Printer Friendly

Amenabar's Abre los ojos: the posthuman subject.

"The reason you enter reality even though it is a pain in the butt is that it is someplace where you are not alone"

(Jaron Zepel Lanier in Garreau 202).

ON Stardate 41263.1 the U.S.S. Enterprise accelerates mysteriously and ends up over a billion light years from its previous location. To make matters worse, the crew finds itself in a galaxy where the boundaries between the mental and physical disappear. Individual thoughts spontaneously and often terrifyingly take material form, threatening to cast the entire ship into chaos. Human beings for whom thought and material reality fuse remain a fabrication of science fiction at this time. Nonetheless, the United States government, through the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), already funds investigations involving telekinetics, human enhancement, engineered human evolution, and brain-machine interfaces. The ultimate goal of one such project is "to seamlessly merge mind and machine, engineering human evolution so as to directly project and amplify the power of our thoughts throughout the universe" (Garreau 20).

An ever growing body of literature imagines and evaluates this future, in which technological and medical advances result in mentally and physically enhanced humans. Futurist and inventor Ray Kurzweil predicts a tomorrow in which human beings will have integrated technology into their physiology and psychology. For Kurzweil, the term "virtuality" itself will no longer distinguish between an artificial and conventional existence:
   nanobots are in our capillaries and do nothing if we are in real
   reality; once we want a virtual reality they intercept all the
   inputs and in stead give signals that fit the virtual environment
   and ultimately we can go to virtual places ... we will meet other
   people there, both real people and simulated people. Of course,
   ultimately there won't be a clear distinction between the two. (49)

Hayles foresees a posthuman era when there is "a coupling so intense and multifaceted that it is no longer possible to distinguish meaningfully between the biological organism and informational circuits in which it is enmeshed" ("Virtual Bodies..." 80). Donna Haraway has argued already that at the end of the twentieth century "we are all chimeras, theorized and fabricated hybrids of machine and organism; in short, we are cyborgs" (150). The seemingly endless doubling of computing power convinces writers (see Joy and Kurzweil) that we are approaching a singularity, that is, "a point where our everyday world stops making sense" and that the nature of humanity will be radically changed (Garreau 72).

Not surprisingly, debate has intensified in many disciplines over what being "human" means and what categories will describe and define subjectivity. Scott Bukatman considers science fiction a central discursive space in which representations of this new subjectivity have appeared:
   It has fallen to science fiction to repeatedly narrate a new
   subject that can somehow directly interface with--and master--the
   cybernetic technologies of the Information Age ... a subject
   that can occupy or intersect the cyberscapes of contemporary
   existence. (2; 8-9)

Alejandro Amenabar can be cited as a narrator of this new subject, even though he has made only one film that fits into the science fiction genre. In at least three of his films, however, the director addresses specifically the issues of identity and the nature of the human. Mar adentro (2004) dramatizes the biography of Ramon Sampedro, who judges that his life as a quadriplegic lacks the dignity required in his notion of being human. In two other films, Amenabar suggests the implications of an evolution toward a posthuman condition. Grace in The Others (2001), unable to cope with the loss of her soldier-husband, suffocates her children and kills herself; the film chronicles Grace's emerging realization that she now exists as one of the dead and that categories of the living no longer apply to her identity in this new realm. The protagonist of Abre los ojos (1997) cannot bear living with a deformed and scarred face. Brought back to life by a cryogenic company, Cesar represents Amenabar's conception of an individual struggling to grasp the nature of subjectivity in the future and to comprehend his own identity in radically new circumstances. (1)

