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An Analysis of Entrepreneurial Perspective of Public Sector; A systematic literature review from 1990 to 2016.

1. Introduction

Entrepreneurship has been focused field of research among researchers and practitioners since 1980s (Doherty, Thompson, & Spear, 2006). Its significance has been well established due to its pivotal role in venture creation by exploiting opportunities, bringing innovation, creativity and promoting sustainable economic development by creating new jobs in every economy (Wagner & Schaltegger, 2010). Generally the word "entrepreneurship" is associated with private sector (Salazar, 1997), for creating new firms by those individuals who have unique cognitive characteristics, they are called entrepreneurs but this perspective of entrepreneurship has been considered too narrow and various significant attempts has been made by the scholars and practitioners to stretch its scope into public sector for efficient and effective delivery of public services (Zerbinati & Souitaris, 2005). Eventually, the phenomenon of entrepreneurship entered into the discourse of public management literature across a number of public sector organizations in different countries (Edwards, Jones, Lawton, & Llewellyn, 2002) but it's role into public sector has remained controversial (Llewellyn & Jones, 2003) due to the nature and structure of public sector organizations.

Interestingly, the concept of entrepreneurship in the public sector has prompted a discussion and debate in the public management literature especially with the movement of new public management (NPM). NPM was initiated to improve the performance of public sector organizations and to let public managers manage entrepreneurially and to make it possible for public managers to work like private sector entrepreneurs (Bernier & Hafsi, 2007). In the public sector, to work entrepreneurially by the public managers and politicians is very difficult due to the democratic and bureaucratic values (Llewellyn & Jones, 2003; Zerbinati & Souitaris, 2005). Public sector organizations are managed by strong and well rooted democratic norms, culture, and values whereas entrepreneurship promotes risk taking, aggressiveness, autonomy, innovation and disrespect for certain culturally embedded traditions. This difference has hindered the adaptation of entrepreneurial models into public sector organizations (Zerbinati & Souitaris, 2005).

Public sector organizations have experienced various reforms in all over the world due to the escalated pressures upon governments for improved effectiveness through efficiency and to cater citizens' needs in a responsive manner (Zampetakis & Moustakis, 2007b). Moreover, it was the hallmark of NPM movement to bring innovation in the public sector and to transform public organizations into more responsive agencies towards the efficient and effective provision of public service delivery (Mack, Green, & Vedlitz, 2008).

This substantial development envisioned by NPM movement in delivering public services has considered entrepreneurial mindset of public managers and politicians as an important characteristic. Which enables the public managers to be entrepreneurial in their approach by exploiting opportunities irrespective of resources they own, doing innovative and new things and be willing to escape themselves from old routines to pursue opportunities (Zampetakis & Moustakis, 2010). Traditional approaches to fulfill the complex and emerging demands of 21st century are not sufficient to meet the evolving challenges of governments for public administration which has forced the public managers to portray and devise new public management tools (Moghaddam, Khorakian, & Maharati, 2015). To bring efficiency and effectiveness into public sector has been a key challenge for public policy makers and civil servants. Since 1970, various initiatives and reforms have been taken and implemented around the world in which government structures have been transformed to adapt changes efficiently and effectively (Zampetakis & Moustakis, 2007a).

Moreover, scholars like Seo and Chung (2012) argues that entrepreneurial orientation of public sector managers for managing public services, agencies, and enterprises is considered as a vital tool for upgrading and developing public organizations' efficiency and effectiveness which satisfy citizens' demands. It is challenging to bring entrepreneurial approach into public sector due to the difference in orientation of public and private sector. Entrepreneurial development has become a significant determinant to ensure economically rational and market based practice for the design and implementation of public policy and services (Vecchi, Brusoni, & Borgonovi, 2014). Thus, the importance of incorporating entrepreneurial methods into public sector has been widely acclaimed and acknowledged. Political agents are becoming more concerned to foster entrepreneurial methods into public sector agencies to improve their performance (Luke & Verreynne, 2006; Moon, 1999). Researchers claimed that practices of private sector entrepreneurship could be applied to public sector due to its emergence as leading force in public management literature (Sadler, 2000).

Insofar, entrepreneurial spirit and its application into public sector for improved performance of state enterprises have been discussed with its various implications. However, what is public entrepreneurship or how entrepreneurship is defined with particular reference to public sector?, What are the emerging models/methods of entrepreneurship in public sector?, Are the practices of public entrepreneurship are different from private sector entrepreneurship?, these are the few conceptual and theoretical contemporary issues being discussed into entrepreneurship literature by the scholars?

To get answers to these conceptual and theoretical issues, this study was conducted to investigate the phenomenon of entrepreneurship with reference to public sector by adopting the methodology of systematic literature review. Methodology of this systematic literature review of public entrepreneurship is adopted with the review of (De Vries, Bekkers, & Tummers, 2016) which was conducted on innovation in public sector. This study endeavored to explore the concept of public entrepreneurship, its current practices, goals, limitations and possibilities, major research streams, their emergence, convergence, and divergence points, antecedents and its outcomes in public sector. To pursue these objectives, following pertinent research questions were posed;

1. What definitions of public sector entrepreneurship are being used?

2. What are the goals of public sector entrepreneurship?

3. What are the limitations and possibilities of entrepreneurship in the public sector?

4. What are the main streams/types of public sector entrepreneurship?

5. What are the main antecedents which influence the public sector entrepreneurship?

Entrepreneurship is a multidimensional concept and its applicability into public management literature has broad breath and scope. Its practices are considered to be innovative and productive both in public and private sectors (Mack et al., 2008; Seo & Chung, 2012).

This study has significant contribution to literature as it was conducted by systematic review of literature on public entrepreneurship. Systematic review are different from general literature review as they are guided and govern by rigorous and objective methods and structure of this systematic review is adopted from (De Vries et al., 2016) that systematic literature review is conducted on innovation in public sector.

