An Arctic-breeding bird survey on the northwestern Ungava Peninsula, Quebec, Canada.
Key words: Arctic birds, breeding, Canada, Quebec, shorebirds, survey
RESUME. La connaissance de la repartition et de l'abondance des oiseaux nicheurs dans l'Arctique canadien demeure rudimentaire pour bien des especes, surtout pour les oiseaux de greve et les oiseaux chanteurs. Dans le but de combler ce vide, des parcelles choisies au hasard ont ete etudiees sur la cote nord-ouest de la peninsule de l'Ungava, dans la province de Quebec, au Canada, en 2002. Trentre-huit especes ont ete consignees dans 34 sites, ou les oiseaux chanteurs se retrouvaient beaucoup plus souvent que les oiseaux de greve. Les oiseaux aquatiques nicheurs etaient beaucoup plus abondants en basse altitude pres de la cote, tandis que les oiseaux chanteurs avaient tendance a etre plus abondants en haute altitude. Une grande quantite de faucons et de hiboux nicheurs decoule probablement d'une forte population en lemmings. Les renseignements recueillis a partir de l'etude ont permis d'etendre les echelles de reproduction des sarcelles a ailes vertes, des chevaliers branlequeues, des becasseaux variables, des becasseaux a poitrine cendree, des pluviers dores, des becassines ordinaires et des hiboux des marais. D'autres recherches dans la peninsule de l'Ungava permettraient vraisemblablement d'obtenir des renseignements sur d'autres especes d'oiseaux nicheurs de l'Arctique. La connaissance plus poussee de la repartition des oiseaux nicheurs de l'Arctique s'impose si nous voulons determiner comment les especes seront touchees par le changement climatique a l'echelle mondiale.
Mots cles : oiseaux de l'Arctique, reproduction, Canada, Quebec, oiseaux de greve, etude
Traduit pour la revue Arctic par Nicole Giguere.
For most places in the Canadian Arctic, knowledge of breeding bird distribution and abundance remains rudimentary for many species. The Arctic region of Quebec's Ungava Peninsula, where few studies of breeding birds have been conducted, is no exception. Although numerous expeditions were made along the Ungava Peninsula coast between 1885 and 1947 (summarized in Manning, 1949), bird observations were often limited in duration and geographic coverage. Harper (1958) compiled bird observations from the forested central and southern regions of the Ungava Peninsula but did not address its Arctic region. Adjacent to Quebec, Todd (1963) generated a thorough account of the birds of nearby Labrador, including its Arctic region. Churchill, Manitoba, across Hudson Bay, has a long history of ornithological study (e.g., Taverner and Sutton, 1934; Jehl and Smith, 1970; Gratto-Trevor and Vacek, 2001), and to the north, on Baffin Island, the Canadian Wildlife Service continues the legacy of bird studies begun by earlier naturalists (e.g., Soper, 1946a, b, c; Sutton and Parmelee, 1956). The more recently published breeding bird atlas of Quebec (Gauthier and Aubry, 1996) focused primarily on the southern portions of the province but included brief information on Arctic birds. In recent years, biologists from the Canadian Wildlife Service and other agencies (e.g., Caccamise et al., 2000) have studied Canada geese (Branta canadensis) at several sites near the community of Povungnituk and have compiled ancillary data on other species.
As part of an Arctic-wide pilot effort to generate unbiased estimates of population sizes and trends of breeding shorebirds (see Skagen et al., 2003) that will be reported elsewhere, surveys were conducted on the northwestern Ungava Peninsula, Quebec, in June 2002. The area in northern Quebec was chosen because 1) an established camp provided access, 2) the Canadian Wildlife Service was able to provide financial support, 3) little was known about breeding shorebirds in the region, and 4) readily available satellite imagery enabled generation of a vegetation-based sampling frame. Although the primary goal was to determine the density of breeding shorebirds, the project collected information on all bird species observed. Here I report on the occurrence and abundance of all breeding species encountered during these surveys on the northwestern Ungava Peninsula.
