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An Anglo-Norman treatise on female religious.

London, British Library, MS Egerton 613 is a make-up volume containing seventy folios of the thirteenth century and has been meticulously described by Betty Hill.(1) It was acquired by the British Library from Sotheby's in May 1836, having previously belonged to William Bentham of Gower Street. Dr Hill convincingly conjectures that folios 59-70 (quire 9), which contain the text that interests us here, were already associated with folios 7-58 in the thirteenth century and that folios 1-6 joined them by the mid-fourteenth century.(2) The compilation may have been put together in the south-west Midlands and doubtless lay for centuries in the armarium of a monastic house; whether a convent of nuns or a male congregation it is impossible to say. The volume is striking for mingling devotional texts of diverse origins - English, Anglo-Norman and continental - and thus represents a very important witness to Anglo-Norman religious culture in the thirteenth century (nine items are unica). All the more surprising, then, that a metrical treatise on the vocation of the nun, found on fols [59.sup.r]-[64.sup.r] (part of quire 9), has never been edited. This is partly, no doubt, because both Langfors(3) and Sonet(4) referred to it as 'Salut a la Vierge', which it is not, and Vising(5) confused it with a set of 'metrical salutations' found elsewhere. Hill only partly dispels the confusion by describing it as Les Quatre Titres d'une Nonne,(6) a title for which there is no authority in the manuscript, where the text appears without a rubric of any sort.

The treatise was written by a spiritual director or confessor (perhaps, more generally, a 'custos') for a female religious and her community ('chescune aim de tel amur / Cure(e) frere deit amer serur', 531-2). It is difficult to be more precise about the involvement of specific orders in the cura monialium. For example, it is true that the Cistercian General Chapter of 1228 declined to accept any new commitments to the cura monialium beyond congregations already incorporated in the order, but in practice the decision was not strictly observed.(7) After the Dominican friars had the mission of hearing confessions entrusted to them by Pope Honorius III in 1221, the Order of Preachers became an important order of confessors and was much involved with moniales. But the treatise edited below is not concerned either with confession or with monitoring the religious practices of female communities. Rather, it is a carefully constructed and unusually concentrated poem in four sections which seeks to explain the nature of the nun's vocation and the qualities expected of her. After an introduction (1-4) enumerating the four titles which may rightfully be bestowed on the nun, the first section (4-132) is devoted to the title of dame and begins with a presentation of the sponsa Christi motif and the threefold division into virgins, widows and spouses which is found in Aldhelm's De virginitate and amplified in the Speculum virginurn (see below). The author takes a broad and inclusive view of those eligible to become brides of Christ (14-18), since the heavenly Bridegroom 'ne guarde pas a la beaute, / Mais a la bone volente' (19-20). The threefold division of sponsae is matched by the number of crowns (thirty, sixty, one hundred) accorded them by the Bridegroom, who confers on them the status of queens (27-34). The obligations of the sponsa are evoked and the author provides a lengthy description of the four cardinal virtues (44-104) - cuintise, force de curage, atemperance and justise. The first three are directly related to dreit (see lines 85-7 with the distinguishing verbs esguarder, contrester, and amer), but justise is preeminent and there is an account of what it enjoins on us (89-98). A short summary (99-108) is followed by a discussion of the ring as a symbol of betrothal at the nun's profession (109-126). This first section on the title dame ends with a neat conclusio (127-32). The second section deals with the title of amie and distinguishes three types of relationship, two worldly and one spiritual (133-36). First there is the profane sensual love which leads the woman to do the man's bidding and which causes him to behave intemperately and foolishly. This type of relationship can provoke hate as well as love and ends badly, as is clear from the biblical precedent of Solomon (137-172). Then there is the more honourable, worldly love 'senz malveistiet e senz folur' (180) which is sometimes necessary ('besuignable', 183) (173-86). Finally, the love with which the writer addresses the nun is a spiritual love, and the nun herself is a 'veire amie' (201), that is, 'la Deu amie', whom the writer addresses as 'bele amie' (271) and whose virtues are symbolized in the allegorized properties of the dove and turtle-dove (see 207-98). This lengthy second section (133-304) also ends with a neat conclusio (299-304). The third section (305-418) is devoted to the title fille and consists largely of an allegory concerning the tree of wisdom and the fifteen degrees of growth. There is once more a short conclusio (413-18). The final section (419-526) deals with the title of serur and promotes the ideal of peace and concord, whilst also explaining the symbolic significance of the nun's vestments (mantle, surplice and veil). The whole treatise, which the writer calls icest ditiet (527), is concluded with a kind of dedication which directs the work not only to the addressee, a nun, who is presumably the superior of a female community, but also to all the members of her community 'communalment', in the spirit of that love which a brother has for his sister (527-38).

A noteworthy feature of the treatise is that in each of the first three sections the author makes clear use of an identifiable source which is the product of the twelfth century. These sources are exploited as follows:

1. (12ff.) The writer draws on traditional patristic material concerning the theme of chastity and the three groups of eligible brides, viz. virgins, widows and spouses, as it is found in the Benedictine Speculum virginum,(8) a dialogue between Theodora and a priest Peregrinus, the pseudonymous author, who composed the work c. 1140 and who exhibits certain spiritual affinities with the Augustinian Hugh of Fouilloy (see below).

2. (207ff.) Here a traditional exegesis of the dove, given prominence by Hugh of Fouilloy's De avibus ad Raynerum, is employed with close conformity to Geoffrey Babion's first Sermon for the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary (see notes to line 207 etc.)

3. (317ff.) The fifteen degrees of growth of the tree of wisdom are derived from one of Hugh of Saint-Victor's contemplative works, the De archa Noe (morali), especially book ii, chapter xviii. This popular work survives in 150 manuscripts, 58 of which date from the twelfth century and 19 of which stem from England.(9)

4. (42off.) The sources for the fourth section are more difficult to identify. The discussion of peace and concord is in a general way reminiscent of the Latin and Anglo-Norman amplifications of Psalms lxxxiv.11-12 on the theme of the Four Daughters of God.(10) The origins of the vestimentary symbolism, on the other hand, are difficult to determine, particularly since little material is available on this subject.(11) The mantle of the nun is said to symbolize humility by its black colour, and simplicity by the use of sheepskin (465-70). Of the two surplices, the white represents propriety of the body and cleanliness of heart, whilst the black indicates world-contempt and is thus used in burial (471-86). Finally, the veil symbolizes the protective shade of the Holy Spirit, which shelters the ears, eyes, mouth, hands, feet, heart and flesh and protects against sin (487-526).

Further traditional motifs, which are dealt with in the notes below, are the cardinal virtues (44ff.), the three enemies of man (57ff.), the three types of love (133ff.), the wounds of Christ (279ff.). It is particularly unfortunate that the source of the discussion of clothing cannot at present be identified, since it seems at first sight a possible indication of the order to which the addressee of the treatise belonged. Yet it must be admitted that monastic practices in this regard were complex and sometimes unclear,(12) however true it may be to assume that the habit, colour and cloth were normally settled by custom, and subject to careful regulation. By the early thirteenth century there were approximately 150 religious houses for women, and about one-quarter of the new foundations (some thirty) in the twelfth century were so-called double monasteries which included men.(13) One of these may be the home of our piece, but of course the treatise might be the work of a chaplain charged with the supervision of almost any house of nuns. It is interesting to note another Anglo-Norman treatise on the religious life addressed to a woman, and that is the commentary on the Pater Noster attributed to Adam of Exeter and found in Cambridge, Pembroke College, MS 112, fols [71.sup.r]-[92.sup.r] (another copy in Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS f. fr. 19525, fols [72.sup.vs]-[82.sup.vb]), where the frequent address to 'ma (tres) chere mere', 'ma doce mere', etc. has been expunged and replaced by 'beau sire'.(14) Also written for women were some versions of St Edmund's Merure de seinte Eglise and William Giffard's verse translation of the Apocalypse (and commentary).

Our treatise is written in a direct and lively style. The author speaks in the first person on over twenty occasions, concluding the third section with a reference to the allegory of the tree of wisdom, 'que vus ai escrit en cest fuill' (415). He also makes use of questions six times (5, 9, 187, 279, 306, 339), exhorting the addressee at thirteen points with an imperative construction. Much of the text is concerned with exegesis, so that frequent use is made of the words senefier (109, 112, 134, 264, 276, 279, 283, 473, 483, 493; senefiance 252) and entendre (3, 206, 222, 238, 271, 317, 322, 349, 386). At 263 the word figure is employed to mean 'symbol', and sentence appears with the sense of sententia (238) and allegory (319, 413). The use of metaphor and simile is very sparing but found, for example, at lines 417-18: 'Retenez la [= la sume de la sentence], bele fille, / Kar ele eschape cume anguille.'