The next section presents the detailed methodology followed to complete this systematic literature review on public entrepreneurship. Followed by results section which presents comprehensive findings revealed by this study about public entrepreneurship phenomenon.

2. Study Methodology

2.1. Searching of literature on public entrepreneurship

Literature on public entrepreneurship was explored rigorously by using the following systematic steps and procedures to ensure maximum objectivity. Period from 1990 to May 24, 2016 was selected for literature search published on public entrepreneurship to include various seminal contributions like Bellone and Goerl (1992) paper on reconciling public entrepreneurship and democracy and various other significant studies conducted by (Perlmutter & Cnaan, 1995; Sadler, 2000; Shane & Venkataraman, 2000; Terry, 1993; Teske & Schneider, 1994) and emergence of NPM movement which refers to apply entrepreneurial methods in public administration and management (Mark, 2015).

A search into six electronic databases was carried out namely; ISI web of knowledge; Emerald; J-Store; Taylor & Francis; Wiley; and Elsevier (Science Direct) in order to include extensive literature on public entrepreneurship. In all the databases, the key term "public entrepreneurship" with inverted commas' was searched with a filter of time duration from 1990 to 2016 and the last search was conducted on May 24, 2016. The search results with the term "public entrepreneurship" revealed 572 articles in total from all six databases. Detailed literature search criteria are mentioned in the following table;

Hence, the above-mentioned criteria were used to search the literature on public entrepreneurship, a potential limitation by the part of researchers is acknowledged as only databases which were accessible to researchers as mentioned and were searched with the key word "public entrepreneurship" there is possibility of missing some significant contributions.

2.2. Eligibility criteria for studies selection

After conducting the initial search on the six databases mentioned in table 1; following eligibility criteria was used to include research studies into consideration for systematic review on public entrepreneurship.

2.3. Selection of studies

After applying the search criteria on all the six electronic databases, search results 572 results were appeared. Based on the eligibility criteria 90 research articles were selected after removing repetitions and book reviews. Figure 1; depicts the selection process used to select the articles. All the articles were carefully screened by the researchers, their titles and abstracts were studied and selected articles were studied thoroughly and meticulous analysis was carried out, an excel spread sheet was maintained to ensure maximum quality. Data about articles publication year, title, journal, study objective, research questions/hypothesis, variables, main research findings, contribution were derived from 90 selected articles. Moreover, data about the main research questions, like definition of entrepreneurship in the public sector, goals of entrepreneurship in public sector, research streams, limitations and possibilities, influencing factors and outcomes were derived to get answers to posed by this systematic review.

Articles searching on mentioned online databases, initial screening, downloading, and reading was rigorously performed. Although maximum efforts were made to ensure objectivity but limitation of subjectivity (De Vries et al., 2016) could never be ignored because of certain limitations. All the 90 selected articles were thoroughly reviewed and studied by the researchers and comprehensive analysis was performed on excel spreadsheet deriving relevant themes about public entrepreneurship definitions, goals, it's limitations and possibilities into government sector in the presence of strong democratic values and bureaucratic system, it's antecedents and major influencing factors and outcomes.

3. Results of Systematic Literature Review

In this section, complete results of this systematic literature review are presented.

Chart 1 depicts year wise number of articles included in systematic literature review of public entrepreneurship. It reveals that majority articles on public entrepreneurship were published between the periods of 2011 to 2016 as 40 (44.44%) articles were published during this period. Moreover, 34(37.78%) articles were published in 2001 to 2010, and 16(17.78%) articles were published during 1990 to 2000. Hence, it could be concluded that majority articles 74 (82.22%) included in this systematic literature review on public entrepreneurship were published during 2001 to 2016.

Continent wise analysis showed majority of the articles 37(41.11%) were published in North American countries, and 36(40%) were published in European countries. Hence, it could be concluded that 73(81.11%) articles were published in European and North American countries.

Table 4 depicts country wise number of published articles which were finally got eligible for this systematic literature review. Overall, articles from 23 countries are got selected for this review. Analysis reveals that majority of the research studies 33(36.67%) were conducted in USA, followed by 12(13.33%) were conducted in UK. Thus, 45 (50%) studies were conducted in USA and UK only. It means researchers from USA and UK are more concerned about the phenomenon of public entrepreneurship as compared to other countries.

Furthermore, Australia 4(4.44%), Sweden 4(4.44%), Canada4 (4.44%), China 3 (3.33%), Denmark 3 (3.33%), Greece 3 (3.33%), Spain 3 (3.33%), Iran 2(2.22%), Pakistan 2(2.22%), New Zealand 2(2.22%), Belgium 2(2.22%), France 2(2.22%), Germany 2(2.22%), and Italy 2(2.22%) studies were conducted. Rest of the countries had only 1 research articles included in this review.

Table 5 depicts total number of journals in which 90 selected articles were published. Articles selected for review on public entrepreneurship were published in 56 different journals. Majority of the articles 11 (12.22%) were published in Public Administration review followed by same frequency published in Entrepreneurship & Regional Development journal. In Public Management Review 4(4.44%), 3 (3.33%) were in Public Administration, and 3(3.33%) Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences journal. On the basis journals analysis, 65 (72.22%) articles were published in public administration and public policy, and public management journals.

Table 6 reveals that 54(60%) articles included in the review were empirical studies conducted on various perspectives of public entrepreneurship. Moreover, 27(30%) papers were conceptual in nature, and 9 (10%) articles were theoretically written. Majority articles were 60% were empirical and 30% were conceptual.

Table 7 presents strategy wise number of articles. It reveals that out of 54 empirical papers 28(51.85%) were qualitative research papers, 23 (42.59%) used quantitative research strategy, and 3(5.56%) used mixed method research strategy. Hence, it could be concluded that majority articles used qualitative and quantitative research strategy. Further, categories of various research designs used in qualitative and quantitative research strategy are presented in next tables.

Table 7.1 depicts the various designs used in qualitative research papers included in this review. It reveals that 14(50%) articles used case study design. Followed by 3(10.71%) exploratory design, 2(7.14%) used interviews and secondary data analysis and 2(7.14) used triangulation approach as research design. It could be concluded that majority used case study design while analyzing phenomenon of public entrepreneurship.

Table 7.2 presents different types of quantitative research design used in the articles. It reveals that out of total 23 articles which used quantitative design, 15(65.22%) used survey approach, 2(8.70%) used secondary data analysis, and 2(8.70%) used secondary data published by GEMs (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor). Majority 65.22% articles used survey design.

3.1 Definitions of entrepreneurship in public sector

This section presents the various definitions of entrepreneurship and entrepreneur as an individual used in the selected research studies. The most interesting finding is that only 21 (23.33%) out of 90 selected articles used the definition of entrepreneurship and an entrepreneur in their research articles. In the literature, there is very little agreement on exactly how to define entrepreneurship (Harper-Anderson & Gooden, 2016) and the concept of public entrepreneurship recently appeared into the mainstream literature of entrepreneurship (Zerbinati & Souitaris, 2005).

Mostly, definitions focused personal characteristics of entrepreneurs and their approaches towards innovation, creativity, and opportunity exploitation (Harper-Anderson & Gooden, 2016). While exploring the definition of public entrepreneurship it is seen as having the market based features of entrepreneurship with an addition of creating social capital for social benefits (Edwards et al., 2002). While analyzing various aspects of definition used in the articles it was revealed that entrepreneurship was defined in multiple perspectives. Following table depicts the various perspectives of definition along with their frequency and percentage.

Moreover, analysis of these perspectives revealed numerous key factors discussed in definitions of entrepreneurship in public sector which are presented in the following table along with description and references.

3.2. Goals of entrepreneurship in public sector

This section presents the analysis of selected article regarding goals of entrepreneurship in public sector. It was revealed that 14 (15.56%) articles mentioned goals of entrepreneurship in public sector organizations. Baez and Abolafia (2002) mentioned that entrepreneurs are recognized as change agents, innovators, creative and opportunity seeker. Hence, new values could be created into public sector organization for various stakeholders by applying entrepreneurial approach into public sector (Moghaddam et al., 2015). Moreover, the field of entrepreneurship has broaden its horizon into international, policy, social, and not-for profit entrepreneurship which signifies its importance into public sector (Kearney & Meynhardt, 2016). Following table summarizes the various goals of entrepreneurship that could be achieved by applying entrepreneurial practices, methods, approaches, and mind-set into public sector organizations.

3.3. Issues and limitations of entrepreneurship in public sector

This part analyses the various issues and limitations of entrepreneurship discussed in the selected articles regarding its application into public sector organizations. Analyses revealed that 11 (12.22%) out of 90 selected articles discussed the numerous issues and limitations of entrepreneurship caused by distinct nature, rigid rules and regulations, and culture of public sector organizations. Therefore management models of entrepreneurship into public sector organization presents significant challenges (Emmendoerfer & Valadares, 2014). Three categories of issues and limitations are identified from selected articles named issues regarding behaviors of entrepreneurs, issues of conflict, and entrepreneurial activity. Following table presents the categories of issues and limitations along with frequency and percentage.

Moreover, following table summarizes the issues and limitation of public entrepreneurship.

3.4. Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship in Public Sector

This section presents numerous factors which influence entrepreneurship in the public sector. Analyses revealed that 11(12.22%) studies included in this systematic literature review discussed various factors which influence the entrepreneurial practice in public sector organizations. Zampetakis and Moustakis (2010) presents two main categories of factors which stimulate or hinder entrepreneurship in the public sector, these are institutional factors, and individual factors.

However, in this systematic review four categories of influencing factors are identified from the selected articles. Following table depicts these categories of factors along with frequency and percentages which influence the entrepreneurship in the public sector organizations.

Furthermore, following table depicts the categories along with detailed influencing factors identifies from the analysis of selected articles.

3.5. Analysis of main research streams in public entrepreneurship

This section presents the analysis of main research streams identified from selected articles for this systematic review on public entrepreneurship. These research streams are derived from 37(41.11%) articles and categorized into seven distinct dimensions which are individual, task, institutional, innovation, business creation, opportunity exploitation, and entrepreneurship as a field of research. Shane and Venkataraman (2000) made an award-winning contribution into the literature by creating conceptual framework for entrepreneurship as a field of research. Similarly, Moghaddam et al. (2015) made an attempt to articulate the conceptual model of entrepreneurship and studied its importance for bolstering performance of government organizations.

Moreover, Baumgartner et al. (2013) reviewed an extensive literature to identify various comprehensions of entrepreneurship and their role for regional development. Whereas, still there is no agreement of scholars about the unique identity of entrepreneurship as after the analysis of research articles it looks a hodgepodge having no clear direction as a field of research.

Following table depicts the main conceptual and theoretical areas of research about entrepreneurship identified from selected research articles.

4. Conclusion

As 21st century has witnessed an unprecedented change in the environment of public organization which has created unpredicted challenges for the public administrators. Hence, conventional approaches are not sufficient to cater the complex and elusive challenges of this century (Moghaddam et al., 2015). Therefore, public administrators and political leaders has focused to foster entrepreneurship into public sector organizations in order to improve their performance (Luke & Verreynne, 2006).

Notion of entrepreneurship has been seen as inherently private (Salazar, 1997) but with a widespread application of entrepreneurial practices into public sector organizations. This perspective has been changed after NPM movement which was focused on improving the performance of public sector organizations for efficient and effective delivery of public services (Klein et al., 2010). Moreover, various studies have unleashed the social potential of entrepreneurship along with its market based orientation (Zampetakis & Moustakis, 2007a). Scholars have acknowledged that entrepreneurship methods must be modified and adjusted according to the demands of public sector. (Zampetakis & Moustakis, 2007b).

Application of entrepreneurial mind-set into public sector for improved performance of state enterprises has been the key issue of discourse of entrepreneurship literature. Moreover, what is public entrepreneurship? Is it different from private notion of entrepreneurship? Are entrepreneurial methods compatible with democratic structure? Who are public entrepreneurs? And what are their characteristics? How do they improve service delivery of public organizations? These are few basic questions about the concept, nature, applicability and implementation of entrepreneurship into public sector organizations.

This study was conducted to investigate the phenomenon of entrepreneurship with particular reference to public sector by adopting the methodology of systematic literature review. Methodology of this systematic literature review of public entrepreneurship is adopted with the review of (De Vries et al., 2016) which was conducted on innovation in public sector. This study endeavored to explore the concept of public entrepreneurship, its current practices, goals, limitations and possibilities, major research streams, their emergence, convergence, and divergence points, antecedents in public sector. Out of total 572 research articles searched from six databases by applying inclusion and exclusion criteria mentioned in detail in methodology section, 90 articles were found eligible for this systematic review on public entrepreneurship.

Analysis revealed that majority of the articles included in this review were published during 2011 to 2016 in North American and European countries. USA, UK and Australia were the top three countries in which mostly studies were conducted. Public Administration Review, Entrepreneurial and Regional Development, and Public Management Review are the top three journals in which majority articles were published. Majority studies were empirical which followed qualitative strategy in their research designs. Further case study design was significantly used in the qualitative studies, followed by exploratory and secondary data analysis. Majority of the quantitative design articles used survey approach.

Moreover, analysis of main research questions about entrepreneurship definitions, its goals in public sector, its issues and limitations, influencing factors and main research streams revealed very interesting and comprehensive results. Analysis of definitions revealed five main dimensions of entrepreneurship in which it was defined. Majority referred it as an individual having certain unique characteristics which distinguish entrepreneurs from other individuals. Main emphasis of studies was on entrepreneurs' key traits like having a vision, exploit opportunities, take risk, and bring innovation into existing processes and practices. Further focused dimensions were task and process in which entrepreneurship was referred as a task and process to exploit opportunities and create new ventures, and innovation into the firms.

Next question about goals of entrepreneurship revealed numerous objectives which could be achieved by applying entrepreneurial practices into public sector firms. Changing institutional routines, introducing innovation for efficient service delivery, and add social value into public services were the main goals which are to be achieved by the entrepreneurship into public sector.

While analyzing issues and limitations of entrepreneurship into public sector it was revealed that management models of entrepreneurship into public organizations presents significant challenges due to the innate capacity of entrepreneurship embedded in private sector organizations. Majority studies discussed issues related to entrepreneurs' behavior which are not compatible to public sector organization due to their democratic and bureaucratic structures. Certain issues of theoretical nature like issues of conflicts i-e entrepreneurial autonomy and democratic accountability, entrepreneurial secrecy versus democratic openness were also found in the discourse of entrepreneurship scholarship.

Four categories of influencing factors were derived from the analysis of selected articles in which majority were individual, institutional, and social and political factors. In individual visions for opportunity exploitation, capacity to innovate, self-confidence, tolerance, and technical expertise were main influencing factors. Institutional venturing, structure, rules, environment, systems of rewards, delegations, and decision making were the main institutional factors. Transparency, social justice, harmony with national objectives, access to services were the main social and political factors.

Similarly, while analyzing major theoretical research areas from the studies it was revealed that focus of majority was entrepreneurship as a field of research rather confining it to some specific individual, process or activity. Entrepreneurship nature, paradigm, method, as a theory, contextual antecedents and implications were the main research streams. Second discussed research area was its institutional dimension in which institutional entrepreneurship, collaborative and collective entrepreneurship, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategic entrepreneurship were mainly focused. Third major research stream focus was on individual and behavioral characteristics of entrepreneurs. Public entrepreneurs' personality traits, entrepreneurial leaders, entrepreneurial vision, and gender narratives were mainly focused. However, much acknowledged dimensions like venture creation, innovation was less focused in the literature of public entrepreneurship whereas they are leading dimensions of entrepreneurship when it comes to private sector.

Summing it up, this study conducted systematic review of literature on public entrepreneurship. Various facets of entrepreneurship were analyzed with reference to public sector orientation. Entrepreneurship in the public sector has gained enormous currency due to its embedded capacity for innovation, creativity, opportunity exploitation, and solving elusive problems of the 21st century. Public entrepreneurs are widely acknowledged across the globe for their significant contribution in improvement of public services and creating social value for the citizens (Luke & Verreynne, 2006). As far as the field of entrepreneurship is concerned, no unanimous definition exists in the literature; it could be due to its widespread scope and applicability.

Note: All 90 articles references are not mentioned in the bibliography.

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Smith, E. (2013). Entrepreneurship at the local government level: Stimulating and restraining forces in the swedish waste management industry. Public Management Review, 16(5), 708-732. doi: 10.1080/14719037.2012.743580

Steyaert, C., & Katz, J. (2004). Reclaiming the space of entrepreneurship in society: geographical, discursive and social dimensions. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 16(3), 179-196. doi: 10.1080/0898562042000197135

Su, J., Zhai, Q., & Landstrom, H. (2015). Entrepreneurship research in China: internationalization or contextualization? Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 27(1-2), 50-79. doi: 10.1080/08985626.2014.999718

Terry, L. D. (1993). Why we should abandon the misconceived quest to reconcile public entrepreneurship with democracy: A response to Bellone and Goerl's" Reconciling Public Entrepreneurship And Democracy". Public Administration Review, 53(4), 393-395.

Teske, P., & Schneider, M. (1994). The bureaucratic entrepreneur: The case of city managers. Public Administration Review, 54(4), 331-340.

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Xu, J., & Carey, R. (2015). Post-2015 global governance of official development finance: Harnessing the renaissance of public entrepreneurship. Journal of International Development, 27(6), 856-880. doi: 10.1002/jid.3120

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Zampetakis, L. A., & Moustakis, V. (2007b). Fostering corporate entrepreneurship through internal marketing: Implications for change in the public sector. European Journal of Innovation Management, 10(4), 413-433.

Zampetakis, L. A., & Moustakis, V. S. (2010). An exploratory research on the factors stimulating corporate entrepreneurship in the Greek public sector. International Journal of Manpower, 31(8), 871-887.

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Zietlow, J. T. (2001). Social entrepreneurship: managerial, finance and marketing aspects. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 9(1-2), 19-43. doi: 10.1300/J054v09n01_03

Asghar Ali (1), Sidra Irfan (2), Yaamina Salman (3)

(1) Lecturer at Department of Management Sciences, Virtual University of Pakistan. asghar.ali@vu.edu.pk

(2) Assistant Professor at Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

(3) Assistant Professor at Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

ARTICLE HISTORY

05 Sep, 2018 Submission Received

12 Mar, 2019 Second Review

30 Aug, 2019 Accepted

29 Oct, 2018 First Review

17 Aug, 2019 Third Review

DOI: dx.doi.org/10.22547/BER/11.3.5
Table 1: Literature Search Criteria

Sr. No.  Search Factors        Particulars

1        Literature Search     Public Entrepreneurship
2        Search Discipline     Public Administration Domain
3        Language              English
4        Publication Period    1990 - 2016
5        Electronic Databases  ISI-Web of Knowledge
                               Emerald
                               J-Store
                               Taylor & Francis
                               Wiley
                               Elsevier (Science Direct)
6        Search Key Word       "Public Entrepreneurship"

Table 2: Articles Eligibility Criteria

Sr. No.  Eligibility Factors   Particulars

1        Field of Studies      Studies dealing with entrepreneurship
                               in the public sector.
2        Topic/Issue of Study  Studies core issue should be public
                               entrepreneurship, reflected
                               in their topics, titles, abstracts and
                               objectives were selected for
                               review.
                               Studies having following key words
                               (Public Entrepreneurship,
                               Public Sector Entrepreneurship, Public
                               Entrepreneur, and
                               Entrepreneurship in the Public Sector)
                               were included.
3        Design of Studies     Both empirical and conceptual studies
                               were eligible and all
                               research designs like survey, case
                               study, descriptive, exploratory,
                               causal and mixed methods were included.
4        Publication Status    Only published research articles were
                               selected for systematic
                               review on public entrepreneurship.

Table 3: Continent Wise No. of Articles

Sr.  Continents     No. of Articles  Percentage

1    Asia           10                11.11%
2    Australia       6                 6.67%
3    Europe         36                40%
4    North America  37                41.11%
5    South America   1                 1.11%
     Total          90               100%

Table 4: Country Wise No. of Articles

Sr.  Country      Frequency  Percentage

1    Australia     4           4.44
2    Belgium       2           2.22
3    Brazil        1           1.11
4    Canada        4           4.44
5    China         3           3.33
6    Denmark       3           3.33
7    Finland       1           1.11
8    France        2           2.22
9    Germany       2           2.22
10   Greece        3           3.33
11   Iran          2           2.22
12   Ireland       1           1.11
13   Israel        1           1.11
14   Italy         2           2.22
15   New Zealand   2           2.22
16   Pakistan      2           2.22
17   South Korea   1           1.11
18   Spain         3           3.33
19   Sri Lanka     1           1.11
20   Sweden        4           4.44
21   Switzerland   1           1.11
22   UK           12          13.33
23   USA          33          36.67
     Total        90         100.00

Table 5: Journal Wise No. of Articles

Sr.   Journal                                                   No.
                                                                of
                                                                Article

 1    Entrepreneurship & Regional Development                   11
 2    Public Administration Review                              11
 3    Public Management Review                                   4
 4    Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences                    3
 5    Public Administration                                      3
 6    Australian Journal of Public Administration                2
 7    European Journal of Marketing                              2
 8    European Management Review                                 2
 9    Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places     2
      in the Global Economy
10    Journal of Poverty                                         2
11    Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory       2
12    Local Government Studies                                   2
13    Academy of Management Review                               1
14    Administration in Social Work                              1
15    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration              1
16    Emerging Markets Finance and Trade                         1
17    Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice                       1
18    European Journal of Innovation Management                  1
19    European Planning Studies                                  1
20    Financial Accountability & Management                      1
21    HEC Montreal                                               1
22    Industry and Innovation                                    1
23    Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice                  1
24    Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science         1
      Research
25    International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior &        1
      Research
26    International Journal of Manpower                          1
27    International Journal of Public Administration             1
28    International Journal of Social Economics                  1
29    International Public Management Journal                    1
30    Journal of Business Venturing                              1
31    Journal of Economic Education                              1
32    Journal of Economic Policy Reform                          1
33    Journal of International Development                       1
34    Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing             1
35    Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship               1
36    Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development       1
37    Journal of the American Planning Association               1
38    Journal of World Business                                  1
39    Korean Review of Public Administration                     1
40    Labour & Industry: A Journal of the Social and             1
      Economic Relations of Work
41    Marketing Communications for Local Nonprofit               1
      Organizations
42    Network of Asia-Pacific Schools and Institutes of Public   1
      Administration and Governance
43    Political Science and Politics                             1
44    Politics & Policy                                          1
45    Public Administration and Development                      1
46    Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management            1
47    Regional Studies                                           1
48    Research Policy                                            1
49    Review of Policy Research                                  1
50    State & Local Government Review                            1
51    Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal                         1
52    The Journal of Economic Education                          1
53    The Journal of Technology Transfer                         1
54    Tourism & Management Studies                               1
55    Utilities Policy                                           1
56    World Futures                                              1
      Total                                                     90

Sr.   Journal                                                   Percen
                                                                tage(%)

 1    Entrepreneurship & Regional Development                    12.22
 2    Public Administration Review                               12.22
 3    Public Management Review                                    4.44
 4    Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences                     3.33
 5    Public Administration                                       3.33
 6    Australian Journal of Public Administration                 2.22
 7    European Journal of Marketing                               2.22
 8    European Management Review                                  2.22
 9    Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places      2.22
      in the Global Economy
10    Journal of Poverty                                          2.22
11    Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory        2.22
12    Local Government Studies                                    2.22
13    Academy of Management Review                                1.11
14    Administration in Social Work                               1.11
15    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration               1.11
16    Emerging Markets Finance and Trade                          1.11
17    Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice                        1.11

18    European Journal of Innovation Management                   1.11
19    European Planning Studies                                   1.11
20    Financial Accountability & Management                       1.11
21    HEC Montreal                                                1.11
22    Industry and Innovation                                     1.11
23    Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice                   1.11
24    Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science          1.11
      Research
25    International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior &         1.11
      Research
26    International Journal of Manpower                           1.11
27    International Journal of Public Administration              1.11
28    International Journal of Social Economics                   1.11
29    International Public Management Journal                     1.11
30    Journal of Business Venturing                               1.11
31    Journal of Economic Education                               1.11
32    Journal of Economic Policy Reform                           1.11
33    Journal of International Development                        1.11
34    Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing              1.11
35    Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship                1.11
36    Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development        1.11
37    Journal of the American Planning Association                1.11
38    Journal of World Business                                   1.11
39    Korean Review of Public Administration                      1.11
40    Labour & Industry: A Journal of the Social and Economic     1.11
      Relations of Work
41    Marketing Communications for Local Nonprofit                1.11
      Organizations
42    Network of Asia-Pacific Schools and Institutes of Public    1.11
      Administration and Governance
43    Political Science and Politics                              1.11
44    Politics & Policy                                           1.11
45    Public Administration and Development                       1.11
46    Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management             1.11
47    Regional Studies                                            1.11
48    Research Policy                                             1.11

49    Review of Policy Research                                   1.11
50    State & Local Government Review                             1.11
51    Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal                          1.11
52    The Journal of Economic Education                           1.11
53    The Journal of Technology Transfer                          1.11
54    Tourism & Management Studies                                1.11
55    Utilities Policy                                            1.11
56    World Futures                                               1.11
      Total                                                     100

Table 6: Nature Wise No. of Articles

Sr.  Nature of Papers  No. of Articles  Percentage

1    Empirical         54                60
2    Conceptual        27                30
3    Theoretical        9                10
     Total             90               100

Table 7: Strategy Wise No. of Articles

Sr.  Strategy of Papers  No. of Articles  Percentage

1    Qualitative         28                51.85
2    Quantitative        23                42.59
3    Mixed Methods        3                 5.56
     Total               54               100

Table 7.1: Qualitative Paper Categories

Sr.  Qualitative Paper Categories                   No. of Articles

 1   Case Studies - Grounded Theory                  1
     Method
 2   Discourse Analysis                              1
 3   Exploratory - Case Study                        1
 4   Exploratory - Interviews -Discursive            1
     pragmatism
 5   Qualitative - Case Study                       14
 6   Qualitative--Ethnography                        1
 7   Qualitative - Exploratory                       3
 8   Qualitative - IDIs, Participant Observations,   1
     and Archival Material
 9   Qualitative - Interviews and secondary          2
     data analysis
10   Qualitative - Mix and Match Approach            1
11   Qualitative--Triangulation                      2
     Total                                          28

Sr.  Percentage

 1     3.57
 2     3.57
 3     3.57
 4     3.57
 5    50
 6     3.57
 7    10.71
 8     3.57
 9     7.14
10     3.57
11     7.14
     100

Table 7.2: Quantitative Paper Categories

Sr.  Quantitative Paper Categories           No. of Articles  Percentag

1    Bibliometric Analysis                    1                 4.35
2    Longitudinal                             1                 4.35
3    Quantitative--Survey                    15                65.22
4    Quantitative - Secondary Data Analysis   2                 8.70
5    Quantitative--Descriptive                1                 4.35
6    Research - Action Approach               1                 4.35
7    Secondary Data Analysis--GEMs            2                 8.70
     Total                                   23               100

Table 8: Definition Perspectives

Definition Perspective         N

Entrepreneur as an individual   7 (33.33%)
Entrepreneurship as a process   5 (23.81%)
Entrepreneurship as a task      5 (23.81)
Entrepreneurship as a method    3 (14.29)
Entrepreneurship as a Field     1 (4.76%)
Total                          21 (100%)

Table 8.1: Definition Perspectives and Key Points

Definition Perspectives    Description

Entrepreneur as an         Entrepreneurship is
Individual                 referred to the unique
                           character traits of an
                           individual having a vision,
                           able to take risk,
                           and exploit opportunities
                           which creates new
                           firms.
Definition Perspectives    Description
Entrepreneurship as a      Entrepreneurship is
process                    referred to a process by
                           which entrepreneurs
                           pursue opportunities
                           irrespective of resources
                           they own in public
                           enterprises.
Definition Perspectives    Description
Entrepreneurship as        Public entrepreneurship
a task                     is referred to a
                           task by which opportunities
                           are created, discovered,
                           and exploited
                           to create social capital
                           and value in public
                           enterprises.
Entrepreneurship as a      Entrepreneurship
method                     is referred to as a
                           method or practice of
                           bringing efficiency and
                           creativity into public
                           sector organization
                           for effective services
                           delivery.
Entrepreneurship as        Entrepreneurship is
a field                    referred to as a field
                           which studies the
                           sources of opportunities,
                           the processes of
                           discovery, evaluation
                           and exploitation of
                           opportunities and set
                           of individuals who
                           discover, evaluate, and
                           exploit them.

Definition Perspectives  Key Traits of Entrepreneurs


Entrepreneur as an       *Risk Taking
Individual               *Autonomy
                         *Create New Firms
                         *Opportunity Exploitation
                         *Innovative Capacity
                         *Vision
                         * Bring Change

Definition Perspectives  Key points
Entrepreneurship as a    * Applying strategic
process                  management practices
                         * Leadership principles
                         * Pursue opportunities
                         * Innovativeness
                         * Risk taking
                         * Proactiveness
                         * Idea generation,
                         translation, & implementation

Definition Perspectives  Key Points
Entrepreneurship as      * Discover and exploit
a task                   rewarding opportunities.
                         * Create social capital
                         and value in public
                         sector enterprises.
                         * Create organization.
                         * Creating opportunities.

Entrepreneurship as a    * Efficiency and
method                   creativity.
                         * To transform public
                         organization into flexible
                         units for effective
                         services delivery.
                         * Serves to maintain
                         institutional forms
                         through social redistribution
                         and change.
                         * Undertake activities
                         leading to creation of
                         organizations.
Entrepreneurship as      * Sources of opportunities.
a field                  * Processes of
                         discovery, evaluation,
                         & exploitation of
                         opportunities.

Definition Perspectives  References


Entrepreneur as an       (Baumgartner, Putz, &
Individual               Seidl, 2013; Bernier,
                         2014; Bernier & Hafsi,
                         2007; Gonzalez-Pernia,
                         Jung, & Pena, 2015;
                         Llewellyn, Lewis, &
                         Woods, 2007; Mack
                         et al., 2008; Salazar,
                         1997)
Definition Perspectives  References
Entrepreneurship as a    (Bartlett & Dibben,
process                  2002; Hafsi, Bernier,
                         Farashahi, & Concordia,
                         2007; Liu &
                         Dubinsky, 2000; Nancy
                         C Roberts & King,
                         1991; Zampetakis &
                         Moustakis, 2010)
Definition Perspectives  References
Entrepreneurship as      (Edwards et al., 2002;
a task                   Hayter, 2015; Katsikis
                         & Kyrgidou, 2009;
                         Rennie, 2008; Zerbinati
                         & Souitaris, 2005)
Entrepreneurship as a    (Bjerregaard & Lauring,
method                   2012; Sarasvathy
                         & Venkataraman,
                         2011; Smith, 2013)
Entrepreneurship as      (Shane & Venkataraman,
a field                  2000)

Table 9: Goals of Entrepreneurship in Public Sector

Description                    Objectives

Goals which could be achieved  * Change institutionalized
by entrepreneurship in public  practices and routines.
sector                         * Introduce innovation for
                               efficiency and better services
                               delivery.
                               * Orientation of risk in public
                               services.
                               * Partnership to add value into
                               public services.
                               * Leveraging of public Resources.
                               * Solving problems and satisfying
                               public needs.
                               * Discover and exploit opportunities.
                               * Conception and implementation
                               of public policies for
                               greater value to citizens.
                               * Support for economic development
                               at local, regional, and
                               national level.
                               * Foster entrepreneurial mind-set
                               for entrepreneurial culture.
                               * Create new values in
                               public sector organizations by
                               adopting an entrepreneurial
                               approach.
                               adopting an entrepreneurial
                               approach.

Description                    References

Goals which could be achieved  (Baez & Abolafia, 2002; Bartlett
by entrepreneurship in public  & Dibben, 2002; Edwards
sector                         et al., 2002; Harper-Anderson
                               & Gooden, 2016; Lindh &
                               Thorgren, 2016; Llewellyn &
                               Jones, 2003; Moghaddam et
                               al., 2015; Zerbinati &
                               Souitaris, 2005)

Table 10: Issues and Limitation of Entrepreneurship in Public Sector

Categories                                  N

Issues regarding entrepreneurs behaviors     7 (63.64%)
Issues of conflict                           2 (18.18%)
Issues regarding entrepreneurial activity.   2 (18.18%)
Total                                       11 (100%)

Table 10.1: Issues and Limitations of Entrepreneurship in Public Sector

Categories                      Issues and Limitations

Issues of conflicts             * Entrepreneurial Autonomy
                                versus Democratic Accountability.
                                * Public Entrepreneurial
                                Vision versus Citizen Participation.
                                * Entrepreneurial Secrecy
                                versus Democratic Openness.
                                * Entrepreneurial Risk Taking
                                versus Democratic Stewardship.
                                * Incompatibility of entrepreneurial
                                mind-set with Weberian
                                tradition rules.



Issues regarding entrepreneurs  * Character behaviour of
behavior                        entrepreneurs is not well-suited
                                for public managers.
                                * Self-interest of public
                                entrepreneurs could be a threat to
                                democratic governance.
                                * Little agreement regarding
                                definition of an entrepreneur.
                                * Risk aversion while dealing
                                with new and unfamiliar
                                challenges.
                                * Lack of interest on the part
                                of political entrepreneurs.


Issues regarding                * Classification of entrepreneurial
entrepreneurial activity.       processes and action is complex.
                                * Opportunity cost of opportunity
                                exploitation.


Categories                      References

Issues of conflicts             (Bellone & Goerl, 1992; Bernier,
                                2014)
Issues regarding entrepreneurs  (Bozeman & Kingsley, 1998;
behavior                        Emmendoerfer & Valadares,
                                2014; Harper-Anderson &
                                Gooden, 2016; Howard, 2001;
                                Nancy C Roberts & King,
                                1991; Savaya, Packer, Stange, &
                                Namir, 2008; Terry, 1993)
Issues regarding               (Llewellyn & Jones, 2003;
entrepreneurial activity.      Zietlow, 2001)

Table 11: Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship in Public Sector

Categories                    N

Individual Factors             4 (36.36%)
Institutional Factors          3 (27.27%)
Social and Political Factors   3 (27.27%)
Legal Factors                  1 (9.09%)
Total Articles                11 (100%)

Table 11.1: Categories and Influencing Factors

Categories                    Influencing Factors

Individual Factors            * Respect for creativity
                              * Enjoyment of challenge
                              * Self-confidence
                              * High tolerance
                              * Personal autonomy
                              * Vision for opportunity
                              * Capacity to innovate
                              * Technical expertise
Institutional Factors         * External environment
                              * Structure of the organization
                              * Size of the organization
                              * Culture of the organization
                              * Degree of specialization
                              * Centralization of decision-making

                              * Clarity of performance
                              objectives
                              * System of rewards and
                              sanctions
                              * Degree of autonomy
                              * Institutional venturing,
                              renewal and frame-breaking
                              change
Social and Political Factors  * Transparency
                              * Stakeholders participation in
                              decision-making
                              * Respect for the others
                              * Pertinence and fairness of
                              decisions
                              * Protection of human rights
                              * Harmony with national
                              objectives
                              * Social justice
                              * Equal access to service
                              * Pertinence and coherence of
                              investment choices
Legal Factors                 * Policies and Rules regarding
                              economic development, monetary
                              policy, taxation, health,
                              education, legislation, industry,
                              employment, and technology.

Categories                    References

Individual Factors            (Baumgartner et al., 2013; Lewis,
                              2014; Salazar, 1997; Teske &
                              Schneider, 1994)
Institutional Factors         (Baumgartner et al., 2013; Liu
                              & Dubinsky, 2000; Sadler,
                              2000)
Social and Political Factors  (Baumgartner et al., 2013;
                              Bernier, 2014; Marie, 2016)
Legal Factors                 (Ribeiro-Soriano & Galin-do-Martin,
                              2012)

Table 11.1: Categories and Influencing Factors

Dimensions        Research Areas

Individual as an  * Public entrepreneur personality traits.
entrepreneur      * Leadership skills of public entrepreneurs.
                  * Managerial autonomy.
                  * Personal and situational attributes.
                  * Entrepreneurial behaviour.
                  * Gender dimension of entrepreneurial
                  narratives.
                  * Entrepreneurial vision for entrepreneurial
                  action.
                  * Needs of entrepreneurs in public sector.
Task Dimension    * What do public entrepreneurs do?
                  * Entrepreneurial activities.
                  * Product and process based entrepreneurship.

Institutional     * Institutional entrepreneurship
Dimension         * Institutional change process through sense
                  making.
                  * Collective and collaborative entrepreneurship.

                  * Corporate entrepreneurship.
                  * Motivation for entrepreneurship services.
                  * Components of corporate entrepreneurship
                  strategy in public sector.
                  * Suitability of market-driven entrepreneurial
                  practices into public sector; similarities,
                  constraints, and prospects.
                  * Strategic entrepreneurship.
Innovation Di-    * Innovation in service delivery
mension
Creating New      * New ventures and SMEs.
Business
Opportunity       * Generating and scanning new ideas for
Exploitation      viable proposals.
Entrepreneurship  * Nature, constraints, and boundaries of
as field          entrepreneurship in public sector.
                  * Social value creation.
                  * Characteristics of entrepreneurship.
                  * Applying Market mechanism into public
                  management problems.
                  * Paradigm of public entrepreneurships.
                  * Culture influence on entrepreneurship.
                  * Academic entrepreneurship.
                  * Knowledge spill over theory of entrepreneurship.
                  * Entrepreneurship for economic development.
                  * Entrepreneurial stakeholders in public
                  sector.
                  * Entrepreneurship theory.
                  * Creating social and societal values through
                  entrepreneurship.
                  * Contextual antecedents of entrepreneurship.

Dimensions         References

Individual as an   (Fernando, 2005; Gupta, Mac-Millan,
entrepreneur       & Surie, 2004; Kayasan,
                   2011; Lewis, 2014; Llewellyn
                   et al., 2007; Mack et al., 2008;
                   Salazar, 1997; Zampetakis &
                   Moustakis, 2010)
Task Dimension     (Bernier & Hafsi, 2007; Hafsi et
                   al., 2007; Moon, 1999; Schumpeter,
                   1934)
Institutional      (Baez & Abolafia, 2002; Harper-Anderson
Dimension          & Gooden, 2016;
                   Hartley, Sorensen, & Torfing,
                   2013; Kearney & Meynhardt,
                   2016; Liu & Dubinsky, 2000;
                   Luke & Verreynne, 2006; Nancy
                   C. Roberts, 2006; Zampetakis &
                   Moustakis, 2007b)
Innovation Di-     (Llewellyn & Jones, 2003)
mension
Creating New       (Cheng, Stough, & Jackson,
Business           2009)
Opportunity        (Nancy C Roberts & King,
Exploitation       1991)
Entrepreneurship   (Audretsch, 2004; Dahles,
as field           Verduyn, Wakkee, Lundqvist,
                   & Williams Middleton,
                   2010; Doherty et al., 2006;
                   Gonzalez-Pernia et al., 2015;
                   Hayter, 2015; Hjorth, 2013; Katsikis
                   & Kyrgidou, 2009; Klein,
                   Mahoney, McGahan, & Pitelis,
                   2010; Lindh & Thorgren, 2016;
                   Nayyar & Sohail H. Naqvi,
                   2013; Schumpeter, 1934; Seo &
                   Chung, 2012; Steyaert & Katz,
                   2004; Su, Zhai, & Landstrom,
                   2015; Xu & Carey, 2015)
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Author:Ali, Asghar; Irfan, Sidra; Salman, Yaamina
Publication:Business & Economic Review
Date:Sep 1, 2019
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