The study area is located along the eastern shore of Hudson Bay (60[degrees]00' N, 77[degrees]10' W), which lies on the Canadian Shield's Larch Plateau within the Arctic Ecoclimate Province (Fig. 1). The vegetation is typically Arctic, consisting mainly of grasses, sedges, herbaceous plants, mosses, lichens, and dwarf shrubs. Low shrubs, mainly willows (Salix spp.), occurred throughout the area. Although the area is considered low Arctic, the rocky substrate has prevented the development of extensive wetlands and a thick peat layer. The northernmost edge of the study area lies in the transition zone between low and mid-Arctic regions.
Forty survey sites were randomly selected within a 200 x 100 km area centered on the community of Povungnituk. Sampling intensity was greatest near the coast because we expected higher densities of breeding shorebirds and possibly greater variability among sites there. At each site, four 10 ha plots located about 2.0-3.5 km apart were systematically selected around the site center. Shapes of plots were mainly square but occasionally varied because of large lakes; plots were selected so that less than 50% of each plot contained open water. From satellite imagery data, maps of broad vegetation types were produced for each plot, which aided navigation on the plots. UTM coordinates (NAD83) were provided for all plot corners, and observers used them to find plot borders. All selection algorithms and preparation of plot vegetation maps were completed by Dr. Jonathan Bart, U.S. Geological Survey. Subsequent to field surveys, I used 1:250 000 topographic maps to measure the maximum elevation and nearest distance to the coast of each site.
Survey timing was set to correspond with shorebird and landbird territory establishment, courtship, nest-building, and early incubation. When the survey crew arrived at the Tuksukatuk Polemond River camp on 31 May 2002, however, more than 90% of the land area was still covered by snow, and melt proceeded slowly. Daily minimum temperatures at the camp did not exceed 0[degrees]C until 15 June, and daily maximum temperatures seldom exceeded 10[degrees]C between 1 and 17 June. Wind speed at 0800 averaged 12.5 km/hr and ranged from 2 to 26 km/hr. Beginning on 9 June, a helicopter was used to access survey plots. Snow cover on initial survey days was often 40% or more of the plot. Most snow, however, lingered on the slopes of hills, particularly on the banks of steep-sloping lakes.
Because of a weather-dependent change in staffing, one of the selected plots, randomly chosen, was not surveyed at each site. In a few cases, errors were made in noting plot corners and substitute plots were surveyed; coordinates of plot substitutions were recorded. Cost constraints also eliminated the ability to survey seven sites in the extreme northern and southern portions of the study area. A total of 100 plots (including three at camp) at 34 sites were surveyed between 9 and 17 June 2002.
At each site, observers were dropped off outside plot corners. Each surveyor then systematically searched the entire plot and recorded all individuals of every species encountered. Observers used behavioral cues to determine which individuals were likely breeding on the plot. During the approximately one-hour survey period, observers plotted all bird encounters on field maps. Immediately after completing the survey, they estimated the total number of birds and the number of pairs or territorial males on the plot. On each plot, observers also estimated the proportional coverage of the broad vegetation types delineated using satellite imagery. A detailed description of survey methods is provided by Bart and Earnst (2002).
In addition to recording numbers of all birds encountered on plots, observers noted large birds (gulls, raptors, waterfowl) seen outside the 10 ha plots during surveys. I also surveyed for large birds from the helicopter when moving among plots at a site. I combined this information with plot results to determine frequency of occurrence of individual species and calculated species richness (by species group, e.g., waterbirds, shorebirds, landbirds) at each site. I used a two-stage random sample estimator (Snedecor and Cochran, 1980) to compare coarse (based on 10 ha-sized plots), apparent (did not account for detectability) plot density among shorebird and small songbird species. All scientific nomenclature and common names follow the American Ornithologists' Union current checklist (2005); English, French, and scientific names of breeding birds are provided in Table 1.