Linguistically, the treatise remains an unremarkable document and provides little guide to dating (first quarter of thirteenth century?). Characteristically Anglo-Norman orthographical features of the scribe are: aun in baundun (346); frequent use of u and o interchangeably (verdor: chalur, 371-2; odor:flur, 387-8); final supported t is sometimes restored to etymological d (round, 195 (:sunt), 339, 342, 479, 525); retention of archaic final din ad([less than] habet), and archaic final post-tonic ie in estudie (199, 384?), memorie (367), glorie (61, 107, 368, 404, 537), victorie (62), necessarie (79 (:faire)), vigilies (40); en and an are confused in haenge (227); retention of final dentals in futures, preterites and past participles (e.g. purrat, orrat, espusat, criad, glorifiet) and in presents (loed, semet) and nouns (malveistiet); svarabhaktic e between consonant + r(overer, averunt; atemperance may be due to Latin influence); the forms jeo and ceo, and the use of the digraph eo in veolt, teortre, meort, veolent, queor, eovre; Latin-influenced forms virges (13) and virgnes (34); Dampnedeu rhyming with atempre (75-6) and Deu with verite (295-6). The instability of prosthetic e is illustrated by scole (198). The -gn- in benigne (98 (:doctrine)) may be under Latin influence, though depalatalization is indicated in racine: aligne (325-6). The digraph ui appears for u in juines (39). So far as morphology is concerned, the first- person present indicative of -er verbs appears without analogical -e: mand (2), apel (185, 187), aim (188, 531); tel remains uninflected in lines 51, 69, 252 and itel in line 201, and grant similarly; the oblique plural of the definite article appears as le in line 82; the strong form of the personal pronoun li appears as object of the infinitive at line 268; the western form of the feminine personal pronoun el appears regularly alongside ele, and the plural form els appears in line 502; joie is masculine at line 381. Cel appears for ceo at line 457. The rhymes offer little of note, the writer exploiting a core of easy rhymes: in -er (26 times), -ent (24 times), in -e (19 times), in -ur (18 times), and in -un (17 times). There are approximate rhymes at lines 25-6 (sage: large; effacement of preconsonantal r?) and 247-8 (pechiez: vielz). Rhymes extending over four lines occur at lines 7-10, 85-8, 165-8, 249-52, 377-80, 387-90, 531-4, 535-8.

On the question of syllable count I have proceeded from the conviction that the author intended to write octosyllables throughout, despite the evidence that many Anglo-Norman poets were happy to mix octosyllables and heptasyllables. Allowing for normal phenomena of hiatus and liaison, there is an equal number of lines (fifteen) which are hypometric and hypermetric, but all of them can be rendered regular by nothing more than cosmetic changes: for example, employment of 'doublet' forms, insertion or omission of monosyllables, virtually no more than the interpretation of scribal practice. In the case of standard elision, which is not indicated orthographically, I have not thought it necessary to intervene, but in cases of non-elision and hiatus I have used the diaeresis, even where the line might be metrically construed in more than one way. This is not fashionable, but has the merit in my eyes of enabling the reader to progress fluently and unhesitatingly whilst reading aloud, a practice which ought to be regarded as mandatory for verse texts of the period.

The Anglo-Norman treatise edited below survives in an apparently imperfect form. The ninth quire (fols 59-70) of MS Egerton 613 consists of twelve folios, severely cropped, measuring 220 x 140 mm, written in a hand of the first half of the thirteenth century. Folios 66-70 are wormed, particularly folio 70, the verso of which is stained and rubbed as if it had for long been an outer cover. The Anglo-Norman text of 538 lines, in octosyllabic rhyming couplets, occupies folios [59.sup.r]-[64.sup.r] and simply begins, without rubric, but with a three-line red initial, 'Dame, amie, fille, sorur, / Saluz vus mand, joie e honur.' There are further two-line red initials at lines 133, 305 and 419. They mark a clear, fourfold division of the text which I have retained in my edition below. All other initial letters are splashed in red. The activity of the rubricator can be seen elsewhere in the text where he was clearly the revisor. For example, on three occasions (fol. [59.sup.v], line 12; fol. [60.sup.v], line 15; fol. [62.sup.v], line 15) he inserted the rubricated symbol .9. at the end of the ruled line to indicate missing lines which the scribe then added in the margin, but which have unfortunately been largely lost through cropping. Elsewhere (fol. [59.sup.v], line 12; fol. [60.sup.v], line 15; fol. [62.sup.r], line 9; fol. [62.sup.v], line 15; fol. [63.sup.r], line 12; fol. [64.sup.r], line 4) the scribe added lines in the margin which the rubricator then encircled with a wavy red line to indicate their insertion, and which have again been largely lost owing to cropping. These defective lines have been omitted from the edition below, which must be regarded as technically incomplete. On folio [63.sup.v] lines 483-8 of our text were squeezed into the space left at the end of line 8 and in line 9 of the page (apel exceeding the writing block), and the rubricator marked each of the couplets with a red splash. The writing-block measures 170 x 118 mm, and the scribe has written one octosyllabic couplet to the line, twenty-six lines to the page, beginning 'above top line', with the following exceptions: on folios [60.sup.v] and [61.sup.r] an extra line is added below the last ruling. On folio [62.sup.r], line 326 is spread over two lines (e aligne is displaced to the second line) and lines 327 and 328 are separated on lines of their own, with the result that lines 325-8 occupy lines 5-7 of the page. On the same page line 340 exceeds the writing-block, and lines 355-6 occupy a separate line each. On folio [63.sup.v], lines 499-502 are squeezed into almost one line over an erasure (les oilz garde being written after line 498 (= line 14 of the page)), exceeding the writing-block, and folement (502) is preceded by a red paragraph mark and displaced to the end of line 504 (line 16 of folio [63.sup.v]). Otherwise each couplet occupies a single line and is divided by a mid-line puncture (there is nothing after the second line of each couplet). An interrogative sign .[approximately] is placed after lines 5, 187 and 279 and after cument and purquei in line 339. There are approximately forty-two cases where the puncture is used within the line, often to mark a syntactic unit: Virges. vedves. e espuses (I3); Nees la clope. e la bocue (17); E fort. epuissant. e noble. e large (26); Glorifiet. e bonure (24), etc. Accents are frequently placed not only over vowels in hiatus (veeir, leesce, apelee, etc.), but also over single vowels both blocked and free (aime, a perfectiun, ovrer, u, enlumine, amonester, final masculine e, etc). The principal abbreviations used are: superscript [approximately] (ur), 9 (us); d's (deus), e (est), 7 (e), gl'e (glorie), k' (kar), m't (ment), p(per, par), p' (pre), p (pro), q', [q.sup.e] (que), st' (sunt), [divided by] (est), 9 (cun), nre (nostre), v'gnes (virgnes), vre (vostre). Use is also made of the [d.sup.e] monogram in defendre (56), deporter (74), de (232, 400, 522), devendrat (486). In lines 478 and 493 odis written odh.

Dame, amie, fille, sorur, fol. [59.sup.r] Saluz vus mand, joie e honur; Entendez bien ceste parole

4 Cume nurrie en bone escole. Dame vus apele - e purquei? Kar il est escrit en la lei Que dei l'espuse mun seignur.

8 Ma dame apeler put enur. Savez qui jeo apel mun seignur? Jesu Crist nostre Creatur, Ki espuse espiritelment

12 Chascune ki a lui se prent, Virges, vedves e espuse[e]s, E pecheresses esguarees, Riches e povres uelment,

16 Beles e laides ensement. Nees la clope e la bocue, Se ele requiert, est bien venue; Ne guarde pas a la beaute,

20 Mais a la bone volente, Ne demande mie cots gent, Mais qeor ki l'aint entierement. Mut deit tel espus estre ame,

24 Glorifiet e honure, Kar il est bel e fiche e sage E fort e puissant, (e) noble e large. Tutes apare richement

28 E tutes aime lealment, E de chescune fait reine Ki tut sun queor vets lui encline. Trente curunes preciuses

32 Grante as leales espuses, E as bones vedves seisante E as virgnes dous fie(e)s cinquante. Mut deit estre de grant mesure

36 Ki en tel espus(e) met sa cure. Bien deit l'amur del mund leissier E(15) sa char suvent justiser En juines, en afflictiuns,

40 En vigilies, en ureisuns. Travaillier se deit nuit e jur El servise a si grant seignur, E si veolt a lui apresmer,

44 Quatre vertuz deit enbracier:(16) Cuintise, force e atemperance E justise od sa balance. Par cuintise se deit garder

48 E le bien del mal [de]sevrer, Le mal leisser e le bien faire E les altres a bien atraire; Od tel cuintise deit overer

52 Ki si halt espus veolt amer. Apres ait force de curage, fol. [59.sup.v] Ceste loed divine page. Par ceste deit bataille enprendre

56 E cuntre enemis sei defendre, Cuntre la char, (e) cuntre le mund, (E) cuntre Satan, ki bien cunfund. Cuntre la char ait chastee,

60 Cuntre Satan humilite, E del mund despise(17) la glorie, Issi purrat aveir victorie. Ne seit mat pur aversite

64 Ne trop tiers pur prosperite. En povrete ait esperance, En richesce en Deu sa fiance. Fort seit en tribulatiun

68 Que il ne chiet en cunfusiun. Par tel force se deit combatre Ki ses enemis veolt abatre. Apres deit aveir [a]temperance,(18)

72 Ki nus defend desmesurance. En mangier, en beivre, en parler, En dormir e en deporter, Nees el servise Dampnedeu

76 Deit hume si estre atempre.(19) A l'henur de Deu kil criad E ki sa grace li dunat Tel atemperance est necessarie

80 A tuz ceals ki bien veolent faire. La quarte(20) vertu est justise Ki tutes le[s] altres atise E atrait(e) a seurre dreiture