Abre los ojos marks Amenabar's second Spanish and international success as a filmmaker. He has garnered much attention for his deft combination of multiple film genres (horror, psychological thriller, science fiction), intertextual references to Spanish and international films, as well as his evident technical talent (Perriam, Rodriguez Marchante, Sempere, Smith). The movie's intersecting planes of dream and reality have prompted some critics to suggest comparisons to Calderon's masterwork, La vida es sueno, and to Borges' fiction (Juan Navarro, Martin, Roberston). Juan Navarro, among others, also stresses the film's critique of the protagonist's obsession with physical beauty and by extension with a contemporary "cultura dominada por la imagen y el simulacro" (371). Nathan Richardson addresses more directly questions of identity and the future when he maintains that "Amenabar seems to be sending out a stern warning against the long-term dream of transcending subjectivity" (336). (2) Perriam underscores the director's vision of a radically new conception of what is human. The individual no longer will require a physical body to exist, since Cesar may "not be a living, semi-amnesiac psychotic at all but rather a dead or inert body whose mind is at large in a virtual reality" ("Alejandro Amenabar's ..." 212). Amenabar himself recognized the central importance of the future as he not only "did exhaustive research on both virtual reality and cryogenics while developing the story," but fully intended that the audience "'imagine how the future could be'" because "'scientific progress is inevitable'" (Abre los ojos, Production Notes 1, 3).

I propose a reading of Abre los ojos that builds on Richardson's, Perriam's, and Amenabar's observations by analyzing the film's conceptualization of a posthuman subject, namely, one for whom technology and the human almost seamlessly merge to enable it to invent a vivid and convincing virtual reality responsive to its every desire or thought. In Abre los ojos Amenabar portrays the protagonist's troubling attempts to situate himself in such a new age. Amenabar, on the advice of Jose Luis Cuerda, decides that Cesar's nightmares originate in his mind and do not occur because of a machine failure (Rodriguez Marchante 66). Despite the lack of any visible hardware, the immediate transformation of mental images into a virtual reality, guaranteed in Cesar's contract with Life Extensions, assumes a technology of vast power and sophistication that has been fused with the human psyche (Rodriguez Marchante 66). Mr. Duvernois explains at the film's conclusion that the company captures Cesar's thoughts mere moments after he conceives them, subsequently converting them into a virtual reality. Presently, even a pale, clumsy creation of a virtual reality requires connecting the body to the digitally generated three-dimensional space by means of "such prosthetic equipment as head-mounted displays, data gloves, and bodysuits" (Ryan 80-81.) Even the Starship Enterprise's holodeck requires verbal commands, a specialized room, and a computer program. Abre los ojos presents a world based on a dazzlingly simple variation of the Cartesian equation: I think, therefore it exists. Cesar in 2145 has not so much transcended subjectivity, as Richardson suggests, but rather he has expanded the powers of its agency. The movie consequently dramatizes the protagonist's quest to understand and shape his identity in light of this enhancement.

Clause 14 of Cesar's contract with Life Extensions promises that technology will return him to his previous life (1997): good looks, wealth, stylish apartment, lovely girlfriend (Sofia), and loyal friend (Pelayo). This Cesar of 1997 (evident in the incidents on the racquet ball court, at the birthday party, and in Sofia's apartment) personifies a conception of the self corresponding to almost all the traits of the liberal humanist subject:

It is singular, rational, unified, centered, autonomous, self-willed, homogeneous, moral, powerful, and, predictably, phallic ... and in virtue of his self-willing autonomy refuses ambiguity, contradiction, doubt. (Knight, 48) (3)

Converting one's thoughts or desires into materiality and action might appear to be the ultimate evolution for this humanist subject. At the same time, nevertheless, this connection between the mental and the physical also suggests an earlier stage in the development of subjectivity, namely, that of the child and "primary processes." During this stage "Logical thinking, law of contradiction ... ability to distinguish between a wish or claim and its fulfillment-reality-testing" have not yet asserted their dominance; instead the child perceives a "fusion of objects and thoughts" (Schwab 23). Jaron Zepel, an early creator of virtual realities, explains the attraction for kids of virtual reality gaming: "'you're sort of in this God-like state where you just have to imagine something and it's real'" (Garreau 201). Amenabar's film, then, creates a protagonist, or hybrid man-child, for whom the concepts unity, homogeneity, and rationality cannot adequately define the human subject and its evolved capabilities.

In sum, Abre los ojos, through the creation of and immersion in a virtual reality, problematizes the concept of self in a posthuman era when the biological and technological can be fully integrated. I now turn to a more detailed examination of Cesar's effort to deal with a subjectivity markedly different from the one he left behind in 1997. Subsequently, I discuss the protagonist's ultimate rejection of this new subjectivity that eliminates an authentic relationship between the self and a separate other.