Thirty-eight bird species, all of which were suspected of breeding, were recorded at 34 sites in the study area, and three species (Canada goose, American pipit, and Lapland longspur) were recorded at every site (Table 1). The Ungava lemming (Dicrostonyx hudsonius) was abundant everywhere throughout the study area, which probably led to the high occurrence of breeding rough-legged hawks and owls at survey sites (Table 1). Long-tailed duck and northern pintail pairs occurred at more than 50% of the sites. Only one shorebird, the semipalmated sandpiper, occurred at more than 50% of the sites, whereas five of nine songbirds occurred at more than 75% of the sites (Table 1). Confirmatory breeding evidence for herring gulls and redpolls (hoary and common considered together) was often difficult to assess, so adults observed at sites are included in the analysis. Several other species observed off the sites or at camp may breed in the study area: harlequin duck, common eider, common merganser, glaucous gull, and arctic tern (Table 1). An additional four waterfowl, three gull, and five shorebird species were present only as migrants (Table 1).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Shorebirds were absent from the camp upon arrival of the survey crew, but were evident by 3 June, whereas songbirds and waterfowl were already present at camp when we arrived. Many male shorebirds displaying around camp on 3 June, or shortly after, remained in the vicinity throughout the period. A major passage of shorebirds, particularly of white-rumped sandpipers, occurred on 11-12 June. Lapland longspurs were observed building nests on 3 June, and the first full-clutch nest of a horned lark was found on 11 June. Chronology of shorebird breeding by 18 June included nest-building by semipalmated sandpipers and dunlins, copulations among the American golden-plovers and semipalmated plovers, courtship or territory establishment among the least sandpipers and Wilson's snipes, and pairs of red-necked phalaropes.
I used count data from plot surveys to determine coarse, apparent density of small songbirds and shorebirds. Small songbirds constituted 94% of all observations made on plots and, in general, were much more abundant than shorebirds (Table 2). The most abundant shorebird, the semipalmated sandpiper, was a magnitude lower in abundance than the most abundant songbird (Lapland longspur).
I found a strong relationship between the distance from the coast and elevation of surveyed sites (F = 158.1; df = 1,32; p < 0.001; [R.sup.2] = 0.83). I therefore used the regression tree procedure in S-Plus (Venables and Ripley, 2002) to partition bird count data into two elevation groups: sites located less than 50 m asl and those at or over 50 m asl. Elevation had a significant, negative effect on the species richness at sites both for shorebirds alone and for all waterbirds (including shorebirds), and it had a weak, positive effect on songbird richness (Table 3). For common shorebirds, increasing elevation had a strong, negative effect on the occurrence of semipalmated sandpipers and dunlins (Fig. 2). Semipalmated plovers and Wilson's snipes were more equitably distributed among sites in the two elevation groups. Wilson's snipes tended to occur more frequently at sites south of Povungnituk (45.5%, n = 22) than at those north of the community (16.7%, n = 12; Fisher's Exact Test, p = 0.140).
Despite low temperatures and persistent snow in early June, many shorebirds around camp had settled on territories by the time helicopter surveys were initiated on 9 June. Survey results should be representative of the Arctic-breeding bird assemblage inhabiting the study area; however, because the season was late, occurrence of some species that depend on open-water habitats (such as king eider, red-necked phalarope, and Arctic tern) could be underestimated. Detection ratios will be used to determine densities of shorebirds across the Arctic and will be reported elsewhere. On the basis of preliminary estimates of detection rates (80%-90%; J. Bart, U.S. Geological Survey, unpubl. data), I am confident that incorporation of detection ratios will not substantially change the patterns of abundance reported here. The openness and low vertical variation of Arctic vegetation among sites likely minimizes the effect of site on detectability, and the same set of observers surveyed all sites. On a single test of longspur detectability, observers found 90%-100% of suspected breeding males.
In many Arctic regions, wetland occurrence and extent, and hence waterbird abundance, are related to the distance from the coast and elevation (e.g., Morrison, 1997). In this study, breeding density of shorebirds was three to four times lower than has been found in most low and mid-Arctic sites surveyed elsewhere (Johnston et al., 2000: Table 4). The high elevations and rocky substrates encountered on the Ungava Peninsula are likely the cause of low densities of breeding shorebirds and other wetland-dependent species. At higher elevations, sites were better drained, and wetlands were less abundant and extensive. Because elevational variation was relatively low (0-140 m), snowmelt did not seem to vary among inland and coastal sites. Where wet areas did occur, grasses appeared to contribute as much to the vegetation cover as sedges. Shorebird species that nest primarily in the Arctic tended to have a stronger preference for low-elevation, coastal wetlands than did those species that have primarily boreal breeding distributions. Because of the mainland connection, the avifauna of the Ungava Peninsula's Arctic ecoclimatic province is an interesting mix of northward-extending boreal species (e.g., common loon, Wilson's snipe, and white-crowned sparrow) and southern-reaching Arctic species (e.g., king eider, dunlin, and snowy owl).
