministry criteria, highlighting the theoretical training. However, it says nothing about a specialization in any specific field. The IE issue in this Master's degree has the similar inattention conditions that the suggested by the Ministry.

The University of Barcelona also dedicates the free choice credits to increase the structure suggested by the Ministry, but with a different assignment: it increases the generic module in three credits and the specific module in one; it raises the size of the practicum until 10 credits and reduces the Final Master's Degree Project to five credits. In all, it dedicates half of the free choice credits to theoretical training, mainly in the generic module and, specially, it highlights the importance of practical training, granting to it the 16.5% of the Master's degree. Neither this supposes a certain and specific contribution to training on IE.

The fourth university in the ranking -the Complutense University of Madrid- has dedicated the eight free choice credits to increase the specific module of specialised teaching in six credits and the practicum in two credits. It shows a clear leaning towards the deepening of the specialist teacher's task in the teaching of the contents of his speciality, with a practical training.

For its part, the University of Alicante increases the generic module in two credits and the specific module in six credits with an assignment of subjects that will be analysed in the following section.

2.3.2. Description of the Contents Dedicated to Topics Related to IE

A more detailed reading of the syllabus of each subject allows us to define, at least in a theoretical level, the specific contents that deal with IE in some of its integral contents. Table 4 summarises these contents.

Among many aspects and contents necessary for a complete training on IE, we selected three as a base for an approach to an evaluative analysis of the contents: the conceptualization of IE; the diversity of curriculum adaptations as a measure and tool of attention to diversity; and the tutorship and guidance as the base of student's individualised attention and socialization.

In a first approach, table 5 shows the presence that these issues have in the subject contents offered in the Master's degrees on Secondary Education of the five universities.

It is well known that the presence of a specific content in a syllabus does not guarantee its complete dealing; and, in the same way, its absence does not exclude the allusions to it either. To deduce exact conclusions, it would be necessary a thorough analysis of a significant number of groups in which teaching is being developed in each Master's degree. However, table 5 shows important assessments.

With regard to the first aspect, related to the conceptualization of IE, all the universities address it in one way or another. The University of Granada offers a wide range of contents on this matter, making it conditional, however, to the students' enrolment in, at least, one of the three elective subjects previously described. For its part, the University of Valencia addresses inclusive education in two different subjects: "Society, family and education" and "Educational processes and contexts". The University of Barcelona raises the IE paradigm but it does not detail the conceptualization of students with educational support needs and with specific educational needs. The Complutense University of Madrid does consider in its syllabi the inclusive paradigm and the conceptualization of students' diverse needs. Finally, the University of Alicante adds to the theoretical framework the psychoeducational intervention for visual, hearing and motor (spina bifida and cerebral palsy) impairments, for pervasive developmental disorders (autistic and Asperger disorders), for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and for mental retardation and giftedness.

With regard to the second aspect, "curriculum adaptation", we find it is the most incomplete. Initially, none of the five universities addresses the practical implementation of curriculum adaptations in the classroom. They just deal with some levels of curriculum design in a theoretical way. The University of Granada and the University of Valencia do not determine in their syllabi the levels of curriculum adaptation and the University of Alicante does it partially. Finally, the University of Barcelona and the Complutense University of Madrid do not make any specific allusion to curriculum adaptations or to levels of curriculum design.

The aspect most tackled is the one related to "tutorship and academic and professional orientation" which is addressed in the five universities.

2.3.3. Addressing Generic Competencies Related to Inclusive Education

Another perspective of this analysis is provided by the level of development of the basic skills related to IE included in the Order ECI/3858/2007, 27 December. Table 6 summarises the treatment that these skills have in the planning of the different Master's degrees. However, we have to remember, once again, that the simple fact of mentioning these skills in the syllabi does not confirm its realization through the programmed learnings.

Again, this table shows how the theoretical descriptions of the different circumstances that involve educational needs in students are addressed. Only some Master's degrees include the specific skills to identify and plan students' attention due to these circumstances.

The competence that is addressed the least is the one related with the adoption of measures and resources that the School Educational Project has to incorporate to deal with students' diversity. And this is, undoubtedly, one of the basic pieces of an inclusive project.

The competencies related to tutorship, orientation and family participation are well treated in the majority of the Master's degrees analysed.

