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Alleviation of Aflatoxin-B1 Toxicity by using Clay Adsorbent in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Diets.

Byline: Dilawar Hussain and Abdul Mateen

Abstract

The present study was designed to alleviate the aflatoxin-B1 toxicity by the use of 0.5% calcium bentonite clay and to evaluate its effect on the growth performance of Nile tilapia over a period of 10 weeks. Inclusion of AFB1 at both 2 and 4 ppm levels significantly (p<0.05) decreased specific growth rate (SGR), net weight gain (NWG), average daily gain (ADG), survival, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PRE), irrespective the addition of the 4TX in the diets. Among different dietary groups of the fish, % survival was not affected significantly (p<0.05). T1 showed maximum NWG (45.49+-3.85), FER (0.739+-0.02) and PER (36.36+-1.83) when compared to other dietary treatment groups.

The addition of 4TX clay in the diets at both 2 and 4 ppm AFB1 concentrations have almost the same effect on the growth parameters tested except in the case of PER. T3 (0.5% 4TX+2 ppm AFB1) showed better PER (31.42+-1.74) when compared to T4 (0.5% 4TX+ 4 ppm AFB1) group (27.76+-0.67). Interaction between different growth parameters of tilapia fed AFB1 and 4TX supplemented diets showed that net weight gain (NWG) was significantly (p0.05) in % survival among all the treatments. While the growth parameters of tilapia regarding the initial body weight (IBW), final body weight (FBW), average daily gain (ADG), net weight gain (NWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) was significantly (p0.05).

Feed and protein utilization

Feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) exhibited a significant difference (p<0.05) in all the treatment groups (Table III). T1 showed maximum (0.739+-0.02) while T4 showed minimum (0.584+-0.03) FER. 4TX clay showed better PER (31.42+-1.74) at 2 ppm AFB1 concentration as compared to 4 ppm AFB1 exposed group (27.76+-0.67).

Table II.- Means +- SD of growth performance of tilapia fed AFB1 and 4TX supplemented diets for 10 weeks.

Treatment###Body weight (g/fish)###Body gain###SGR (%)###Survival (%)

###IBW###FBW###NWG (g/fish)###ADG (g/fish/d)

T1###4.657+-0.20B###50.14+-4.02A###45.49+-3.85A###0.607+-0.05A###2.209+-0.05A###94.44+-4.81A

T2###5.050+-0.15A###50.07+-5.24A###45.03+-5.10 A###0.600+-0.07A###2.202+-0.07A###94.44+-4.81A

T3###4.467+-0.11B###36.10+-3.13B###31.63+-3.03B###0.422+-0.04B###1.998+-0.06B###97.22+-4.81A

T4###4.710+-0.12B###35.94+-5.83B###31.23+-5.73B###0.416+-0.08B###1.986+-0.11B###97.22+-4.81A

Table III.- Feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of tilapia AFB1 and 4TX supplemented diets for 10 weeks.

Treatment###FI (g/fish)###FER###PER

T1###61.58+-5.56AB###0.739+-0.02A###36.36+-1.83A

T2###65.70+-10.15A###0.689+-0.09A###34.53+-0.51A

T3###52.14+-3.51B###0.624+-0.03B###31.42+-1.74B

T4###53.00+-4.82B###0.584+-0.03B###27.76+-0.67C

Table IV.- Interaction between growth responses of tilapia fed different levels of AFB1 and 4TX supplemented diets for 10 weeks.

Control###IBW###FBW###NWG###ADG###SGR###Survival###FI###FER

Variables

FBW###0.7367**

###0.0063

NWG###0.7222**###0.9998**

###0.0080###0.0000

ADG###0.7222**###0.9998**###1.0000**

###0.0080###0.0000###0.0000

SGR###0.7039*###0.9931**###0.9937**###0.9937**

###0.0106###0.0000###0.0000###0.0000

Survival###-0.1242###-0.1255###-0.1243###-0.1243###-0.0555

###0.7005###0.6976###0.7004###0.7004###0.8641

FI###0.7933**###0.9359**###0.9324**###0.9324**###0.9107**###-0.2962

###0.0021###0.0000###0.0000###0.0000###0.0000###0.3500

FER###-0.1513###0.3732###0.3865###0.3865###0.3954###0.0224###0.1730

###0.6389###0.2322###0.2146###0.2146###0.2034###0.9449###0.5907

PER###0.2993###0.7287**###0.7359**###0.7526**###0.7171**###-0.4257###0.6202###0.5487

###0.3446###0.0072###0.0064###0.0047###0.0087###0.1676###0.0315###0.0647

Correlation matrices

Interaction between different growth parameters of tilapia fed AFB1 and 4TX supplemented diets are shown in Table IV. Net weight gain (NWG) was significantly (p<0.01) correlated with specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (FI).

Water quality parameters

All the water quality parameters were found within the range (temperature, 25.5-27.2degC; pH, 7.89-8.61; ammonia, 0.11-0.20 mg/1N NH3; nitrite, 0.03-0.09 mg/1N NO2 -L; dissolved oxygen, 5.42-6.51 mg-L and salinity, 0.41-0.48 ppt) optimum for tilapia growth (Table V).

Table V.- Physico-chemical analysis of control and AFB1 and 4TX treated aquaria.