During the shorebird passage event on 11-12 June, numerous male white-rumped sandpipers were observed performing many of the courtship behaviors (single wing displays, buzzy aerial glides, the "sharp-tailed grouse" display) described by Parmelee (1992). Parmelee did not mention that males performed these behaviors away from the breeding grounds but did note that females were immediately receptive on arrival and perhaps arrived paired. Such enroute displays may hasten nest initiation on the mid- or high-Arctic nesting grounds. Breeding of the white-rumped sandpiper has not been confirmed anywhere on the Ungava Peninsula (Manning, 1949; Godfrey, 1986; Parmelee, 1992); however, white-rumped sandpipers were the second most abundant shorebird breeding on the Great Plain of the Koukdjuak, southwestern Baffin Island (pers. obs. 2003).
Two breeding shorebird species were recorded in the study area outside of the current survey window--a spotted sandpiper nested in 1990 (J. Hughes, pers. comm. 2002), and a pectoral sandpiper brood was discovered in July 2002 (R. Cotter, pers. comm. 2002). Spotted sandpipers nest throughout the forested portions of the Ungava Peninsula (Manning, 1949; Harper, 1958), but breeding had not previously been confirmed for the pectoral sandpiper (Manning, 1949; Godfrey, 1986; Holmes and Pitelka, 1998). The frequency of dunlin observations, coupled with previous observations in the area (J. Hughes, pers. comm. 2002), indicates that the dunlin is a much more abundant breeder on the Ungava Peninsula than previously suggested. Manning (1949) found no records of dunlin from the peninsula, and recently published breeding ranges for the species do not include the Ungava Peninsula (Godfrey, 1986; Warnock and Gill, 1996). Confirmed breeding of the American golden-plover represents the first breeding record for the Ungava Peninsula (Godfrey, 1986; Johnson and Connors, 1996), and plovers may be uncommon breeders along the Ungava's coastal river terraces. Manning (1949) reported American golden-plovers only in the fall. Few red-necked phalaropes were observed, but the species is likely more abundant in the study area (J. Hughes, pers. comm. 2002). Although not confirmed as breeding in the study area (J. Hughes, pers. comm. 2002), the red phalarope was the most abundant breeding shorebird on the Great Plain of the Koukdjuak, southwestern Baffin Island (pers. obs. 2003). Observations of Wilson's snipe extend its previously reported breeding range northward beyond the tree line (Manning, 1949; Godfrey, 1986; Mueller, 1999).
Rough-legged hawks and snowy owls would assuredly be less abundant in years with low lemming populations; their cyclic breeding patterns on the Ungava Peninsula were noted by Manning (1949) and are known from other parts of the Arctic (e.g., Underhill et al., 1993). This study corroborated the reports by Turner (1885) and Manning (1949) that the rough-legged hawk was one of the abundant birds of prey on the peninsula. Although Manning (1949) cited many observations of snowy owls, particularly during fall migration, breeding was noted only at Kuujjuaq by Turner (1885). In this study, snowy owls were observed at six sites, five of which were north of Povungnituk. The high lemming year in 2002 may also have allowed a northward expansion of breeding shorteared owls, which previously had not been reported nesting north of the tree line on the Ungava Peninsula (Manning, 1949; Holt and Leasure, 1993). Although gyrfalcons were previously reported widely from the Ungava Peninsula, primarily during winter and migration periods (Manning, 1949), none were found breeding in the study area. Nesting on the Ungava Peninsula was reported from Wakeham Bay (Manning, 1949).
Some of the most abundant, open-country landbirds observed in this study (the Lapland longspur, American pipit, savannah sparrow, and horned lark) were previously reported to be widespread and common breeders across the peninsula north of the tree line (Manning, 1949). The uncommonly recorded snow bunting was suggested by Manning (1949) to be a far more abundant breeder on the islands of Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait. Manning (1949) did not report American tree sparrows or white-crowned sparrows breeding as far north as this study, but more recent authors include all of the Ungava Peninsula in their breeding range maps (Naugler, 1993; Chilton et al., 1995; Gauthier and Aubry, 1996). Many landbirds are limited by the extent of shrub cover, and increases in Arctic shrubbiness caused by global warning may increase the northern breeding range limits of species such as the American tree sparrow and the white-crowned sparrow.
