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Allelopathic effect of some medicinal plants on germination of two dominant weeds in Algeria.

Introduction

Allelopathy plays an important role in the agroecosystems leading to a wide array of interaction between crop-crop, crop-weed and tree-crops [13]. Generally, these interactions are harmful to the recepient plants but provide a selective benefit to the donor [1].

The allelopathy offers potential for selective biological weed management through the production [12] and release of allelochemicals from leaves, flowers ,seeds, stems, and roots of living or decomposing plant materials [11]. A variety of allelochemicals are plant secondary metabolites for medicinal and aromatic plants [6]; have been identified, including the phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids, flavoniods, alkaloids, glycosides and glucosinolates. These chemical substance (phytotoxic) are known to be exuded by plants to suppress emergence or growth of the other plants; that are submitted to biological and toxicological screens to identify their potential as natural herbicide [2].

The weed have allelopathic superiority over crops besides their competition superiority [12] because the modern agriculture relays on synthetic chemicals to get rid of these unwanted plants. Contemporary research in allelopathy focuses on isolating , identifying and quantifying specific active allelochemicals. Once these substances are identified and characterized they can be used either as natural herbicides [11].

The present research is a part of a specific study carrying out in Algeria to explore the allelopathic effects of five medicinal and aromatic plants Colocynthis vulgaris Schrad, Retama retam L, Traganum nudatum Del, Pituranthos chloranthus Benth. & Hook.and Artemisia herba alba on germination efficiency, germination index and radicle length of two dominated weeds in Algeria; Avena fatua L and Polygonum convolvulus L in laboratory condition.

Material and methods

Five medicinal and aromatic plant species were collected from their natural habitats during the vegetative stage to test the allelopathic activities of the aqueous extract of shoot and root on Avena fatua L. and polygonum convolvulus L. The collected materials were dried in air conditions of the laboratory then ground and stored in glass jars until use.

To obtain different concentrations of shoots and roots; 3, 5 and 7 grams of each from the five species were soaked in 100 ml distilled water for 24 hours at 50[degrees]C[6]. The mixture were filtered through whatman No.01 filter paper to obtain 3,5 and 7% aqueous extract respectively.

Twenty five seeds of each weed species were placed in each of four sterile petri-dishs (9 cm in diameter) per treatment, lined with a whatman No.1 filter paper. 4 ml of shoot or root extract of donor plants was added per petri--dish. In another treatment, 4 ml of distilled water was added per petri--dish and considered as a control. Dishes were incubated at 25[degrees]C in the dark.

The germination percentage, germination index and radicle length were recorded for successive seven days. Seed germination index (SGI) was calculated according to the following equation[10]:

SGI = [SIGMA] Ti Ni / S

Where,

Ti = is the number of days after sowing Ni = is the number of seeds germinated on day i S = is the total number of seeds planted

Relative reduction or stimulation of seed germination and radicle length as affected by the allelopathic substance were calculated according to the general equations:

Inhibition percentage = [1- (allelopathic/control) 100]

Statistical analysis:

Data of the present study were subjected to standard one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the COSTAT 2.00 statistical analysis software manufactured by CoHort Software Company (1986).

Results

Generally, the shoot extract of all the donor species exhibited more allelopathic effect compared with the root. The diffirent treatments of shoot extracts of all donor species significantly (p< 0.05) inhibited the germination parameters of Avena fatua L. except for Retama retam L. where 3% shoot extract concentration achieved less inhibition percentage of about 90% (Table 1). The recorded measures for germination percentage, germination index and radicle length were 10%, 5% and 3mm respectively at the same concentration.

On the other hand, the different concentrations of root extract significantly suppressed the different germination paramaters of the recepient species and the degree of inhibition varied with donor plant and treatment. For example, 3 and 5% of Colocynthis vulgaris Schrad root extract achieved the maximum inhibition percentage (95%) followed by 3 and 7% Retama retam (90%) and 3% Traganum nudatum Del (90%). It is worth to note that 5% of Colocynthis vulgaris and Traganum nudatum root extract achieved the maximum radicle length (20mm) similar to the control.

With respect to the allelopathic effect of the five donor species on Polygunum convolvolus (Table 2), data revealed that the diffirent treatments of shoot extract showed a significant allelopathic effect on the studied germination prameters. Remarkably, 5 and 7% extract concentrations of each Colocynthis vulgaris and Retama reatam, 3, 5 and 7% extract concentration of Traganum nadatum and 3 and 7% extract concentration of Artemisia herba-alba Asso exhibited 100% inhbitition percentage. On the other hand the impact of Pituranthus colorenthis Benth. was less compared with the other donor species.

The root extracts of the donor species affected significantly on the germination performance of Polygunum convolvolus. All the donor species exhibited inhibition percentages ranged from 50100%. The highest percentages were achieved by Retama reatam at 5%, Pituranthus colorenthis at 3% and Artemisia herba-alba at 7%. Notably, Polygunum convolvolus was sensetive to the shoot and root extract of the five donor species more than Avena fatua.