3 DISCUSSION

Despite the fact that the criterion argued in the creation of the EHEA is the convergence of future professionals training, in the history of the Spanish university we have never designed and put into practice any curricula as diverse as the current ones. This lack of affinity is specially clamorous in the development of graduate courses, but we can also find it in postgraduate courses.

It is fair to declare that the importance that national and international policies, research and teachers' feelings attributed to Secondary Education teacher training has led to the increase of the training hours by the development of a Master's degree on Secondary Education compared to the previous training models (CAP and CCP). Those plans had 300 hours, while the actual plans have 60 ECTS.

However, it is also true that in the current Master's degree we can still see the teacher as a transmitter of knowledge of his specific area. This is proved by the, at least, 24 ECTS dedicated to specific didactics, against the 12 dedicated to generic training.

The contents and skills raised in this field do not advocate teacher identity as an intellectual aware of the ethical dimension of his profession, an intellectual that researches and improves his practice from a critical and collaborative reflection.

Although we have moved forward as for the training on contents and skills necessary to carry out a real IE, this advance is still inadequate. The theoretical conceptualization of IE is, just partly, taken into account. Some universities raise contents related to the identification of some special educational needs. The development of tutorship and academic and professional orientation is dealt in a theoretical but general way. The attention to families is also starting to be considered, but not their training for their participation in the process and in the educational community. Nevertheless, training on instructional and and organizational strategies necessary to carry out IE is not provided. Attention to students with behavioural disorders, ethnic minorities, socially marginalised groups or collectives that live in unfavourable social, family or cultural environments is not addressed urgently and roundly. Only some programmes include multiculturalism. Attention to students--with high abilities is hardly mentioned. The regulatory development that implements IE is not presented and teachers are not trained for its professional assessment.Professionals are not prepared for a real collaborative teaching, which is the basis of a collaborative learning.

To sum up, initial Secondary Education teacher training on topics related to attention to diversity is insufficient and it compromises the development of a real IE in a radical and basic way. As research shows, this will negatively affect teachers' attitudes, abilities and professional self-perception.

4 CONCLUSIONS

Despite the quantitative increase in training, the reforms in initial Secondary Education teacher training carried out in Spain within the EHEA framework offer an inadequate preparation of future teachers with regard to the performance of their duties as the main agents of IE. This supposes one of the hardest attacks to the future development of IE, precisely in the level with highest school failure: Secondary Education.

Moreover, to promote inclusive schools, cultural, political, economic, and social barriers that some Secondary Education students suffer should be eliminated.

It is necessary to rebalance Secondary Education teachers' professional training by increasing their specialization as agents that promote comprehensive and equitable schools, and that eliminate the barriers that prevent students from accessing to learning, and to educational participation and coexistence.

It is necessary to guarantee teachers' identity as autonomous, critical, collaborative and supportive educators that have an ethical commitment that assures the right to quality education for all the students.

In conclusion, it is essential to assure the adequate teacher training on the cultures, policies and practices of IE in order to obtain similar results regarding IE that those already achieved in primary schools and in order to set the bases of a real inclusive society.

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Sharma, U., Forlin, C., Loreman, T., & Earle, C. (2006). Pre-service teachers' attitudes, concerns and sentiments about inclusive education: An international comparison of the novice pre-service teacher. International Journal of Special Education, 21(2): 80-93.

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Manuel Lopez-Torrijo (1*), Santiago Mengual-Andres (2)

(1) Department of Comparative Education & History of Education, University of Valencia {lopezm@uv.es}

(2) Department of Comparative Education & History of Education, University of Valencia {sanmenan@uv.es}[iD]

Received on 20 October; revised on 20 October; accepted on 10 November; published on 15 January 2015

(*) To whom correspondence should be addressed: Facultad de Filosofia y Ciencias de la Educacion Universidad de Valencia Avda. Blasco Ibanez, 30, 46010 Valencia, Spain

DOI: 10.7821/naer.2015.1.100
Table 1. Minimum modules, subjects and European credits of the
curriculum leading to obtain the Master's degree that qualifies to
practice the regulated professions of Compulsory Secondary Education
teacher, Bachillerato teacher, Vocational Training teacher and Language
teacher. Own drawing up from the Order ECI/3858/2007, 27 December.