Red-throated loons were previously reported as much more widely distributed and abundant than recorded in this study (Manning, 1949). Late ice melt may have delayed nesting of loons in the study area in 2002. Although Manning (1949) reported that tundra swans were absent as breeders on the mainland Ungava Peninsula, most recent distribution maps for this species include the eastern shore of Hudson Bay, which includes our study area (Limpert and Earnst, 1994). The high density of nesting Canada geese in the study area has been known since the early 1900s (Low, 1902). The pairs of green-winged teal recorded in this study expand the known breeding range northward from Kuujjuaq, where they were reported by Turner (1885) and on the more recently derived distribution map by Johnson (1995). Manning (1949) reported the long-tailed duck, the most abundant duck in this study, as numerous throughout most of the Ungava Peninsula.
Additional systematic surveys of the Ungava Peninsula's Arctic region will likely increase the number of Arctic species known to breed in the region and will certainly increase our knowledge about the distribution and abundance of breeding birds. The number of range expansions documented in this study attests to the limited knowledge we have about Arctic regions. A better knowledge will be needed to determine which species may be most vulnerable to the vegetation shifts anticipated to result from global climate change.
Thanks to Vicky Johnston, Yves Aubrey, and Richard Cotter of the Canadian Wildlife Service, who provided funding and logistic support for this study. Jonathan Bart, U.S. Geological Survey, produced the overall design of the project and some travel funds. Deborah Buehler, Guillermo Fernandez-Aceves, and Jennie Rausch aptly aided in collection of field data. Thanks to Francis St-Pierre, Josee Lefebvre, Simon Bachand, and Vanessa Richard for their hospitality in the Canada goose Tuksukatuk camp on the Polemond River. Guillaume Tremblay of the goose crew helped with some shorebird data collection. Aliva Tulugak aided us in Povungnituk and arranged for transportation to the field camp. Special thanks to pilot Daniel Dube, Canadian Coast Guard, who provided skillful and conscientious helicopter support. Cyndi Perry, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, allowed me the time to participate in this project and provided my travel funds to Montreal.
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BRAD A. ANDRES (1)
(Received 4 July 2005; accepted in revised form 3 February 2006)
(1) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management, P.O. Box 25486, DFC-Parfet, Denver, Colorado 80225-0486, U.S.A.; email@example.com
TABLE 1. Occurrence of breeding bird species (percent of sites at which each species was seen) and occurrence of other breeding (B) and migrant (M) species observed on the northwestern Ungava Peninsula (Quebec, Canada) in 2002. Percent of Sites Where English Common Name French Common Name Scientific Name Observed Snow goose Oie des neiges Chen caerulescens M Canada goose bernache du Canada Branta canadensis 100 Tundra swan cygne siffleur Cygnus columbianus 18 American black duck canard noir Anas rubripes 9 Mallard canard colvert A. platyrhynchos M Northern shoveler canard souchet A. clypeata M Northern pintail canard pilet A. acuta 53 Green-winged teal sarcelle d'hiver A. crecca 12 Greater scaup fuligule milouinan Aythya marila 9 King eider eider a tete grise Somateria 6 spectabilis Common eider eider a duvet S. mollissima B? Harlequin duck arlequin plongeur Histrionicus B? histrionicus White-winged scoter macreuse brune Melanitta fusca 3 Black scoter macreuse noire M. nigra 18 Long-tailed duck harelde kakawi Clangula hyemalis 62 Common goldeneye garrot a oeil d'or Bucephala clangula M Common merganser grand harle Mergus merganser B? Red-breasted harle huppe M. serrator 3 merganser Willow ptarmigan lagopede des Lagopus lagopus 3 saules Rock ptarmigan lagopede alpin L. mutus 29 Red-throated loon