The future (2145) offers Cesar a world governed by principles distinct from conventional notions of reality. Temporal boundaries, for example, have melted away for the human subject, who effortlessly constructs a present existence (2145) as a simulacra of his past (1997). Space, historical detail, characters, and relationships from this past become immediately embodied presences. Theorists such as Haraway anxiously anticipate the posthuman/cyborg era for its possible "transgressed boundaries" and "potent fusions" (154). Cesar, in contrast, prefers the security and comfort offered by predictable, consistent categories and grows ever more disturbed by the fluidity and ambiguity of this existence. Almost the entire film follows Cesar's efforts to reassert a consistent, predictable identity.

For Hayles the posthuman period shifts from a dependence on the dialectic of presence/absence to the dialectic of pattern/randomness (How We Became Posthuman 28). In Abre los ojos Cesar must form a subjectivity based on this posthuman dialectic, but for much of the film, Cesar remains rooted in the dialectic of 1997. The women, Nuria and Sofia, should either be present or absent as separate entities. Nuria should be either dead or alive. In this virtual reality, however, engendered by Life Extension's technology, the two women often appear simultaneously by means of information codes unpredictably generated by Cesar's mind. Unfortunately, Hayles warns, in the posthuman era "randomness is always present, capable of disrupting pattern at any moment" ("Embodied Virtuality" 10). Throughout most of Abre los ojos Cesar fails to grasp that the inexplicable or contradictory events stem directly from his own subconscious fears, desires, insecurities. Paradoxically, the human subject is both responsible for the pattern that he seeks to sustain (a life with the woman he loves), as well as for the mutations or interruptions to the pattern (the reappearing memory of the woman who caused his disfigurement).

When cultures face the task of understanding "new modes of subjectivity," they often depend on stories and narratives as a discursive space in which to explore these modes (Hayles "The Life Cycle of the Cyborg" 153). As noted above, critics have rightly praised Amenabar's artful integration of differing film genres in Abre los ojos. I wish to emphasize, as Perriam does, that because much of the film's action takes place in Cesar's created virtual reality, these genres or stories constitute the protagonist's strategies, at times unconscious, to understand the nature of subjectivity and his life in this posthuman future. (4)

Once Life Extensions brings Cesar back to life and endows him with the power to transform all his wishes into a virtual reality, he strives to model his identity (2145) on that of the wealthy, dapper hero of a Hollywood happy-ending love story. Five sequences, principally occurring in the middle of the text, comprise this film within a film. In this narrative, Cesar, disfigured in a car accident, has lost Sofia, the love of his life. Drunk and depressed, he collapses on a sidewalk. In the morning Sofia awakens Cesar and declares her love for him despite his deformed face. Happily, the "beauty" and the "beast" walk hand in hand in a sunlit park. Medical science comes to the rescue and restores Cesar's handsome features so that the couple are now a perfect match of physical beauty. Even the formerly jilted, betrayed best friend, Pelayo, celebrates the couple's happiness.

This story embodies perfectly Cesar's notion of who he is and wants to remain upon signing the contract with Life Extensions and selecting Clause 14. In 1997 Cesar has no interest in an amazingly new future; he yearns to be handsome again and return to his life of complete pleasure and gratification. Unfortunately, Cesar's mind provides the instructions for the code that produces this narrative. Information or software codes, Hayles reminds us, always remains vulnerable to glitches. In Cesar's case, his insecurities, fears, and doubts can and do randomly intrude on and interrupt the continuity of his idyllic Hollywood romance. For example, in the very first scene after the supposed splicing of his real life (1997) with that of his virtual existence (2145) randomness breaks in. Cesar lies on the sidewalk; from the right side of the screen comes Sofia's hand (we recognize her because she wears a ring and Nuria does not). As Cesar awakens and looks to see who it is, the first frame in which a face appears shows Nuria's; immediately Cesar recoils in fear. The film quickly shifts to an image of Sofia. As the disruptions increase and intensify (Sofia's disappearance, the murder of Nuria/Sofia, Pelayo's break with Cesar), Cesar must find/construct a new narrative in which to locate himself and to stabilize an identity capable of responding to the inexplicable, traumatizing events and situations.