                                  Module                       Number of
                                                               European
                                                               credits

                                  Generic
Subjects                          Learning and                 12
                                  personality development.
                                  Educational processes
                                  and contexts
                                  Society, family
                                  and education
                                  Specific
Subjects                          Complements for              24
                                  disciplinary training.
                                  Learning and teaching
                                  of the specialised subjects
                                  Teaching innovation
                                  and introduction
                                  to educational research
                                  Practicum
Practicum in the specialisation,
including the Final
Master's Degree Project                                        16
Free choice ECTS credits                                        8

Table 2. List of competencies directly related to IE stated in the
Order ECI/3858/2007, 27 December

Module      Credits   Competencies related to IE
Generic     12        --To know students' characteristics, social
                      contexts and motivations.
                      --To understand the development of students'
                      personality and the possible dysfunctions that
                      affect learning.
                      --To identify and plan the resolution of
                      educational situations that affect students with
                      different abilities and learning paces.
                      --To know and implement resources and information,
                      tutorship, and academic and professional
                      orientation strategies.
                      --To participate in the definition of the
                      educational project and in the school general
                      activities taking into account quality
                      improvement, attention to diversity, learning
                      problems prevention and coexistence criteria.
                      --To relate education with the environment and to
                      understand the educative role of family,
                      community, etc. in the education of respect for
                      rights and liberties, and equal treatment and no
                      discrimination of disabled people.
Specific    24        --To know the contexts and situations where
                      different curriculum contents are used or
                      implemented.
Practicum   16

Table 3. Spanish universities classification in the education field,
according to the ranking I-UGR

               3rd Edition.      4th Edition.      5th Edition.
               Period 2007-2011  Period 2008-2012  Period 2009-2013

University of  3rd               1st               1st
Granada
University of  1st               2nd               2nd
Valencia
University of  8th               4th               3rd
Barcelona
Complutense    5th               5th               4th
University of
Madrid         4th               6th               5th
University of
Alicante

Table 5 Description of the contents related to IE addressed in the
different subjects of the Master's degrees on Secondary Education
offered by the Universities of Granada, Valencia, Complutense of
Madrid, Barcelona and Alicante.

University     Subjects                    Contents related to IE

University of  Learning and
Granada        personality development
               (4 ECTS)
               Educational processes       --Levels of curriculum
               and contexts                design, their elements and
               (4 ECTS)                    functions.
               Society, family             --Educational function of
               and education               the family.
               (4 ECTS)                    --The family-educational
                                           institution relationship:
                                           the tutorial function and the
                                           communicative processes
                                           between family and school.
               Attention to                (no public information about
               diversity and               the contents available)
               multiculturalism.
               (Elective subject: 4 ECTS)
               Attention to students       (no public information about
               with special                the contents available)
               needs
               (Elective subject: 4 ECTS)
               Education for equality      (no public information about
               (Elective subject: 4 ECTS)  the contents available)
               Learning and personality    --Learning disorders and
               development (4 ECTS)        difficulties.
University of  Educational processes       --Levels of curriculum
Valencia       and contexts                design. Curriculum
               (8 ECTS)                    adaptations.
                                           --Orientation and tutorship
                                           as teaching function
                                           dimensions. Regulatory rules.
                                           Department of Orientation.
                                           Tutor's functions.
                                           Orientation plan. Tutorial
                                           action plan.
                                           --Attention to diversity.
                                           Conceptual framework: special
                                           educational needs and
                                           educational support needs.
                                           Regulatory rules. Attention
                                           to diversity measures and
                                           programmes. Attention to
                                           diversity plan.
               Society, family and         --Sociological analysis of
               education                   educational inequalities
               (4 ECTS)                    and diversity.
                                           --The school as a social
                                           subsystem.
                                           --Education for equality and
                                           diversity.
               Secondary Education         --Changes in the educational
               students'                   situations and actions to
               learning and                improve the learning and to
               development (5 ECTS)        address diversity.
               Educational processes       --Diversity. Diversity as a
               and contexts                reality, as richness.
               (2.5 ECTS)                  Strategies to identify
                                           diversity. Resources to deal
                                           with diversity.
University of  Society, family             -
Barcelona      and education
               (5 ECTS)
               Tutorship and               --The teaching, tutorial and
               orientation (2,5            orientation function.
               ECTS)                       --From diversity to
                                           inclusion.
                                           --Academic and professional
                                           orientation
                                           --The tutorial action plan
                                           and teaching planning
               Learning and                --Educational psychology
               personality development.    fundamentals and strategies
               (4 ECTS)                    of educational
                                           diversification.
                                           --Identification and
                                           interventions for learning
                                           problems in Secondary
                                           Education.
Complurense    Educational processes       --Attention to diversity in
Univesity      and contexts                Compulsory Secondary
of Madrid      (4 ECTS)                    Education. Factors of
                                           diversity. Attention to
                                           diversity.models. Ordinary
                                           and extraordinary measures in
                                           the Spanish Education System.
                                           --Tutorship and academic and
                                           professional orientation in
                                           Secondary Education. Tutorial
                                           action plan. Academic and
                                           professional orientation
                                           plan.
               Society, family             --Family orientation in the
               and education               Secondary Education context.
               (4 ECTS)
               Learning and                -
               personality
               development. (3 ECTS)
               Curriculum design           --Structure of the curriculum
               and adaptation.             design.
               (5 ECTS)
University of  Learning and                --Sensory and motor disorders
Alicante       developmental disorders     in adolescents.
               in adolescents              --Development and behaviour
               (3 ECTS)                    disorders.
                                           --School maladjustment.
                                           Tutorship.
                                           --Intellectual disability and
                                           giftedness.
               Society, family             --Education social functions
               and education               --Educational function of
               (3 ECTS)                    the family.
                                           --The family-educational
                                           institution relationship: the
                                           tutorial function. Family
                                           background and school
                                           success.