plongeon catmarin Gavia stellata 12 Common loon plongeon huard G. immer 9 Rough-legged hawk buse pattue Buteo Lagopus 71 Peregrine falcon faucon pelerin Falco peregrinus 6 Sandhill crane grue du Canada Grus canadensis 3 Black-bellied pluvier argente Pluvialis M plover squatarola American golden- pluvier bronze Pluvialis dominica 6 plover Semipalmated plover pluvier semipalme Charadrius 38 semipalmatus Ruddy turnstone tournepierre a Arenaria interpres M collier Semipalmated becasseau Calidris pusilla 59 sandpiper semipalmd Least sandpiper becasseau C. minutilla 9 minuscule White-rumped becasseau a C. fuscicollis M sandpiper croupion blanc Baird's sandpiper becasseau de Baird C. bairdii M Dunlin becasseau variable C. alpina 29 Wilson's snipe becassine de Gallinago delicata 35 Wilson Red-necked phalarope a bec Phalaropus lobatus 3 phalarope etroit Red phalarope phalarope a bec P. fulicarius M large Parasitic jaeger labbe parasite Stercorarius M parasiticus Long-tailed jaeger labbe a longue Stercorarius 15 queue longicaudus Herring gull goeland argente Larus argentatus 85 Iceland gull goeland arctique L. glaucoides M Glaucous gull goeland L. hyperboreus B? bourgmestre Great black-backed goeland marin L. marinus M gull Arctic tern sterna arctique Sterna paradisea B? Snowy owl harfang des neiges Nyctea scandiaca 18 Short-eared owl hibou des marais Asio flammeus 29 Common raven grand corbeau Corvus corax 26 Horned lark alouette hausse- Eremophila 82 col alpestris American pipit pipit d'Amerique Anthus rubescens 100 American tree bruant hudsonien Spizella arborea 88 sparrow Savannah sparrow bruant des pres Passerculus 85 sandwichensis White-crowned bruant a couronne Zontrichia 53 sparrow blanche leucophrys Lapland longspur bruant lapon Calcarius 100 lapponicus Snow bunting bruant des neiges Plectrophenax 26 nivalis Common/hoary sizerin flamme/ Carduelis flammea/ 32 redpoll blanchatre hornemanni TABLE 2. Coarse, apparent density (mean number of birds/[km.sup.2] [+ or -] 1 SE) of shorebirds and small songbirds breeding on the northwestern Ungava Peninsula (Quebec, Canada) in 2002. The two-stage sample includes 100 plots surveyed at 34 sites. Birds/[km.sup.2] (mean [+ or -] SE) Shorebirds: American golden-plover 0.1 [+ or -] 0.1 Semipalmated plover 0.6 [+ or -] 0.3 Semipalmated sandpiper 2.2 [+ or -] 0.7 Least sandpiper 0.3 [+ or -] 0.2 Dunlin 0.3 [+ or -] 0.2 Wilson's snipe 0.6 [+ or -] 0.3 Songbirds: Horned lark 4.9 [+ or -] 0.9 American pipit 11.1 [+ or -] 1.5 American tree sparrow 7.6 [+ or -] 1.5 Savannah sparrow 6.4 [+ or -] 1.3 White-crowned sparrow 2.7 [+ or -] 0.7 Lapland longspur 30.7 [+ or -] 2.9 Snow bunting 0.7 [+ or -] 0.3 Common/hoary redpoll 0.4 [+ or -] 0.3 TABLE 3. Species richness at sites (n = 34) where maximum elevation was either less than 50 m or 50 m and above on the northwestern Ungava Peninsula (Quebec, Canada) in 2002. Elevation Elevation < 50 m [greater than or equal to] 50 m Mean no. of spp. SE Mean no. of spp. SE All waterbirds 12.3 1.1 8.8 0.7 Shorebirds only 3.9 0.3 2.1 0.3 Songbirds 5.2 0.3 5.9 0.2 t-value df (1) p-value All waterbirds 2.83 20 0.0103 Shorebirds only 4.12 25 0.0004 Songbirds -1.78 24 0.0877 (1) Calculated using Satterthwaite's approximation (Snedecor and Cochran, 1980:97). % of sites where species occurs < 50 m (n = 13) [greater than or equal to] 50 m (n = 21) SESA p = 0.003 DUNL p = 0.001 SEPL p = 0.491 WISN p = 0.292 FIG. 2. The effect of elevation (less than 50 m and 50 m and above) on occurrence of common breeding shorebirds at sites (n = 34) on the northwestern Ungava Peninsula (Quebec, Canada) in 2002. (SESA = semipalmated sandpiper, DUNL = dunlin, SEPL = semipalmated plover, WISN = Wilson's snipe). P-values refer to Fisher's Exact test results for proportions in each elevation group within a species. Note: Table made from bar graph.
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|Author:||Andres, Brad A.|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2006|
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