Cesar now conceives himself as the hero of a psychological thriller/ detective tale. Perriam has examined in detail the connections and intertextuality between Amenabar and Hitchcock ("Alejandro Amenabar's ..." 217-218). This story line leads to Cesar thinking/creating an appropriate cast of characters and plot twists: the skeptical police, the sympathetic prison psychiatrist and father figure, Antonio, the traitorous Pelayo, the conspiratorial associates, the still alive Nuria. Only Cesar really exists among these virtual characters and he must become the dominant force in solving the mystery. He finally relates the random pieces of evidence and images (print pages, a futuristic machine, TV commercials, the name "eli," etc.). He successfully browses the net (with Antonio standing by helplessly) to locate the firm, Life Extensions. No longer the passive Cesar crouched on the floor of his cell responding to Antonio's queries, Cesar now badgers Antonio to obtain permission to visit the offices of Life Extensions. He seeks the violent climactic revelation by shooting the police officer and inviting the others to shoot him. As a result of these efforts, Cesar comprehends the baffling experiences and the failure to live "happily ever after" with Sofia.

At this point in the film, the protagonist becomes completely aware of his identity as the tortured superhero "of time paradox and memory-implant sci-fi thrillers" (Perriam, "Alejandro Amenabar's ..." 210). In these concluding scenes Cesar exhibits fully the enhanced subjectivity of the posthuman future: bullets cannot pierce his body; Antonio, Sofia and Pelayo come and go at his mental command. He now faces two options for defining who he is and what his existence will be. Each represents a subjectivity unavailable to the present inhabitants of earth. He can proceed to create any virtual realities, fully conscious that once interruptions or mutations occur, he need only reboot his mental computer so to speak. Or he can elect to live in the unknown world of 2145 that Mr. Duvernois assures him will be filled with extraordinary surgical miracles and other amazing opportunities.

Cesar rejects the virtual life because he has been unable to fashion a rational, unitary, and stable self that will successfully supply a reliable code for the utopic narrative selected. This enhanced existence presents an ambiguity and shifting ground that Cesar finds fundamentally disconcerting rather than empowering. His own thoughts and desires endanger any imagined world because Life Extensions converts all of them without any filter or error correction into lived experiences. Mr. Duvernois correctly advises Cesar that only he can write an orderly narrative of his life: "tienes que vencer tu miedo y recuperar el control." The protagonist has found himself in a nerve-racking feedback loop in which fear produces a virtual reality that leads to a reaction, (e.g., paranoia) that leads to another virtual reality that, in turn, results in another reaction (e.g. uncontrollable violence), and so on. Consequently, throughout Abre los ojos we observe the recycling of the same phrases ("fallo del cerebro," " crees en Dios?" "que es la felicidad"). Also, we find repeated references (Jules Vernes, the plot by his associates, anorexia), and images (the mime, drawings, the surgical/cryogenic machine, Mr. Duvernois). Finally, the spectator encounters the similar scenes (waking up, strolling in the park, making love, looking in the mirror). No authentic other or distinct subject supplies input data for the "Life Extensions" code. Cesar remains alone, trapped in a loop perpetuated by a reliance solely on his limited thoughts, desires, and insecurities. (5)

Amenabar frames the film's action with powerful images of Cesar's essential solitude. (6) At the outset of the film, he races down the completely empty Gran Via in broad daylight. This image anticipates the last scene in which he stands on the roof amidst a group of chimeras. Mr. Duvernois emphasizes that Antonio, Sofia, Pelayo, the building, and even Mr. Duvernois himself, are projections of the protagonist. From beginning to end, therefore, the film places in bold relief one fundamental feature of Cesar's virtual reality: he is the only human subject.

The mirror motif in Abre los ojos sharpens this issue of isolation and suggests the compelling need for the other. Cesar repeatedly seeks in the mirror's reflection a confirmation of his identity that he longs to preserve: the handsome, arrogant scion of a wealthy family, sexually irresistible to women. In these mirror reflections, little contextual detail or the presence of an independent other appears. It is all Cesar all the time and the protagonist's self dominates, excluding all other perspectives. The Russian theorist Bakhtin explains that the mirror image can never provide the individual with a complete or necessary view of itself. According to Bakhtin, the self requires something more, namely, what the other sees of the self. Bakhtin claims that the other possesses a "surplus of seeing" unavailable to the self even by means of the mirror ("Author and Hero in Aesthetic Activity" 23-26). All the characters in Cesar's world are his creations and therefore can not provide him with the missing point of view. In fact, Cesar himself confirms their insufficiency in shaping his subjectivity. At film's end, Cesar accurately concludes that the virtual Antonio enjoys no "surplus of seeing." In this reality, Cesar knows that "no importa lo que tu veas, importa lo que vea yo." From Bakhtin's perspective, nevertheless, the human subject cannot form an authentic existence in such a self-fashioned world:

I am conscious of myself and I become myself only while revealing myself for another, through another and with the help of another. The most important acts constituting self-consciousness are determined by a relationship toward another consciousness. (Problems of Dostoevsky's poetics 287)

By film's end, Cesar adopts Bakhtin's perspective and expresses his unwillingness to continue living in a world where his conception of self remains outside the corrective and shaping contribution of an independent, autonomous other. To reestablish a relationship between the self and the other Cesar must reject, through a second suicide, the virtual simulation of his 1997 world, and he must come back to life in the unknown world of 2145.

Abre los ojos communicates a chilling glimpse into a possible posthuman era without resorting to the flashy, computer-crafted special effects of so many science fiction films, e.g., The Matrix. Empowered to call into being any mental image or idea, the protagonist longs for an identity suited to a former age. Amenabar's hero, as a "new" human, faces a radically altered sense of self, one in which old categories do not apply or do not exhibit well-defined contours. In selecting Clause 14, Cesar envisioned that nothing can be better than living a life exactly as he wishes. Moreover, he confidently and naively believes that he knows exactly what he wants. Amenabar's Abre los ojos warns that a future world designed solely on such naive assumptions, and on a single subject's consciousness, could well produce an unexpectedly terrifying existence.


Abre los ojos. Dir. Amenabar, Alejandro. Prod. Jose Luis Cuerda, Fernando Bovaira/Sogepaq, 1997.

Bakhtin, Mikhail. Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics. Trans. Caryl Emerson. Ed. Caryl Emerson. Minneapolis: Minnesota UP, 1984.

Bakhtin, M. M. "Author and Hero in Aesthetic Activity." Trans. Vadim Liapunov. Art and Answerability: Early Philosophical Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Ed. Michael Holquist and Vadim Liappunov. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990. 4-256.

Bukatman, Scott. Terminal Identity: The Virtual Subject in Postmodern Science Fiction. Durham: Duke UP, 1993.

Garreau, Joel. Radical Evolution: The Promise and Peril of Enhancing Our Minds, Our Bodies -- and What It Means to Be Human. New York: Doubleday, 2005.

Haraway, Donna. Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Hayles, N. Katherine. "Virtual Bodies and Flickering Signifiers." October 66 (1993): 69-91.

--. "The Life Cycle of Cyborgs: Writing the Posthuman." A Question of Identity: Women, Science, and Literature. Ed. Marina Benjamin. New Brunswick: Rutgers U P, 1993. 152-76.

--. "Embodied Virtuality: Or How to Put Bodies Back into the Picture." Immersed in Technology: Art and Virtual Environments. Ed. Mary Anne Moser and Douglas MacLeod. Cambridge: MIT, 1996. 1-28.

--. How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. Chicago: Chicago UP, 1999.

Herbert, Daniel. "Sky's the Limit Transnationality and Identity in Abre los ojos and Vanilla Sky." Film Quarterly 60.1 (2006): 28-38.

Joy, Bill. "Why the Future Doesn't Need Us." Wired Magazine 8.4 (April 2000). Juan Navarro, Santiago. "La pantalla especular: Una lectura metatextual del cine de Alejandro Amenabar." Letras Peninsulares 16.1 (2003): 371-84.

Knight, Deborah. "Women, Subjectivity, and the Rhetoric of Anti-Humanism in Feminist Film Theory." New Literary History 26.1 (1995): 39-56.

Kurzweil, Ray. "Promise and Peril." Living with the Genie: Essays on Technology and the Quest for Human Mastery. Ed. Daniel Sarewitz Alan Lightman, Christina Desser. Washington: Island Press, 2003. 35-62.

Mar adentro. Dir. Alejandro Amenabar. Prod. Alejandro Amenabar, Fernando Bovaira/ Sogepaq, 2004.