Table 6. Presence of IE conceptualisation, curriculum adaptations, and
tutorship and orientation in the contents of the Master's degrees on
Secondary Education

                Inclusive Education and         Curriculum adaptations
                conceptual framework of ANEAE
                (Students with Specific
                Needs of Educational Support)

University of   Yes, when any of                Yes, without specifying
Granada         the two elective                until what level of
                subjects on Inclusive           curriculum design
                Education is studied
University of   Yes, in two                     Yes, without specifying
Valencia        different subjects              until what level of
                                                curriculum design
University of   Yes, as diversity. It           No
Barcelona       does not raise the
                concepts of ANEAE
                (Students with Specific
                Needs of Educational
                Support) and/or
                AcNEE (Students with
                special educational needs)
Complutense     Yes                             No
University of
Madrid
University of   Yes, as a conceptual            No, it only deals with
Alicante        framework and                   the second level of
                intervention for the            curriculum design
                different disabilities

                Tutorship and academic
                and professional orientation

University of   Yes
Granada
University of   Yes
Valencia
University of   Yes
Barcelona
Complutense     Yes
University of
Madrid
University of   Yes
Alicante

Table 7. Development of the basic competencies included in the Order
ECI/3858/2007, 27 December in the different Master's degrees

Skills                      UGRA      UV       UB       UCM      UA

To know students'           Yes,      Partial  Yes      Yes      Yes
characteristics, social     elective
contexts and motivations.   subject
To understand the           Yes,      Partial  Yes      Yes      Yes
development of students'.   elective
personality and the         subject
possible dysfunctions that
affect learning.
To identify and plan the    Yes,      Partial  Partial  Partial  Yes
resolution of educational   elective
situations that affect      subject
students with different
abilities and
learning paces.
To know and implement       Yes       Yes      Yes      Yes      Yes
resources and information,
tutorship, and academic
and professional
orientation strategies.
To participate in the       Partial   Yes      Partial  Partial  Partial
definition of the
educational project
and in the school
general activities,
taking into account
quality improvement,
attention to diversity,
learning problems
prevention
and coexistence
criteria.
To relate education         Partial   Yes      Partial  Yes      Yes
with the environment
and understanding
the educational
function of
family, community,
... in the education of
respect of rights and
liberties,.... and
in the equality
of treatment and no
discrimination of
disabled people.
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Title Annotation:ORIGINAL
Author:Lopez-Torrijo, Manuel; Mengual-Andres, Santiago
Publication:NAER - Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research
Date:Jan 1, 2015
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