84 En tutes eovres e mesure. Cointise(21) fait dreit esguarder E force pur dreit contrester E atemperance d[r]eit amer

88 En tutes choses e guarder. Justise tent partut sa ligne, A chascun rent ceo dunt est digne, Deu sul cumande adorer

92 E sur tute [chose] enorer, E que renduns obedience A noz prelaz e reverence, E a noz(22) pers joie e enur

96 E compaignie senz haur, E as menurs sense doctrine E a trestuz amur benigne. Ki cez quatre vertuz averat

100 Seurement apresmerat A cel riche, a cel halt espus, Dunt ai devant parle a vus, Ki vus espusat en segrei

104 Quant sun anel vus mist el dei. E il vus dist priveement, fol. [60.sup.r] 'Bele, se m'amez lealment, En ma glorie serez reine

108 U joie ne fait ne ne fine'. L'anel senefie creance, Ceo est la premiere aliance Par quei Deu joint s'espuse a sei.

112 E que senefie le dei? Ovre de veire charite Ki tient la fei en verite. Dunt asiet l'anel el dei

116 Quant a s'espuse dune fei E sa grace de bien ovrer Pur lui servir e enorer. De cest anel vus espusat

120 Quant a s'amur vus apelat E vus mist en religiun Dunt fesistes professiun(23) Quant a lui del tut vus preistes

124 E lealment le premeistes Fei e amur e chastee E issi l'avez espuse. Put ceo vus dei dame apeler,

128 Servir, cherir e enorer; Pur ceo vus ai dame apelee Que celui vus ad espusee Ki est mun dreiturer seignur(24)

132 Que dei servir e noir e jur. Apres vus apelai amie, Cest mot treis choses senefie: Les dous entre gent seculers,

136 La tierce entre gent regulers. Li seculers apele amie Cele ki pur lui fait folie De sun cors a sa volente

140 E de ceo le sert a sun gre E el l'apele sun ami Pur ceo que il l'aime autresi. Tel amur n'est pas [del tut] verai

144 Pur ceo le ...(25) Hume e femme met en errur, Sis turmente e nuit e jur, E tant les fait a sei muser

148 E le delit del siecle user, Que il lur fait Deu oblier E(n) sun servise dejeter. Mut fait a duter tel amur,

152 Kar suvent enseut(26) grant haur E suvent ad malveise fin, Ceo truvum en livre devin. Mut fait tel amur a duter

156 Ki sage hume fait foler Cum il fist Salomon le rei, fol. [60.sup.v] Dunt nus lisum en la vielz lei Que il mist en apostasie,

160 (E) si li fist sivre idolatrie, Kar il fist [sun] Deu reneier E ses cumandemenz laissier. Itel amur n'est pas estable,

164 Ainz e[st](27) cum roe a deable: En une hure u en un moment Trespasse si tost cume vent, E quant hume ad fait sun talent,

168 A la parfin si nen(28) repent, E s'il nen prent sa penitence, Il orrat la dure sentence Quant le fiz Deu le jugerat

172 E [en] enfern le dampnerat. Ja si vus ne seiez amie En vostre vie ...(29) Uncore apele hume autrement

176 S'amie al siecle usualment, Pur bel apel, pur bel acreit, Pur bel servise que(30) li fait, Pur guerredun u pur honur

180 Senz malveistiet e senz folur. Tel amur est asez suffrable E suventesfeiz besuignable, Mais n'est amur de tel vertu

184 Ki puisse mener a salu. Jeo ne vus apel pas amie Ne pur guain ne pur folie.(31) Amie vus apel, purquei?

188 Kar jeo vus aim par dreite fei E pur amur Deu purement E pur le bien que en vus entent. Jesu Crist apele s'amie

192 Cele ki a s'amur se lie, Ki lui aime e en lui creit Eli rent ceo que el li deit, Ki pur lui [tut] guerpist le mund

196 E les granz deliz ki i sunt, Ki se delice en sa parole E volentiers est en sa scole, Ki (i) met s'estudie e sa raisun

200 En ordre de religiun. Itel amie est veire amie Que Deu met en sa cumpaignie E si el li veolt del tut plaisir,

204 Si li deir dous oiseals offrir: Teortre e columbe a sun talent, E si entendez bien cument.(32) Teortre si est de tel nature,

208 Sicum truvums en Escripture, Que od sun per(33) vit chastement E od lui est oniement. E se el [l]e pert par aventure, fol. [61.sup.r]

212 Jameis d'altre n[en] avrat cure, E apres vit sultivement E en liu de chant gient suvent. Tel deit estre la Deu amie,

216 Od Lui deir mener chaste vie, Ne a altre ne se deir juster E en liu de chant deit plurer Pur ses pechez e pur l'amur

220 Que ele ad envers sun creatur. La columbe ad set qualitez, Entendez les bien e notez. N'ad nient de fiel naturelment,

224 E l'amie Deu ensement Ne deir aver el queor haur, Ne vers frere ne vers serur: Ki haenge en sun quor retient

228 Si que amendement nen vient, Neli valt eovre ne vertu A perfectiun de salu. La columbe ne veolt guster

232 De caroingne ne vers user, E l'amie Deu deit hair Les pechez ki la funt perir E deit les vices eschiwer

236 Ki sunt cume vers(34) a duter. La columbe vit de semence (Entendez bien ceste sentence) E les meillurs grains en eslit

240 E sis use a sun profit; E l'amie Deu deit user La parole Deu e guarder E deit eslire od bone fei

244 Le mielz que ele entent de la lei. Columbe gient en liu de chant; L'amie Deu la seut gemant Quant ele gient pur ses pechiez,

248 Pur les noveals e put les vielz. La columbe amiablement Autrui piguns nurist suvent; E l'amie Deu ensement,

252 Ki tel senefiance entent Deit as autres pur Deu bien faire E a l'amur de Deu atraire. La columbe pur aguatier

256 La ravine de l'espervier Juste l'ewe vait demurrant E en l'ewe suvent guardant, Que ele puisse en l'ewe veeir

260 L'umbre de l'espervier moveir. Des que el le veit si vole en veie E l'espervier falt a sa preie. Entendez bien ceste figure,

264 L'ewe senerie Escriture. fol. [61.sup.v] En cest' ewe deit esguarder L'amie Deu e sei mirer Pur sei guarder de Satanas

268 Ki de li guaiter nen est las. E se el(e) veit sa temptaciun, Si se deit mettre en ureisun. Bele amie, entendez i,

272 La columbe si fait sun ni(35) Volentiers en pertus de piere E en crevace de maisiere. La piere, sicum seint Pol dist,

276 Nus senefie Jesu Crist, Ki est estable fundement De seinte Iglise e ornement. Que senefient les pertus?

280 Les plaies que recut Jesus Dunt(36) sun seint sanc curut (a) fuisun Pur la nostre redemptiun. La crevace, que senefie?

284 Le lez overt del fiz Marie Dunt sanc e ewe a grant plente Eissit put nostre salvete. Ci deit l'amie Deu(37) penser

288 De sun ami e remenbrer La passiun que il suffrit Quant a diable nus tolit. Issi deit estre appareillee

292 De suffrir put lui grant haschiee E bien se deit mettre a bandun De suffrir pur lui passiun. C'est(e) la sume e la verite:

296 Ki veolt estre l'amie Deu Seit chaste cum[e] turturele E simple cume columbele. Or(e) ne vus merveilliez dunc mie

300 Si jeo vus apelai amie, Amie en Deu en charite, Amie en fei en verite. De tel amur deir hum(e) parler

304 Suvent entre gent seculer. Apres, fille vus apelai, Fille, purquei? - jeol vus dirrai. Jeo vus sulei[e] doctriner

308 E veie de salu mustrer Par essamples e par reisun, A la fie[e] par sermun, E suleie vus encreper

312 E ducement amonester Cume pere fait sun enfant Pur mettre le bien avant. Pur ceo vus ai fille apelee

316 E sicume fille enoree. Uncor(e) se me vulez entendre fol. [62.sup.r] E cume bone fille aprendre, Vus aprendrai une sentence

320 Cume l'arbre de sapience Creist en vus par quinze degrez. Belle fille, ore entendez!(38) Premerainement est semee

324 Sapience, e puis arusee, Puis meort el quer e puis racine, Puis greine neist, creist e aligne, Puis coilt force e vait verdeiant,

328 Puis branchist e ses rains espant, Apres flurist e fruitefie, Puis maure, puis est coillie, Puis est par contemplatiun

332 Pardurable refectiun.(39) Par pour est comencement De sapience e fundement, Puis vient la grace desirree

336 Cume celestiel rusee Ki fait al queor leesce aveir Pur la semence de saveir. Puis meort - Cument? Al mund - Purquei?

340 Kar issi trovum en la lei Ki veolt sapience nurrir Deit al delit del mund murrir. Puis racine par bone fei,

344 Ki fermement l'estreint a sei. Apres naist par compunctiun Ki esprent le queor de baundun(40) De lumiere de verite.

348 Quant le queor est enlumine A entendre Seinte Escriture E ad ovrer sulunc mesure, Idunc naist el queor le tresor

352 Ki plus valt que argent ne or. Ceste sapience dunt ai dit, Ki si naist par Seint Espirit, Apres creist sus en halt muntant