Week###Temp.###pH###Ammonia###Nitrite###Dissolved###Salinity

###(degC)###Oxygen

Initial 26.7###8.52 0.14###0.03###6.45###0.42

1.###26.7###7.89 0.11###0.03###6.51###0.43

2.###26.6###8.45 0.15###0.03###5.99###0.41

3.###27.2###8.46 0.12###0.04###6.32###0.48

4.###26.7###7.96 0.12###0.05###6.30###0.46

5.###26.8###8.39 0.13###0.04###6.31###0.47

6.###26.9###8.48 0.18###0.03###6.36###0.42

7.###25.5###8.53 0.14###0.03###6.39###0.44

8.###26.7###8.61 0.13###0.04###5.87###0.46

9.###26.8###8.54 0.20###0.09###5.42###0.42

10.###26.7###8.46 0.12###0.03###6.35###0.41

DISCUSSION

In tropical and subtropical regions of the world, a high risk of aflatoxin contamination has been observed in many studies due to the higher use of plant based alternatives in animal diets that ultimately have lethal effects on fish health. Overall, aflatoxin-B1 negatively affected the tilapia over a course of 10 weeks. The results of current study showed a reduction in specific growth rate (SGR), average daily gain (ADG) and net weight gain (NWG), and at both the supplemented levels of AFB1. Fish exposed to 4 ppm AFB1 affected the most comparing with 2 ppm AFB1 offered fish and control groups. This negative effect of AFB1 on growth parameters at 2 and 4 ppm proved anti-nutritional nature of AFB1 as described in previous findings (Al-Faragi, 2014; Ayyat et al., 2013; Chavez-Sanches et al., 1994; Deng et al., 2010; El-Banna et al., 1992; Encarnacao et al., 2009; Salem et al., 2010; Sepahdari et al., 2010; Shehata et al., 2009; Zaki et al., 2008; Zychowski et al., 2013a, b).

In the present study, % survival remained almost the same (p<0.05) among tilapia exposed to 2 and 4 ppm AFB1 concentrations along with controls. Our results was confirmed by the study of Tuan et al. (2002) who concluded that when tilapia exposed to 10 ppm AFB1/kg or less have not increased the mortality over a period of 8 weeks. In another study by Chavez-Sanchez et al. (1994), it is reported that even when exposed to 30 ppm AFB1/kg did not cause death in tilapia. Our results regarding the survival confirmed this trend.

In the present study, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) was also decreased significantly (p<0.05) with the increasing AFB1 concentration. Our results regarding the feed and protein utilization are in line with the previous findings by Abdelhamid et al. (2004), Hussein et al. (2000), Nguyen et al. (2002) and Salem (2002). The possible explanation of this toxicity and deleterious effect of AFB1 may be because of pathological modifications in the gastro-intestinal tract of the fish (Murjani, 2003). Also, our results was in line with the results of Nguyen et al. (2002) who proposed that when fish offered a diet ranging from 10 and 100 ppm AFB1/kg was expelled out when ingested. When fish administrated a diet having 100 ppm AFB1/kg diet, only consumed 59 ppm AFB1/kg of its body weight, the three times than the amount for fish fed the 10 mg AFB1/kg.

Additionally, the results of the study of Salem (2002) reported that a significant reduction (P<0.05) was observed in protein and feed efficiency feed in tilapia when fed with dietary AFB1. Similar findings regarding the protein and feed utilization were reported by Abdelhamid et al. (2002b).

Addition of 4TX clay in the diets did not show any significant difference regarding the growth parameters at both 2 and 4 ppm AFB1 exposed groups except in protein efficiency ratio in which 0.5% 4TX+2ppm AFB1 group (T3) showed higher (31.42+-1.74) PER as compared to 0.5%4TX+4ppm AFB1 (27.76+-0.67) group (T4). The theory behind this effectiveness is that mycotoxin adsorbents such as 4TX strongly binds with the AFB1 molecules present in the feed that it prevents the absorption of AFB1 in the digestive tract of the animals. The efficacy of 4TX to adsorb and remove the intoxication of AFB1 in animal species was also reported by Fowler et al. (2014), (2015) and Velazquez (2011). Bentonite clays were found active in minimizing the bioavailability of aflatoxins (Chaturvedi et al., 2002; Desheng et al., 2005; Magnoli et al., 2008). All the water quality parameters were found suitable for the optimum growth of Nile tilapia as described in previous studies (Abdelhamid et al., 2002b).

CONCLUSIONS

The results showed significant difference (p<0.05) regarding the growth parameters among all the dietary treatments. Fish exposed to 4 ppm AFB1 performed poorly in terms of growth performance when compared to 2 ppm exposed fish and the control groups. Both negative (T1) and positive (T2) control groups showed maximum growth performance over AFB1 offered fish. Supplementation of 4TX in the diets has positive effects on fish growth with better PER in 2 ppm AFB1 group compared to 4 ppm AFB1 exposed fish. So, a clay binder such as 4TX if used efficiently have the potential to reduce AFB1 exposure, thereby preventing bioavailability and consequent effects, such as decreases in growth parameters and immunosuppression and in Nile tilapia.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for partial support through International Research Support Initiative Program (IRSIP).

Conflict of interest statement

We declare that we have no conflict of interest.

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Author:Hussain, Dilawar; Mateen, Abdul
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
Article Type:Report
Date:Apr 30, 2017
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