Martin, Marina. "Entre lo real y lo sonado en el cine de Alejandro Amenabar: Bifurcaciones de Abre los ojos." Literatura y otras artes en America Latina. Ed. Oscar Torres Duque, Daniel Balderston, Laura Gutierrez, Brian Gollnick, Eileen Willingham. Iowa City: U. of Iowa, 2004. 91-102.

Perriam, Chris. "Alejandro Amenabar's Abre los ojos / Open Your Eyes (1997)." Spanish Popular Cinema. Ed. Antonio Lazaro-Reboll and Andrew Willis. Manchester: Manchester U P, 2004. 209-21.

--. Stars and masculinities in Spanish cinema: From Banderas to Bardem. Oxford; New York: Oxford UP, 2003.

Richardson, Nathan E. "Youth Culture, Visual Spain, and the Limits of History in Alejandro Amenabar's Abre los ojos." Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispanicos 28.2 (2003): 327-46.

Roberston, Sandra. "Life is Virtual Dream: Amenabar Reading Calderon." Cine-Lit 2000. Ed. Jaume Marti-Olivella, George Cabello-Castellet, Guy H. Wood. Portland, Oregon: Cooper Publishing, 2000. 115-25.

Rodriguez Marchante, Oti. Amenabar, vocacion de intriga. Madrid: Paginas de Espuma, 2002.

Ryan, Marie-Laure. "Cyberspace, Virtuality, and the Text." Cyberspace Textuality: Computer Technology and Literary Theory. Ed. Marie-Laure (ed. and introd.) Ryan. Bloomington: Indiana U P, 1999. 78-107.

Sempere, Antonio. Alejandro Amenabar Cine en las venas. Madrid: Nuer Ediciones, 2000.

--. Amenabar, Amenabar. San Vicente [del Raspeig] (Alicante): Club Universitario, 2004.

Schwab, Gabrielle. Subjects without Selves: Transitional Texts in Modern Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard U P, 1994.

Smith, Paul Julian. "High Anxiety: Abre los Ojos/Vanilla Sky." Journal of Romance Studies 4.1 (2004): 91-102.

The Others. Dir. Amenabar, Alejandro. Prod. Jose Luis Cuerda, Fernando Bovaira, Sunmin Park/Sogepaq, 2001.

by Dennis Perri

Grinnell Gollege


(1) Sempere observes that each of these films presents a character "que sufre por el hecho de estar vivo, un personaje que quiere escapar de la condena de ser, un personaje agobiado por una existencia que no alcanza a comprender" (Amenabar... 2004, 13).

(2) See Herbert for an analysis of the transnational dimension of identity in Abre los ojos and its Hollywood remake Vanilla Sky.

(3) For a full discussion of the sexual dimensions of Cesar's characterization see Perriam in "Alejandro Amenabar's ..." (216-18) and Stars and masculinities ... (175-76).

(4) Perriam has noted also the connection between narrative and Cesar's identity: "each time he awakens he opens his eyes to some damaging new perspective on the loss not only of his film star looks but of the coherence of the narrative supposed to sustain his sense of self " ("Alejandro Amenabar's ..." 212).

(5) It should be noted that by electing to live in 2147, according to Mr. Duvernois, Cesar will be able to have surgery to correct his facial deformity. To a degree, then, Cesar wants another opportunity to live as before, i.e., handsome, a physical trait that a real other can see and thus confirm.

(6) Smith declares urban alienation as one of Amenabar's two "editorial issues" in the film (96); Sempere as well focuses on loneliness and alienation as central thematic concerns (... Cine en las venas 92).
COPYRIGHT 2008 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Romance Languages
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Perri, Dennis
Date:Sep 1, 2008
Previous Article:Moon, stars and sharing the sky of nationhood, or a "bluer, fresher cuba," in Christina Garcia's The Aguero Sisters.
Next Article:Albert Edelfelt: Cartas del viaje por Espana (1881).

Related Articles
Ethical questions are centre stage.
Tom Cruise and the seven dwarves: cinematic postmodernisms in Abre los ojos and Vanilla Sky.
Gay horror filmmakers' birthdays.
Alejandro Amenabar and the embodiment of skepticism in Abre los ojos.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters