Alternatives to DEET.
ANUSHKA CHELLIAH, MD, AND PATRICK DUFF, MD (JUNE 2016)
Picaridin is not mentioned in this brief report from Drs. Chelliah and Duff. I suggest reviewing the July 2015 Consumer Reports article on repellents; picaridin is a likely safer alternative to DEET, with the highest efficacy of all those tested, at least in Sawyer Fisherman's Formula Picaridin Insect Repellent and Natrapel 8 Hour Insect Repellent. Products that have little or no efficacy also were not mentioned, including Avon Skin So Soft, Coleman Naturals Insect Repellent Snap Band, and SuperBand Wristband. In addition, the concentration of products is very important, as is the precise formulation within brands. For example, Off! Deep Woods VIII (with DEET 25%) is very effective versus Off! FamilyCare II Clean Feel (with picaridin 5%), which has very little benefit.
David H. Janowitz, MD
* Drs. Chelliah and Duff respond In our short discussion of mosquito repellents, we based our recommendations on publications from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Florida Department of Health. Those publications presented DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) at the top of the list for preferred repellents. A recent publication from the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (MotherToBaby, September 2013) indicated that, in a concentration of 20% to 30%, DEET was safe in pregnancy and was effective in protecting against 90% of all mosquito bites and tick attachments. Increasing the concentration of DEET above 30% does not enhance the product's effectiveness or prolong its duration of action.
However, Dr. Janowitz is correct in stating that other agents are also highly effective and safe in pregnancy. These agents include picaridin (20%) and oil of lemon/eucalyptus (30%). We thank Dr. Janowitz for directing us to the most recent testing program conducted by Consumer Reports. (1) That testing program demonstrated that Sawyer Fisherman's Formula Picaridin and Natrapel 8 Hour, which each contain 20% picaridin, and Off! Deep Woods VIII, which contains 25% DEET, kept Aedes mosquitoes from biting for approximately 8 hours. The Sawyer product was also effective in preventing bites from the Culex mosquitoes, which carry West Nile virus, and deer ticks, which can transmit Lyme disease. Repel Lemon Eucalyptus (30%) stopped Aedes mosquito bites for 7 hours.
In the Consumer Reports testing program, IR3535 products, which we recommended in our article, did not perform well, nor did repellents that contained only 7% DEET or less than 20% picaridin. Moreover, products made from natural plant oils--such as citronella, lemongrass oil, cedar oil, geraniol, rosemary oil, and cinnamon oil--were not particularly effective. Some did not last for more than 1 hour; some failed immediately.
When applying any of these products, individuals should observe the following guidelines:
* apply insect repellents only to exposed skin or clothing
* do not apply repellents on cuts, wounds, or abraded skin or immediately after shaving
* avoid the eyes and mouth when applying repellent to the face
* after exposure is over, wash the skin with soap and water
* clothing that has been treated with one of these agents or with permethrin should be washed separately before it is worn again.
(1.) Byrne S. Mosquito repellents that best protect against Zika. Consumer Reports. http://www.consumerreports.org/ insect-repellents/mosquito-repellents-that-best-protect-against-zika/. Updated April 16, 2016. Accessed July 25, 2016.
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|Title Annotation:||Comment & Controversy|
|Author:||Janowitz, David H.|
|Date:||Aug 1, 2016|
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