356 Par le desirrer que hume ad grant De mener espiritel vie. En ceo(41) s'esjoist e studie Pur guster la duce dulcur

360 De la celestiel amur. Puis coilt force par charite Ki cunforte hume ennette E fait haite, hardi e fort

364 A suffrir pur amur Deu mort. Puis ver[d]eie par esperance fol. [62.sup.v] Ki fait aveir en remenbrance E en perpetuel memoire

368 Les biens de celestiel glorie. Esperance ne lair sechir Sapience ne refreidir, Einz la tient tut tens en verdor

372 E en vertu e en chalur. Puis branchist par discretiun E espant ses rains envirun. En cels creist sapience amunt

376 Ki en contemplatiun sunt E enquierent la privite Del ciel par lur subtilite. En cels espant ses rains en le

380 E multiplie a grant plente Ki e[n le]s joies terriens Veolent despendre en bien lur sens Sulunc l'estudie que il unt

384 E sulunc le mestier que il funt. Apres flurist par discipline. De ovre entendez ceste doctrine: Treis choses sunt - bealte, odor,

388 Esperance de fruit - en flur. (E) bone eovre est bele cume flur Par essample, e si dune udur Par renumee, e senz dutance

392 Ad en lui de fruit esperance. Puis fruitefie a salu Se ele ad en sei une vertu.(42) Idunc aprimes fruiterie

396 Bone ovre en hume e edifie. Apres maure sapience Quant hume par sa pacience(43) Parmeint en bien desque a la mort

400 E il vient de saluz al port. Dunc est sapience coillie Quant hume est pris en bone vie E sa alme est a Deu presentee

404 En la glorie boneuree. Ceo est le fruit que Deu atent De sapience e que il prent. Apres seut la refectiun

408 De l'alme en contemplatiun, C'est(44) la joie perpetuel E le delit espiritel Que les boneurez averunt

412 Ki a la destre Deu serrunt. C'est la sume de la sentence De cel arbre de sapience Que vus ai escrit en cest fuill

416 Cume a fille que enseigne[r] vuil. Retenez la bien, bele fille, fol. [63.sup.r] Kar ele eschape cume anguille. Apres vus apelai serur

420 Pur la chierte e pur l'enur D'espiritel fraternite E de ordre e de societe, Kar issi est Deu nostre pere

424 E Seinte Iglise nostre mere. Ki veolt de cest pere estre ami E de cest[e] mere altresi, Deit pais amer e pais guarder

428 En Seinte Iglise e guverner. Par pals fud primes asemblee Seinte Iglise e conferme[e], E quant Deus dut munter el ciel,

432 Si leissat sun lait e sun miel - Ceo fud sa pais - a ses disciples, Que il fuissent entr'els paisibles. Essample nus voleit duner

436 Que nus devum la pais amer E il apele proprement Cels ses fiz ki paisiblement Vivent en congregatiun;

440 Ceo truvum nus en sun sermun.(45) De pals n'at [ki] semet discorde Ki cunfunt amur e cuncorde. De discorde vienent tencuns,

444 Escanles e disensiuns. Discorde mesle bons amis E sis fait mortels enemis, Discorde tolt religiun

448 E trait hume a perdiciun. La u discorde regnerat Ja nul bien fuisun nen avrat. Ki discorde semet entre gent

452 Sert le deable a sun talent, Fiel e aisil dune a beivre A Deu e de lui se deseivre.(46) Ki pais aime e pais maintient

456 A Deu sert e a Deu se tient. Pur cel vus di, bele serur, Meintenez pais pur Deu amur, Si serez en Deu enuree

460 E la fille Deu apelee. Gardez a l'ordre que tenez E a l'abit que vus portez, Si purrez bien aperceveir

464 Que vostre frere vus dit veir. Esguardez bien vostre mantel, Le drap neir e les pels d'aignel. Le drap neir note humilite,

468 Les pels d'aignel simplicite. Cels dous choses funt pais tenir fol. [63.sup.v] A nunain ki Deu veolt servir.(47) [E] deus surpliz sulez aveir,

472 L'un si est blanc e l'autre neir. Le blanc senerie honeste Del corse del queor nettee. Cels dous choses funt pais guarder

476 A nunain ki Deu veolt amer. Le neir que en professiun Presistes od beneicun Denote le despit del mund

480 E de[s] vanitez ki i sunt Que vus devez entrelaissier Se ordre de nunain ave[z](48) chier. Icest despit vus senefie

484 Que el neir serrez ensevelie Quant vostre cors revertirat A terre e terre devendrat. Le veil ne devez ublier

488 Ki nonain [vus] fet apeler. Le veil, ki sur le chef est mis E les oreilles e le(s) vis Adumbre envirun e descend

492 Sur les espaules(49) sutilment, Senefie od l'autre habit L'umbre del Seint Esperit, Ki descent espiritelment

496 Sur la nunain quant le veil prent, E la umbre contre l'ardur Des vices e cuntre folur. Les oilz garde en simplicite

500 Ke il n'esgardent vanite, E les oreilles ensement, Que els n'escoltent folement Paroles ki a felonie

504 Le traient u a lecherie. La buche adumbre de sa grace Que a li ne altre mal ne face Par mencunges u par tencuns,

508 Par gas u par(50) dectractiuns. Les mains retrait de ovre da[m]pnable E estent a ovre acceptable. Les piez retient, estreint e lie,

512 Que il ne corgent a folie. Le(s) queor espire e enlumine E fait amer la lei divine. La char fait tute refreider

516 E en chastee deliter. Ceo est le veil ki seintifie Le nonain ki en lui se fie. Cest veil aiez en remenbrance,

520 En lui metez vostre esperance, E il [vus] si(51) adumberat De sa grace e adornerat Cuntre la flamble des pechez

524 E mettrat Satan suz voz piez, E vus ferat le mund despire fol. [64.sup.r] E de tuz mals vus serrat mire. Icest ditiet(52) que jeo ai fait

528 E de Seinte Escriture estrait Vus envei [e]specialment E a tutes comunalment, Kar chescune aim de tel amur

532 Cum(e) frere deit(53) amer serur. Dame, amie, fille, serur, Saluz vus mand, joie e enur. Saluz cuntre asalt de diable,

536 Joie qui tuz jurz seit estable, Enur en glorie pardurable La nus meint l'Esspiritable.


1. The writer's clear compositional technique is illustrated by his use of identical couplets (1-2 and 533-4) as a frame for his treatise, whilst at the same time effecting a concluding climax by amplificatio of the terms saluz joie and honur (535-7).

6. Although the feudal analogy is not here developed, it is commonly found in literature of the period: see A. B. Myrick, 'Feudal terminology in mediaeval religious poetry', Romanic Review, 11 (1920), 1-25; Rosemary Woolf, The English Religious Lyric in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1968), pp. 46-8; Douglas Gray, Themes and Images in the Medieval English Religious Lyric (London, 1972), pp. 16-7.

11 Cf. C. Chavasse, The Bride of Christ (London, 1940). The use of the sponsa motif, from its first application by Tertullian to Christian virgins, is surveyed in M. Bernards, Speculum virginum: Geistigkeit und Seelenleben der Frau im Hochmittelalter, 2nd edn (Vienna, 1982), pp. 185-8. On the semantics and symbolism of sponsa, see R. Metz, La Consecration des vierges dans l'eglise romaine: Etude d'histoire de la liturgie (Paris, 1954), pp. 118 ff. and n. 112. A rather superficial and negative survey of writing on virginity is given in D. Bornstein, The Lady in the Tower. Medieval Courtesy Literature for Women (Hamden, Conn., 1983), pp. 15-30. Also cursory is the account in Angela Lucas, Women in the Middle Ages: Religion, Marriage and Letters (Brighton, 1983), pp. 19-29. The thesis developed in J. Bugge, Virginitas: An Essay in the History of a Medieval Ideal (The Hague, 1975) has not met with favour.

18. Possibly se ele for s'el le (cf. 211).

23. See Medieval Women's Visionary Literature, ed. E. A. Petroff (New York and Oxford, 1986), P. 39: 'For the mystics of the thirteenth century virginity is important in a new way, for many of these writers, in their visions of a mystical union with Christ, suggest the paradox that virginity in this world is rewarded by marriage to the divine.'