Discussion

The present work was carried out as a preliminerly study to investigate any possible herbicidal activity of the selected species against two widely spread weed species in Algeria. The allelopathic effect of 3,5 and 7% aqueous extract beside the control from shoots and roots of five donor species (Colocynthis vulgaris Schrad, Retama retam L, Traganum nudatum Del, Pituranthos chloranthus Benth. & Hook.and Artemisia herba alba Asso) was clearly demonstrated on germination percent, index and radicle lengths of Avena fatua and polygonum convolvulus.

The present study revealed that aqueous extract of the studied donor plants showed a wide range of activities from partial and complete inhibition to stimulation which may indicate the presence of certain allelochemicals causing inhibition [9]. Zzet and Yusuf [12] stated that, plant directly affecting another plant either positively or negatively through exuding chemical substances. Allelochemicals presented in the aqueous extracts of different plant species have been reported to affect different physiological processes through their effects on enzymes responsible for phytohormone synthesis and were found to associate with inhibition of nutrients and ion absorption by affecting plasma membrane permeability [5].

Some species under the present study exhibited a stimulatory effect upon the recepient species which may be through hormonal activities or promoting growth through adequate mineral supply. Other workers indicated that the effect of a given compound or plant metabolites may be inhibitory or stimulatory depending on their concentration in the surrounding medium [7,3].

One of the most prominent result in this work is that shoot extracts were more harmful to weeds than root extracts, which may be due to the presence of allelochemicals such as alkaloids, amino acids, carbohydrates and phytohormones at higher concentrations in shoots compared to roots [3].

In conclusion, results of the present study may indicate that possiblities of using plant extracts from shoots and roots of the five donor species as herbicides to control the weed growth will bring great success. Moreover, the positive allelopathic effects should also be exploit in crop producion. Finaly, much research work should be completed in the future to detect the members of allelochemicals responsible for this action and the appropriate methods of fractoination and identification to be exploit on the economic level.

References

[1.] Adrian, E.M.J., J.M. Albert and P. Felix, 2000. Inhibitory effects of Artemisia herba -alba on the germination gypsophyte Helianthemum squamatum. Plant Ecology, 148: 71-80.

[2.] Carlos, L., C.C.M.. Juan, D. Mariana, J.G. Avila and S. Blanca, 2006. Plant growth inhibitory activities by secondary metabolites isolated from Latin American flora. Advances in Phytomedicine, 2: 373-410.

[3.] Chun-Mei, H., P. Kai-Wen, W. Ning, W. Jin-Chuang and L. Wei, 2008. Allelopathic effect of ginger on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean and chive.

[4.] Chui-Hua, K., W. Peng and Xiao- X. Hua, 2007. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 119(3 4): pp: 416-420.

[5.] Daizy, R., B.K. Manpreet, P.S. Harminder and K.K. Ravinder, 2007. Phytotoxicity of a medicinal plant, Anisomeles indica, against Phalarisminor and its potential use as natural herbicide in wheat fields. Crop Protection, 26(7): 948-952.

[6.] Delabys, A., A. AnCay and G. Mermillod, 1998. Recherch d'especes vegetales a proprietes allopathiques .Annales de la 17e Conference du COLUMA, 9,10,11, Dijon(souspresse).

[7.] El-Darier, S.M., 2002. Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus rostrata on growth, nutrient uptake and metabolic accumulation of Vicia faba L. and Zea mays L.. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(1): 6-11.

[8.] Qasem, J.R., 2002. Allelopathic effects of selected medicinal plants on Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium murale. Allelopathy Journal, 10(2): 105-122.

[9.] Rice, E.L., 1984. Allelopathy.2nd Edn. new York Academic Press.

[10.] Scott, S.J., R.A. Jones and W.A. Williams, 1984. Review of data analysis methods for seed germination. Crop Science, 24: 1192-1199.

[11.] Tehmina, A.S., H. Phil, David and B. Rukhsana, 2005. Allelopathic potential of Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) as natural herbicide http //www.regional .org.au/au/allelopathy/2005/2/7/2252_anjum.h.

[12.] Zzet, K.L. and Y. Yusuf, 2004. Allelopathic Effects of Plants Extracts Against seed Germination of some Weeds .Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 3(4): 472-475.

[13.] Zahida, I., N. habib, H. Syuntaro and F. Yoshiharu, 2006. Plant growth inhibitory activity of Lycoris radiataHerb. and the possible involvement of lycorine asan allelochemical. Weed Biology and Management, 6: 221-227.

Corresponding Author

Salhi Nesrine, Laboratory for Bioressources Saharan preservation and enhancement, University of kasdi merbah, Ouargla, Algeria E-mail: nesrinemed@yahoo.fr

(1) Salhi Nesrine, (2) Salama M. El-Darier and (1) Halilat M. EL-Taher

(1) Laboratory for Bioressources Saharan preservation and enhancement, University of kasdi merbah, Ouargla, Algeria

(2) Departments of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

Salhi Nesrine, Salama M. El-Darier and Halilat M. EL-Taher; Allelopathic Effect of some Medicinal Plants on Germination of two Dominant Weeds in Algeria
Table 1: Allelopathic effects of shoot and root aqueous extract of
five plant species on some germination parameters of Avena fatua
L. GP: germination percentage, GI: germination index, RL: radicle
length, IP: inhibition percentage.

                                      Shoot extract

Donor species          Treatment(%)   GP(%)   GI(%)   RL(mm)   IP(%)

Control                0              100     29      20       0
Colocynthis vulgaris   3              0       0       0        100
                       5              000                      100
                       7              0       0       0        100
[L.sub.SD] 0.05                       NS      NS      NS       NS
Retama retam           3              10      5       3        90
                       5              0       0       0        100
                       7              0       0       0        100
[L.sub.SD] 0.05                       NS      NS      NS       NS
Traganum nudatum       3              0       0       0        100
                       5              0       0       0        100
                       7              0       0       0        100
[L.sub.SD] 0.05                       NS      NS      NS       NS
Pituranthos            3              0       0       0        100
  colorenthus
                       5              0       0       0        100
                       7              0       0       0        100
[L.sub.SD] 0.05                       NS      NS      NS       NS
Artemisia herba-alba   3              0       0       0        100
                       5              0       0       0        100
                       7              0       0       0        100
[L.sub.SD] 0.05                       NS      NS      NS       NS

                                      Root extract

Donor species          Treatment(%)   GP(%)   GI(%)   RL(mm)   IP(%)

Control                0              100     29      20       0
Colocynthis vulgaris   3              5       1.25    3        95
                       5              5       3.25    20       95
                       7              50      15      15       50
[L.sub.SD] 0.05                       10.2    2.77    3.92     17
Retama retam           3              10      5       5        90
                       5              15      3.25    5        85
                       7              10      2.5     2        90
[L.sub.SD] 0.05                       3.4     2.78    3.4      17
Traganum nudatum       3              10      4.04    2        90
                       5              80      39.16   20       20
                       7              15      6.66    5        85
[L.sub.SD] 0.05                       10.2    1.99    3.4      14.02
Pituranthos            3              50      8.75    5        50
  colorenthus
                       5              50      3.33    5        50
                       7              25      9.06    10       75
[L.sub.SD] 0.05                       17      1.97    3.92     17
Artemisia herba-alba   3              55      18.33   10       45
                       5              55      24.75   10       45
                       7              50      13.41   15       50
[L.sub.SD] 0.05                       17      2.07    3.92     17

Table 2: Allelopathic effects of shoot and root aqueous extract of
five plant species on some germination parameters of Polygonum
convolvulus L. GP: germination percentage, GI: germination index,
RL: radicle length, IP: inhibition percentage.

                                      Shoot extract

Donor species          Treatment(%)   GP(%)   GI(%)   RL(mm)   IP(%)

Control                0              100     18.69   15       0
Colocynthis vulgaris   3              10      3.64    3        90
                       5              0       0       0        100
                       7              0       0       0        100
[LSD.sub.0.05]                        1.96    0.08    2.77     9.81
Retama reatam          3              10      5       3        90
                       5              0       0       0        100
                       7              0       0       0        100
[LSD.sub.0.05]                        1.96    1.96    2.77     9.81
Traganum nadatum       3              0       0       0        100
                       5              0       0       0        100
                       7              0       0       0        100
[LSD.sub.0.05]                        1.96    1.96    2.77     9.81
Pituranthus            3              25      7.5     15       75
  colorenthis
                       5              10      3.21    15       90
                       7              10      8.57    15       90
[LSD.sub.0.05]                        3.4     0.22    3.92     14.02
Artemisia herba-alba   3              0       0       0        100
                       5              10      2.5     10       90
                       7              0       15      0        100
[LSD.sub.0.05]                        1.96    1.97    2.77     9.81

                                      Root extract

Donor species          Treatment(%)   GP(%)   GI(%)   RL(mm)   IP(%)

Control                0              100     18.69   15       0
Colocynthis vulgaris   3              5       1.66    3        95
                       5              5       1.25    5        95
                       7              10      4.64    15       90
[LSD.sub.0.05]                        3.4     0.17    3.92     17
Retama reatam          3              5       5       10       95
                       5              0       0       0        100
                       7              10      2.91    5        90
[LSD.sub.0.05]                        2.77    1.96    3.4      13.88
Traganum nadatum       3              30      4.28    15       70
                       5              10      1.96    15       90
                       7              15      3.75    1        85
[LSD.sub.0.05]                        3.4     0.37    3.4      17
Pituranthus            3              0       0       15       100
  colorenthis
                       5              50      21.66   0        50
                       7              25      9.82    15       75
[LSD.sub.0.05]                        10.01   0.14    3.4      13.88
Artemisia herba-alba   3              60      15      15       40
                       5              25      6.25    15       75
                       7              0       0       0        100
[LSD.sub.0.05]                        2.77    1.98    3.4      10.01
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Nesrine, Salhi; Darier, Salama El- M.; Taher, Halilat El- M.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6ALGE
Date:Jan 1, 2011
Words:2406
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