29. The theme of the queen (see also line 107) may reflect the growing importance of the Coronation of the Virgin in twelfth-century England: see Ph. Verdier, Le Couronnement de la Vierge: Les origines et les premiers deloppements d'un theme iconographique (Montreal and Paris, 1980). On the transformation, in the first half of the thirteenth century, of the Triumph of the Virgin (itself an innovation after the central image of the Virgin and Child) into the Coronation of the Virgin, see Penny Shine Gold, The Lady and the Virgin: Image, Attitude, and Experience in Twelfth-Century France (Chicago and London, 1985), pp. 51-68, esp. pp. 56, 61-5. The crown may also be explained by the concept of virginity as 'bloodless martyrdom': see Bernards, Speculum virginum, p. 45. Cf. Speculum virginum, ed. J. Seyfarth, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio mediaevalis 5 (Turnhout, 1990), pp. 210-11: 'Quouis enim modo siue disciplina conubialis seu continentia uidualis proficiant, ad uirginalis meriti coronam non perueniunt ... Pudicicia uirtus principalis in omnibus est, que corona sancte integritatis fide moribusque perornata fructum et ordinem precedentium precurrit.' Ambrose (PL, XVI, col. 321C) cites Isaiah lxii.3. On the crown in the liturgy for the consecration of virgins, see Metz, La Consecration des vierges, p. 267: 'Accipe coronam virginalis excellentie ut, sicut per manus nostras coronaris in terris, ita a Christo gloria et honorare coronari merearis in celis. [Antiphon] Dilexit me dominus Iesus Christus et tanquam sponsam decoravit me corona'. See also R. Metz, 'La couronne et l'anneau dans la consecration des vierges', Revue des sciences religieuses, 28 (1954), 113-32; repr. in R. Metz, La Femme et l'enfant dans le droit canonique medieval (London, 1985) ch. vii. In Aelred of Rievaulx's De institutione inclusarum, written between 1160 and 1165 for his sister, a recluse, we read: 'Vide qualem tibi sponsum elegeris, qualem ad te amicum asciveris. Ipse est speciosus ... Ipse te iam elegit in sponsam, sed non coronabit nisi probatam' (ed. Ch. Dumont (Paris, 1961), II, xiv).

31 ff. These lines reflect a patristic commonplace of discussions of female chastity through the adaptation of the idea of merit illustrated in the parable of the sower (Matthew xiii.8; Mark iv.8): see, e.g. Augustine, De sancta virginitate (PL, XL, col. 423). See Bernards, Speculum virginum, pp. 40-4. In the De virginitate (c. 680?) Aldhelm divides humanity according to virginitas, castitas and conjugalitas (Prose, ch. 19), replacing widowhood (see Bernards, Speculum virginum, pp. 50-5) by castitas. On widows and chastity, including the benedictio vidue, see Mary C. Erler, 'Margery Kempe's white clothes', M/E, 62 (1993), 78-83 (p. 82 n. 3). For the triad, see plate 7 in Bernards, Speculum virginum. In the Speculum virginum, chapter vii opens as follows: 'Quid in hac figura premissa pretuleris, satis quidem adverto, quod duos videlicet ordines tertio dignitate vel merito precellenti postposueris, quorum postremum summo ordini loco et fructu quoddammodo reddis incomparabilem, dum illi centesimum, isti tricesimum fructum asscribis' (p. 190). The situation is summarized thus: 'Huc usque de tribus quidem gradibus egimus coniugatorum, viduarum et virginum, inter quos iam virgines in terris esse ceperunt, quod in celis quandoque future sunt. His igitur pre ceteris maius erit premium, quia dignior ordo vel labor ad meritum. Si enim virgines primicie Dei esse ceperunt, ergo vidue et in matrimonio continentes erunt, post primicias, id est in secundo et tertio gradu. Centesimus, sexagesimus et tricesimus fructus, quamvis de una terra et de uno semente nascitur, tamen, ut nosti, multum differt in numero ... Porro centesimus numerus a sinistra transfertur ad dexteram et hisdem quidera digitis, sed non eadem manu, quibus in leva nupte significantur et vidue, circulum faciens exprimit virginitatis coronam' (p. 217, lines 780ff.). The threefold division of merit is also reproduced in the early thirteenth-century work Hall Meiohad, ed. Bella Millett, EETS 284 (London, 1982); see pp. xxxviii-xxxix and pp. 11-12. The text refers (p. 11, line 17) to the crowns thus: 'Ant alle ha beodh icrunet the blissidh in heouene widh kempene crune' and includes the aureola or special crown of virgins.

44. For the cardinal virtues, see the bibliography cited by H. Silvestre in Classica et Mediaevalia, 24 (1963), 176 n. 23, and the works cited in Bernards, Speculum virginum, pp. 77-82; cf. the diadema virtutum in Geoffrey of Auxerre's Expositio in Cantica canticorum ed. F. Gastaldelli (Rome, 1971), pp. 160ff. (re Song of Solomon iii. 11) and the plate facing page 167; J. O'Reilly, Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and Vices (New York and London, 1988), pp. 40ff. and 113ff; Bernards, Speculum virginum, pp. 77-82; M. Evans, 'Tugenden' in Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie, 4 (1972), cols 364-80.

49. See Psalms xxxvi. 27 ('Declina a malo et fac bonum'); Psalms xxxiii. 15 ('Diverte a malo et fac bonum').

57. On these three enemies (caro, mundus, diabolus), see S. Wenzel, 'The three enemies of man', Mediaeval Studies, 29 (1967), 47-66. Wenzel traces the triad to sermon 158 of Augustine and also, more pertinently to the present case, shows that the formula occurs in the Secreta of a Mass for the profession of monks in a manuscript of the ninth century and that it was taken up in the eleventh century by two monastic writers, Jean de Fecamp and Jean l'Homme de Dieu. The triad becomes a topos in the twelfth century, the most powerful influence being exercised by Hugh of Saint-Victor and Bernard of Clairvaux which is manifest in treatises on the spiritual life from Richard of Saint-Victor to Hilton. The triad also occurs very frequently in sermons, initially monastic sermons. The triad is, further, associated with the three theological, and three cardinal, virtues in the Fasciculus morum v, 24-35: see Siegfried Wenzel, Verses in Sermons: 'Fasciculus morum' and its Middle English Poems (Cambridge, Mass., 1978). For more evidence, see Le Besant de Dieu de Guillaume le Clerc de Normandie, ed. P. Ruelle (Brussels, 1973), pp. 56ff.

104. Cf. The liturgy of the Consecratio sacre virginis (PL, CXXXVIII, col. 1098): 'Ad annulum dandum: Accipe annulum fidei, signaculum Spiritus Sancti, ut sponsa Dei voceris si ei fideliter servieris. Accipe signum Christi in capite, ut uxor eius efficiaris, et si in eo permanseris, in perpetuum coroneris. [Antiphon] Annulo suo subarravit me Dominus meus Jesus Christus et tanquam sponsam decoravit me corona', and Metz, La Femme et l'enfant, pp. 209-10. See too H. Harrod, 'On the mantle and the ring in widowhood', Archaeologia, 40 (1866), 307-10. See also F. Hofmann, Uber den Verlobungs- und den Trauring, Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-hist. Klasse, 65 (Vienna, 1870), pp. 825-63. Cf. the Allegoriae in S.S., in PL CXII, col. 858: 'Annulus est signaculum fidei ut in Evangelio "Date annulum in manu eius" [Luke xv.22], id est fidem in opere suo.' The Glossa ordinaria on Luke xv. 22 has 'Id est signaculum fidei, quo signantur promissa in cordibus credentium.'

109. Bede on Luke xv.22 has 'Annulus est vel sincerae fidei signaculum, qua cuncta promissa in credentium cordibus certa impressione signantur, vel nuptiarum pignus illarum, quibus Ecclesia sponsatur. Et bene annulus in manu datur, ut per opera fides clarescat, et per fidem opera firmentur.'

133. On the threefold division of love, see Aelred of Rievaulx, Opera omnia, ed. A. Hoste and C. H. Talbot, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio mediaevalis (Turnhout, 1971), pp. 295 ff. (amicitia carnalis, mundialis and spiritalis). Cf. the Anglo-Norman commentary on the Song of Songs in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson Poetry 234, fol. 57': 'Treis amurs voyl destincter e en treis partie, / le un est charnal amur ke a tuz maus se lie, / de li venent lecherie, orguyl e envie / e tuz les autres pechez ke deske en enfer guie, / cel amur de tut en tut deit estre guerpie. / Li autre amur est natural ki ad meudre partie, / cel amur fet asaer, ke il ne eit folie, / adunc la deit home amer e tener a amie. / Le terz est espirital, cele ad la mestrie, / de cel e de tere tent la seignurie.' Cf. K. Ruh, 'Geistliche Liebeslehren des 12. Jahrhunderts', Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 111 (Tubingen, 1989), pp. 157-78.

164. The motif of the wheel(s) turned by a devil may have been familiar to the Anglo-Norman writer through Adam of Ros's version of the Vision of St Paul (ed. Kastner, Zeitschrift fur franzosische Sprache und Literatur, 29 (1906), 277-8, lines 70-91). For the punishment of the proud on wheels turned by a devil, see Thomas Kren, 'Some illuminated manuscripts of The Vision of Lazarus from the time of Margaret of York', in Margaret of York, Simon Marmion and 'The Visions of Tondal', ed. Thomas Kren (Malibu, Calif., 1992), pp. 141-56 (pp. 146 fig. 102, and 148 figs. 106-7). In MS Douce 134 (fig. 107) the caption reads: 'Celle roe sera viree et tournee par les dyables tant soudainement qu'il semblera qu'elle soit tousjours en un point sans mouvoir, en tant que les gens qui y seront ne pourront estre discernez l'un de l'autre.' See also N. F. Palmer, in The Vision of Lazarus, p. 163, on the angelus tartareus who turns the wheel of torment in the Visio Sancti Pauli.

207. See Babion's [Geoffroi de Laureolo] first sermon for the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary: 'Columba enim simplicitatem, turtur indicat castitatem. Castitatis enim ita turtur amator est, ut si conjugem casu perdidit [cf. line 211], non aliam ultra quaerere curet [cf. line 212]' (PL, CLXXI, cols 611-12 (= sermo 56; J. B. Schneyer, Repertorium der lateinischen Sermones des Mittelalters fur die Zeit von 1150-1350, II (Munster, 1970), p. 151 no. 8); cf. the second sermon at col. 617b). There is no doubt that Babion's treatment of the properties of the two birds (see also col. 592AB) is closest to the Anglo-Norman treatise, where the order agrees with that of Babion's initial list (col. 612C), but not with the revised order he uses when elaborating the moral sense of the properties. The earlier list runs: 'Felle caret; non vivit de cadavere nec de vermibus; semine pascitur; meliora germina eligit; gemitum pro cantu habet; alienos saepe nutrit pullos; super aquas sedet, ut cum viderit umbram venientis accipitris; illum devitet; in foramine petre vel in caverna nidificat,' On Babion (at the cathedral school of Angers 1103-10, and archbishop of Bordeaux 1136-58), see J.-P. Bonnes, 'Un des plus grands predicateurs du XIIe siecle, Geoffroy du Loroux, dit Geoffroy Babion', Revue Benedictine, 56 (1945-6), 174-215. Babion's sermons were widely diffused in France and England in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries: see G.-M. Oury, 'Les sermons de Geoffroi Babion et la chretiente bordelaise (1136-1158)', Cahiers de civilisation medievale, 22 (1979), 285-97; Schneyer, Repertorium, II, 150-9; J. Longere, La Predication medievale (Paris, 1983), pp. 74-5.

214. Cf. line 245. Babion continues: 'Utraque avis [sc. columba et turtur], quae gemitum pro cantu edere solet, in hoc saeculo ploratum designat poenitentium. Tunc ergo peccator columbae vel turturi comparatur, cure peccatorem se recognoscendo, pro nequitiis suis lamentatur ... Turtur solivagus [cf. line 213] gemere consuevit. Columba vero in grege aliarum gemitus suos edit. Turtur itaque eos qui occulto, columba vero designat publice poenitentes ... In his avibus reperit justus quid imitari debeat: hae aves docent peccatorem quid faciat.'

221 ff. For general studies, see G. Penco, 'Il simbolismo animalesco nella letteratura monastica', Studia monastica, 6 (1964), pp. 7-38, esp. pp. 24-7; H. Messelken, 'Die Signifikanz von Rabe und Taube in der mittelalterlichen deutschen Literatur. Ein stoffgeschichtlicher Beitrag zum Verweisungscharakter der altdeutschen Dichtung' (diss. Cologne, 1965), pp. 66-95; F. Ohly, 'Probleme der mittelalterlichen Bedeutungsforschung und das Taubenbild des Hugo de Folieto', Fruhmittelalterliche Studien, 2 (1968), 161-201; D. Schmidtke, 'Geistliche Tierinterpretation in der deutschsprachigen Literatur des Mittelalters (1100-1500)' (diss. FU Berlin, 1968), pp. 417-26.

221. The earliest tradition, attested by the Glossa ordinaria on Song of Solomon i.14 (PL, CXIII, col. 1135A), enumerates ten characteristics, and the list is influentially transmitted in the Augustinian canon Hugh of Fouilloy, De avibus ad Raynerum, XI (PL, CLXXVII, cols 19D-20A). See The Medieval Book of Birds: Hugh of Fouilloy's 'Aviarium', ed and trans. W. B. Clark (Binghamton, NY, 1992); Ohly, 'Probleme'; H. Peltier, 'Hugues de Fouilloy, chanoine regulier de Saint-Laurent-au-Bois', Revue du moyen age latin, 2 (1946), 25-44; Ch. de Clercq, 'La nature et le sens du De avibus d'Hugues de Fouilloy', Miscellanea mediaevalia, 7 (1970), 279-302 ('ce que Hugues a ecrit sur la colombe est la meilleure partie du traite'). The ten properties were often reduced to seven, probably by analogy with the eyes of the turtle dove, which were held to represent the Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit in much exegesis of Song of Solomon v.12. Some of the properties were fashioned to contrast with those of the crow which precede the passage on the turtle-dove, in Song of Solomon v. 11. The seven properties are prominent in Geoffrey Babion (PL, CLXXI, cols 592AB and 612AB; see above) and in pseudo-Langton in Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley MS 87, fol. [154.sup.r-v]. In the vernacular they appear in the Le Mans Commentary on the Song of Solomon (ed. C. E. Pickford (London, 1974), lines 2901-30). Eight properties are enumerated in commentaries in Oxford, Trinity College, MS 19, fol. [], and Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Bodley 44, fol. [139.sup.ra-b], and nine properties receive treatment in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Hatton 101, p. 273a (illustrating the qualities of the prelate). The number is expanded to ten in pseudo-Langton in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Bodley 528, fol. [59.sup.r-v] and in the Distinctiones in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Bodley 552, pp. 322-3. As many as eighteen properties are discussed in the anonymous compilation De bestiis et aliis rebus, IV, iii (PL, CLXXVII, col. 142B); cf. H. Silvestre in Le moyen age, 55 (1949), 247-51.

223 ff. Cf. Babion, PL, CLXXI, col. 612C: 'Omnis enim fellis amaritudo debet abesse a cordibus nostris; nullum a deo pessimum vitium est sicut odium [cf. lines 225-6]; nullum martyrium valet, si odium in corde habitet ... [quotes I Corinthians xiii.3; Matthew v.23 and vi.14].' Cf. R. Favreau, 'Sine felle columba: sources et formation d'une formule epigraphique', Cahiers de civilisation medievale, 32 (1989), 105-11.

231 ff. Cf. Babion, PL, CLXXI, col. 613A: 'Rursum colomba nec cadavera nec vermes comedit. Sic homo mortuis operibus non debet delectari; vermes, id est pravas conscientias, quae animum corrodunt, curet devitare. Cadavera enim sunt peccata; vermis, prava conscientia, quae oritur de peccatis, quae semper hominem damnat et accusat ... Vitanda igitur sunt peccata, ne puniant cum prava conscientia. Vitanda sunt peccata, quia homo est servus tot dominorum quot vitiorum.'

237 ff. Cf. ibid., col. 613 BC: 'Item columba semine pascitur et meliora grana eligit. Sic justus Dominicis verbis [cf. line 242] debet satiari ... Et meliora grana eligere debetis, quia ad potiora praecepta animus est semper intendendus.'

245 ff. Cf. Babion (ibid., col. 613CD), who changes the order of his initial list of the seven properties and treats fourthly of 'Nutrit alienos pullos'. See ibid., col. 614C: 'Gemitum pro cantu habet columba. In hoc aviculam peccator imitari debet.'

249 ff. Cf. ibid., col. 613 CD: 'Nutrit enim alienos pullos. In hoc virtus misericordiae designatur, qua etiam alienos amare praecipitur ... Ergo alieni sunt diligendi propter Dominum [cf. line 253].'

255 ff. Cf. ibid., col. 614BC: 'Sed umbram eius [sc. venientis accipitris] videmus in aqua, quia similitudinem astuciarum eius discimus in Scriptura. Fugiamus ergo ad Scripturam [cf. line 264], quoties sentimus tentationem [cf. line 269] ... Persuadet Scriptura, poenam minatur. Juxta huiusmodi fluenta sedeat fidelis anima, ut notet adventum insidiantis inimici.' Cf. Aelred of Rievaulx, De institutione inclusarum, ed. Dumont, II, 20: 'et instar pavidae columbae frequentare rivos aquarum, et quasi in speculo accipitris cernere supervolantis effigiem, et cavere. Rivi aquarum sententiae sunt scripturarum, qui de limpidissimo sapientiae fonte profluentes, diabolicarum suggestionum produnt imaginem, et sensum quo caveantur elucidant'.

271. Cf. Babion, PL, CLXXI, col. 615A: 'Sequitur ultima virtus. In foraminibus petrae, vel in cavernis maceriae nidificat. Petra Christus est [cf. line 275], supra quam Ecclesia [cf. line 278] debet nidificare ... Foramina petrae sunt vulnera Christi, unde sanguis profluit [cf. line 284], pretium redemptionis [cf. line 282] nostrae. Caverna est latus apertum [cf. line 284], unde sacramenta nostrae salutis [cf. line 286], scilicet, sanguis et aqua [cf. line 285] exierunt; alterum ad redemptionem, alterum ad regenerationem.'

280. Cf. Douglas Gray, 'The Five Wounds of Our Lord', Notes and Queries, 208 (1963), 82-9, 127-34.

319. The principal biblical inspiration is Matthew xiii.31, Luke xiii. 19 (granum sinapis; cf. M. Bindschedler, Der lateinische Kommentar zum 'Granum sinapis' (diss. Basle, 1949)), Daniel iv.7-9 and Proverbs iii.18 (cf. H. Bergema, De Boom des levens in schrift en historie (Hilversum, 1938), pp. 145 ff.). For a survey of tree imagery and symbolism in Scripture, see Rabanus Maurus, De universo, XIX, v (PL, CXI, col. 508D et seq.), and Garnier de Rochefort (?), Allegoriae in sacram Scripturam, PL, CXII, col. 865. See also U. Kamber, Arbor amoris. Der Minnebaum: Ein pseudo-Bonaventura-Traktat (Berlin, 1964) (Latin text pp. 44-59). This symbol of Victorine mysticism forms the subject of book III of Hugh of Saint-Victor's De arca Noe moralia (PL, CLXXVI, cols 617-80). In book II, ch. xiv (De tribus lignis vitae) he declares: 'Tertium est lignum vitae, quod plantatum est in illo invisibili paradiso, id est sapientia Dei, cuius fructus cibus est beatorum angelorum' (ibid., col. 644B).

323-32. At the end of book II Hugh devotes ch. xviii to 'De arbore sapientiae, et vero ligno vitae, eiusque incrementis, et profectu'. The fifteen incrementa are listed as follows: 'per timorem seminatur, per gratiam rigatur, per dolorem moritur, per fidem radicatur, per devotionem germinat, per compunctionem oritur, per desiderium crescit, per charitatem roboratur, per spem viret, per circumspectionera frondet et expandit ramos, per disciplinam floret, per virtutem fructificat, per patientiam maturescit, per mortem carpitur, per contemplationem cibat' (ibid., col. 646c). Cf. Hugh's depiction of the arbor justitiae in the De claustro animae (PL, CLXXVI, col. 1173D; = six stages).

333. Hugh prefaces book III as follows: 'In fine praecedentis libri per similitudinem cuiusdam arboris demonstravimus qualiter sapientia oriatur et crescat in nobis. Hic ipsius incrementi gradus [cf. degrez, 321], quos ibi breviter et summatim perstrinximus, latius per singula prosequendo explanabimus.'

333 f. See Ecclesiastes i.i6 (Psalms cx. 10; Proverbs i.7, Ix. 10). Cf. Ecclesiastes 1.25 (radix sapientiae est timere Dominum), and Hugh of Saint-Victor (PL, CLXXVI, cols 647-8).

335 ff. Cf. Hugh of Saint-Victor, PL, CLXXVI, col. 648AB: 'gratia similis est humori [cf. rusee, 336], qui rigat semen jactam in terram et germinare facit ... Fit igitur divina gratia aspirante, ut cum animus perfecte a corporeis passionibus, ut desideriis terrenis exutus fuerit, quadam statim insolita laetitia [cf. leesce, 337] perfundatur ... Haec est gratia, quae jactum in cor hominis per timorem semen sapientiae [cf. semence de saveir, 338].'

339 ff. Cf. ibid., 648c: 'Tertio dictum est, quod per dolorem moritur. Sicut semina germinare non possunt, nisi prius in terra computrescant, et quodam modo moriantur, ita nos germen bonum proferre non possumus, nisi prius per salubrem quemdam et vivificum dolorem huic mundo moriamur [cf. del mund murrir, 342].'

340. See Ecclesiastes i.18: 'Qui addit scientiam addit et laborem' (Hugh reads dolorem (PL, CLXXVI, col. 648D)). Cf. John xii.25 and I John i.15.

343 f. See Hugh of Saint-Victor, PL, CLXXVI: 'Quarto dictum est quod per fidem radicatur' (col. 649A) and 'necesse est ut firmam et inconcussam fidem habeamus, per quam firmiter [cf. fermement, 344] radicati ea, quae in tribus praecedentibus accepimus bona confirmemus' (col. 651B).

345 ff. In Hugh compunctio is the sixth stage of growth, whilst the fifth is achieved through devotio. Our poet has interverted them, describing devotio, without identifying it, in lines 348-54. Hugh declares: 'Absconditus ergo est thesaurus iste, in agro cordis nostri, qui tunc invenitur quando sapientia oritur. Sapientia autem oritur quando veritas [cf. verite, 347] manifestatur. Veritas autem manifestatur quando ignorantia pellitur. Ignorantia autem pellitur quando mens illuminatur' (PL, CLXXVI, col. 652c). Hugh also speaks of compunctio: 'et quasi palus acutus terram cordis nostri fodit ... et quasi splendor tenebras pellit' (ibid., col. 652C). The vernacular poet's tresor (351) reflects Hugh's use of Matthew xiii.44, 'regnum coelorum thesauro abscondito in agro comparatur', and his assertion 'sapientia vero thesaurus est' (ibid., col. 65 651D): 'manifestata veritate sapientia oritur, oriente sapientia thesaurus invenitur' (ibid., col. 652C). The next stage is reached naturally by the transitional phrase 'per compunctionem invenimus desiderium' (ibid., col. 653C) and by the statement 'afflatus enim spiritu sancto insolito gaudio animus hilarescit et miratur quale ad gustandum esse possit, quod tamen mire etiam per odorem reficit' (ibid., col. 654A), which is reflected in Seint Espirit (354), s'esjoist (357) and guster (359).

355. See Hugh of Saint-Victor, PL, CLXXVI, col. 654A: 'Septimo loco adjunctum est quod per per desiderium crescit. Sicut enim compunctio incendio comparatur [cf. line 346 esprent], ita desiderium simile est fumo.' Man is elevated by desiderium 'ita coelestibus [cf. celestiel, 360] appropinquans et omnem terrenae concupiscentiae nebulam evaporans totus spiritalis [cf. espiritel, 357] efficitur' (ibid., col. 654C).

361. See ibid., col. 654C: 'Octavo loco adjunctum est: per charitatem roboratur. Charitas similis est vino. Vinum namque eos, quos inebriaverit reddit hilares, audaces, fortes [cf. haitie, hardi e fort, 363].' In line 362 cunforte means, of course, 'strengthens'. For ennette, cf. ibid., col. 654CD: 'Sic charitas mundando conscientiam mentem exhilarat, deinde audacem reddit, quando per munditiam conscientiae, fiduciam praestat. Deinde vires auget ... conscientia enim munda nullis adversis superari potest.' Hugh links the eight stages of growth so far covered with the Beatitudes. Line 364 of our text is hence inspired by Matthew v.10: 'Beati qui persecutionem patiuntur propter justitiam.'

365. See Hugh of Saint-Victor, PL, CLXXVI, col. 655BC: 'Nono loco adjunctum est: per spem viret. Spes futurorum bonorum [cf. les biens, 368] in mente [cf. en remenbrance, 366] quasi scintillatio quaedam est ... Est enim spes quasi memoria quaedam [cf. memorie, 367] invisibilium gaudiorum, quae in corde hominis recondita calefacit illud [chalur, 372] intrinsecus, et non sinit arescere [cf. sechir, 369] frigore [cf. refreidir, 370] infidelitatis in hieme praesentis vitae. Et quandiu haec spes vivit in nostra mente, nunquam arescit arbor sapientiae, sed quemadmodum lignum illaesum servat virorem suum [cf. verdor, 371].'

373. See ibid., col. 655CD): 'Decimo loco adjunctum est quod per circumspectionem frondescit [cf. branchist, 373] et expandit ramos suos [cf. espant ses rains, 374] ... In contemplativis [cf. cels ki en contemplatiun sunt, 376] in altum surgit [cf. creist ... amunt, 375], qui per acumen mentis [cf. par lur subtilite, 378] penetrant usque ad contemplanda secreta coelestia [cf. la privite / del ciel, 377-8]. In activis in latum [cf. en le, 379] se expandit [cf. espant ses rains, 379], quia illi intentionem mentis suae multipliciter [cf. multiplie, 380] foras spargunt ad dispensanda [cf. despendre, 382] terrena [cf. joies terriens, 381].' Hugh elaborates at great length the vices of the activi, and it is easy to see why our poet should omit this material when writing for a nun in an enclosed order.

385. See ibid., col. 661B: 'Per disciplinam floret. In flore tria sunt: spes, species, odor [cf. bealte, odor, / esperance de fruit, 387-8], quae omnia per similitudinem in bono opere [cf. ovre, 386; bone eovre, 389] invenimus.'

389. See ibid., col. 661BC: 'Item sicut flos per speciem fulget et per odorem demulcet, ita bonum opus per exemplum [cf. par essample, 390] quidem fulget ... per odorem autem demulcet, quando absentibus, et longe positis per opinionem bonae famae [cf. par renumee, 391] innotescit.'

395-6. These lines compress Hugh: 'Proinde quisquis vacuus a virtute bonum opus in oculis hominum foris exhibet, velut arbor est, quae sine fructu floret' (ibid., col. 661C).

399. See ibid., col. 661C: 'Per patientiam et perseverantiam maturescit ... et ideo patientia et perseverantia valde nobis necessaria est, ut in bono, quod per Dei gratiam recte inchoavimus constanter usque in finem perseveremus.'

402. Cf. ibid.: 'Et nos, cum ad modulum nostrae perfectionis perducti fuerimus, ab hac vita per mortem praecidimur, ut ad convivium Regis aeterni transferamur' (col. 661D) and 'nos delectabimur in ipso faciem gloriam eius contemplantes' (col. 662A).

405 ff. See ibid., col. 662B: 'Per contemplationem cibat. Iste est cibus. Ista est refectio [cf. refictiun, 407] de qua Psalmista dicit: 'Adimplebis me laetitia cum vultu tuo, delectationes in dextera tua usque in finem' [Psalms xv. 10].'

427 ff. Cf. Bernards, Speculum virginum, p. 138: 'Die Eintracht wird ein ewig junges, nie gelostes Problem. Darum durchziehen Aufforderungen, allen Streit zu meiden, als nie verstummendes Leitmotiv die gesamte Jungfrauenliteratur von den Zeiten Augustins und Casarius von Aries an.'

462 ff. For a description of monastic dress and its significance, a subject which has never been properly documented, see the testimonia collected in PL, CIII (Concordia regularum), cols 1229-56 and PL, L (Cassian's Institutiones, I), cols 59A-78B (commentary of Alardus Gazaeus). None of these provides the source for our poem, though there is a general agreement that white linen represents innocence and purity, that the cowl (men) or veil (women) may symbolize innocence and simplicity, and that certain of the garments indicate that the wearers are 'ab omni conversatione terrena mortificati'. Comparable, simple symbolism is explained in respect of ecclesiastical vestments by Hugh of Saint-Victor in De sacramentis, IV, 'De indumentis sacris' (PL, CLXXVI, cols 433A-38D), see also Sermones, XIV (PL, CLXXVII, cols 927C-29A). General rules for appropriate dress are formulated in Hugh's De institutione novitiorum, xi, 'De disciplina servanda in habitu' (PL, CLXXVI, cols 936A-938A). The basic habit comprises tunic, scapular, hood (women add veil and wimple): see the summary in G. Raudszus, Die Zeichensprache der Kleidung: Untersuchungen zur Symbolik des Gewandes in der deutschen Epik des Mittelalters (Hildesheim [etc.], 1985), pp. 12-14. It is not clear exactly what garments are indicated by the terms mantel, surpliz (two), veil and l'autre habit. Benedict of Nursia had recommended two tunics and two cowls, for winter and summer use, but variations according to order, abbot, region and climate were legion and the terminology is complex and confused. It is worth quoting Abelard's observations to Heloise in the famous letter of direction: 'Nulli vero panni magis quam nigri lugubrem paenitentiae habitum decent, nec adeo sponsis Christi pelles aliquae conveniunt, sicut agninae, ut ipso quoque habitu Agnum sponsum virginum indutae videantur vel inducere moneantur. Vela vero earum non de serico, sed de tincto aliquo lineo panno fiant. Duo autem velorum genera esse volumus, ut alia sint scilicet virginum jam ab episcopo consecratarum, alia vero minime. Quae vero pudicarum sunt virginum crucis sibi signum habeant impressum ... Sufficere autem ad corpus contegendum credimus interulam, pelliceam, togam, et, cum multum exasperavit frigus insuper mantellum. Quo videlicet mantello pro opertorio quoque uti jacentes poterunt. Oportebit autem pro infestatione vermium vel gravamine sordium abluendarum, haec omnia esse duplicia indumenta sicut ad litteram in laude fortis et providae mulieris Salomon ait: 'Non timebit domui suae a frigoribus nivis. Omnes enim domesfici eius vestiti duplicibus' [Proverbs xxxi.21] ... Caput vero muniant vitta candida, et velum desuper nigrum, et pro tonsura capillorum pileum agninum, cum opus fuerit supponatur' (PL, CLXXVIII, cols 301A-302B; ed. T. P. McLaughlin, Mediaeval Studies, 18 (1956), 281-2). Cf. the text of a set of rules attributed to Heloise and preserved at the Paraclete, designed for the use of a mother foundation and its daughter houses, printed in Migne (PL, CLXXVIII, col. 324A): 'sorores nostrae nonnisi in tunicis albis et nigris superpelliceis induantur. In quibus videlicet superpelliceis nulla vel superfluitas vel curiositas videatur, et ne sit notabilis habitus earundem, ne vestes potius videantur quam morum delicias affectare.'

473. On the associations of white, see The Book of Margery Kemp, ed. S. B. Meech and E. H. Allen, EETS, os 212 (London, 1940), p. 273, and G. Cleve, 'Semantic dimensions in Margery Kempe's "whyght clothys"', Mystics Quarterly, 12 (1986), 162-70.

TONY HUNT St Peter's College, Oxford


I wish to thank Dr Bella Millett and Professor N. F. Palmer for advice when revising this article.

1 Betty Hill, 'British Library MS Egerton 613', Notes and Queries, 223 (1978), 394-409, 492-501.

2 Ibid., pp. 408-9.

3 A. Langfors, Les Incipit des poemes francais anterieurs au XVIe siecle (Paris, 191 8; repr. Geneva, 1977), p. 76.

4 J. Sonet, Rgpertoire d'incipit des prieres en ancien francais (Geneva, 1956), no. 307.

5 J. Vising, Anglo-Norman Language and Literature (London, 1923), no. 198.

6 Hill, 'MS Egerton 613', p. 402.

7 See J. B. Freed, 'Urban development and the "cura monialium" in thirteenth-century Germany', Viator, 3 (1972), 311-27.

8 See Speculum virginum, ed. J. Seyfarth, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio mediaevalis 5 (Turnhout, 1990); M. Bernards, Speculum virginum: Geistigkeit und Seelenleben der Frau im Hochmittelalter, 2nd edn (Vienna, 1982).

9 See R. Goy, Die Uberlieferung der Werke Hugos von St. Viktor (Stuttgart, 1976), pp. 212-37. There are sixty-eight manuscripts from monastic houses (the most prominent in England being Bury St Edmunds, St Albans and Christ Church, Canterbury), Benedictines and Cistercians having an equal share of twenty-one each (though the Benedictines had the larger share in the twelfth century: see ibid., pp. 521-4), the Augustinian canons having seven.

10 See Tony Hunt, '"The Four Daughters of God": a textual contribution', Archives d'histoire doctrinale et litteraire du moyen age, 48 (1982), 287-316.

11 Disappointingly, there is nothing in Ph. Oppenheim, Das Monchskleid im christlichen Altertum (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1931). Some idea of the complexity of the subject can be derived from Alan J. Fletcher, "Black, white and grey in Hali Meidhhad and Ancrene Wisse', MAE, 62 (1993), 69-78.

12 Sally Thompson, Women Religious.' The Founding of English Nunneries after the Norman Conquest (Oxford, 1991), pp. 100-1, on the subject of white and black nuns, points to considerable variety in the Cistercians alone, normally, like the Carthusians, associated with white garments. Alan Fletcher, taking up the theme in relation to the Middle English prose treatise Hali Meidhhad, begins with an optimistic assessment of the value of black, white and grey to distinguish the different orders, but soon reveals the tenuousness of arguments based on such evidence (Fletcher, 'Black, white and grey', pp. 69-78).

13 For the life of women religious, especially in mixed communities, see S. K. Elkins, Holy Women of Twelfth-Century England (Chapel Hill and London, 1988), esp. pp. 55-60, and Penny Shine Gold, The Lady and the Virgin: Image, Attitude, and Experience in Twelfth-Century France (Chicago and London, 1985), pp. 76-115.

14 I hope to publish this shortly.

15 MS Le sa char with initial L erased.

16 In MS, en is a superscript addition above an erasure and there is an insertion mark.

17 MS del spise.

18 After temperance there is a superscript addition, veir, together with insertion marks.

19 The line is written over an erasure. At the end of the line the rubricator has written .9. in red, but the insertion in the left-hand margin has been lost owing to cropping.

20 MS quatre.

21 MS cointisi.

22 MS voz.

23 MS processiun.

24 The scribe interverted dreiturer seignur and added correction marks.

25 There is a blank space in the MS.

26 MS ensent.

27 For the 'phonetic' spelling e = est, see M. K. Pope, From Latin to Modern French (Manchester, 1934), [section]1222.

25 MS sen.

29 There is a blank space in the MS.

30 MS que il with il expunged by barring.

31 Written over an erasure. At the end of the line the rubricator has written .9. in red. The insertion in the left-hand margin has been lost (... in still legible) owing to cropping.

32 Lines 205-6 are written at the bottom of fok [60.sup.v] without insertion marks. The scribe wrote bbien cuvient with insertion marks and erased the first b.

33 There is an erasure after per.

34 MS avers.

35 MS ui.

36 MS dunc.

37 Deu is a superscript insertion.

38 MS i tendez.

39 A red wavy line leads to a marginal insertion, most of which is now lost owing to cropping (Par ... po... est se ... par

40 The first u is a superscript insertion.

41 MS Ceo en.

42 Une vertu is written over an erasure. The rubricator has written .9. in red at the end of the line. A red wavy line points to an insertion in the left-hand margin, most of which has been lost ( owing to cropping.

43 MS par sapience.

44 MS cest e.

45 A red wavy line points to an insertion in the right-hand margin, mostly lost through cropping (De pais vier...salu ...sen... ne ... u).

46 MS deseivrre, with first r expuncted.

47 MS servier, with second e expuncted.

48 MS ave, followed by an erasure.

49 MS espailles.

50 u par is a superscript insertion by the scribe.

51 The scribe wrote si il and added correction marks.

52 MS diciet.

53 deit is a superscript insertion. A red wavy line points to an insertion in the right-hand margin (7 pur tutes pri ch ... ke deu le ... tieng ... sa...).
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Date:Sep 22, 1995
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