Alleghanian faulting in the southern Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec.
Transcurrent faults and associated compressional structures affecting post-Middle Devonian rocks are recognized for the first time in the southern Gaspe Peninsula (Quebec). This region was previously thought to have experienced only minor normal fault readjustments after the Middle Devonian Acadian Orogeny. Four SW-striking fault systems with post-Acadian sinistral motion that have been identified along the north shore of Chaleur Bay are described here. These faults are kinematically compatible with large NW-striking dextral faults in eastern Gaspe, and suggest that these structures reflect a widespread Alleghanian paleostress system that probably affected the entire Quebec Appalachians.
Des failles de decrochement et les structures compressives qui leur sont associees affectent des roches post-Devonien moyen dans le sud de la Gaspesie (Quebec) et sont reconnues pour la premiere fois. Cette region etait auparavant consideree comme n'ayant connu que des reajustements mineurs de failles normales apres l'orogenese Acadienne (Devonien moyen). Quatre systemes de failles orientees SW-NE ont connus des deplacements senestres post-acadiens et sont analyses dans cet article. Ces railles sont compatibles avec de grands decrochements dextres orientes NW-SE dans l'est de la Gaspesie et suggerent que ces structures sont associees a des paleostress allegbaniens ayant possiblement affecte les Appalaches quebecoises dans leur totalite.
Following identification of post-Acadian (post-Middle Devonian) paleostress indicators in the Quebec Appalachians by Faure et al. (1996), significant Alleghanian deformation was recently reported in the eastern Gaspe Peninsula near the town of Perce (Jutras et al. 2003) (Fig. 1, inset). The present paper reveals that transcurrent and associated compressive structures also affected the narrow belt of Carboniferous rocks that is exposed on the northern shore of Chaleur Bay, in southern Gaspe (Fig. 1). The eastern Gaspe structures are dextral faults striking NW to NNW, but the southern Gaspe structures discussed herein are sinistral faults striking NE (Figs. 2 and 3).
[FIGURES 1-3 OMITTED]
This paper provides a structural analysis of faults affecting Carboniferous rocks in southern Gaspe, which contains the northwesternmost rock exposures of the composite Upper Devonian to Permian Maritimes Basin (Fig. 1; inset). The fault traces tend to form well defined scarps because of the juxtaposition of poorly-indurated post-Acadian rocks with more resistant pre- and syn-Acadian rocks. Hence, some geomorphic descriptions are included, as they help to delineate the faults.
Pre-Carboniferous rocks in southern Gaspe range in age from Neoproterozoic to Early Devonian (Brisebois etal. 1992). Upper Neoproterozoic to Cambrian metasedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Maquereau Group were first deformed by the Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician Gaspesian Orogeny (Ayrton 1967). Middle Ordovician sandstone and mudrock of the Mictaw Group were first deformed by the Middle Ordovician Taconian Orogeny, which for most authors includes the Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician Gaspesian deformation as an early phase (Rodgers 1967; St-Julien and Hubert 1975; de Broucker 1987). Upper Ordovician to Lower Devonian sedimentary rocks of the Honorat, Matapedia and Chaleurs groups, as well as volcanic rocks of the latter group, were first deformed by the Early to Middle Devonian Acadian Orogeny (Malo and Beland 1989; Malo etal. 1992, 1995; Malo and Kirkwood 1995; Bourque et al. 2000; Kirkwood et al. 1995) (Figs. 2 and 3).
The post-Acadian succession in southern Gaspe starts with the Frasnian Miguasha Group (Brideaux and Radforth 1970; Hesse and Sawh 1992; Prichonnet et al. 1996), which was gently deformed prior to deposition of the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Saint-Jules Formation (Jutras and Prichonnet 2002) (Fig. 4). The latter occupies approximately the same stratigraphic position as the Fountain Lake Group of Nova Scotia and is also lithologically similar.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
The overlying fanglomerates of the La Coulee Formation of eastern Gaspe (Jutras et al. 1999), which are stratigraphically constrained to the Visean (Jutras et al. 2001), have not been recognized in southern Gaspe. However, the groundwater calcretization event that is contemporaneous with this formation affected the southern Gaspe area as well, above the Saint-Jules Formation and unconformably below the Visean Bonaventure Formation (Jutras et al. 1999, 2001; Jutras and Prichonnet 2002) (Fig. 4). The calcrete locally digested a karstified regolith developed in the upper beds of the Saint-Jules Formation, suggesting that a significant hiatus separates the Saint-Jules and La Coulee formations (Jutras and Prichonnet 2002) (Fig. 4).
The youngest sedimentary rock unit in southern Gaspe is the early Namurian Pointe Sawyer Formation (Fig. 4), which has very limited exposure (Fig. 3) and which disconformably overlies the Bonaventure Formation. This unit was correlated with the early Namurian Mabou Group of Nova Scotia on the basis of spore-age and lithological similarities (Jutras et al. 2001) (Fig. 4).
The entire post-Acadian succession of eastern Gaspe, up to the Namurian Chemin-des-Pecheurs Formation (Jutras et al. 2001), which is not exposed in southern Gaspe, was affected by compressive deformation and kilometric strike-slip displacements (Jutras et al. 2003). Four additional strike-slip fault corridors recognized in the post-Acadian succession of southern Gaspe are described below.
THE GRANDE-CASCAPEDIA FAULT SYSTEM
Steeply dipping strata of the Bonaventure Formation along the Petit-Montreal and Mont-Saint-Joseph faults in the Carleton area (Fig.2) have been attributed to a -600 m normal splay of that fault system (Bernard and St-Julien 1986), although no kinematic indicators were documented. Gosselin (1988) also postulated that the Bonaventure Formation was affected by a normal splay of the Grande-Cascapedia Fault (Fig. 2) on account of its anomalously steep dip adjacent to the associated fault scarp (Fig. 5).
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Gosselin (1988) considered the converging Petit-Montreal, Mont-St-Joseph and Grande-Cascapedia faults (Grande-Cascapedia fault system) as steeply dipping late Acadian reverse faults that were active subsequent to regional Acadian folding, but also reports evidence for sinistral and, to a lesser degree, dextral movement along subordinate structures of the deformation corridor. The possibility that the present disposition of the Mississippian strata could have been related to that reverse splay, rather than to a subsequent normal splay, has never been evaluated.
Near Carleton (Fig. 2), the measured dips of Mississippian beds increase from east to west in the proximity of the Grande-Cascapedia fault system, until they become slightly overturned (Fig. 6a). The strikes of these beds rotate counter-clockwise along with the dip increase (Fig. 2a).
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
The subvertically tilted Mississippian beds that are exposed near the Grande-Cascapedia fault system at Carleton, which is not exposed at its contact with Mississippian rocks, are affected by brittle fault planes (n = 5) striking NNE and plastered with sinistral slickensided calcite fibers (Figs. 6b and 2, stereonet 1; Table 1). One WNW-striking dextral fault plane with a similar fabric was also identified (Fig. 2, stereonet 1; Table 1). Moreover, two minor east-striking reverse fault planes plastered with calcite slickenfibers were identified in Mississippian rocks of the nearby Saint-Jules-de-Cascapedia quarry (Fig. 2, stereonet 2; Table 1).
The described structures are incompatible with the normal fault hypothesis formulated by previous authors (Bernard and St-Julien 1986; Gosselin 1988). However, they are compatible with sinistral movement along the Grande-Cascapedia fault system, with the sinistral and dextral shears (Fig. 2, stereonet 1) being interpreted as, respectively, R and R' synthetic Riedel structures on account of their angle with each other and with the main fault trace. The 175[degrees] trend of slickensided fibers on the reverse faults is interpreted as corresponding closely to that of the main principal stress ([[sigma].sub.1]), ~30[degrees] clockwise from the main fault trace and compatible with the approximately NNW-SSE [[sigma].sub.1] suggested by the conjugate R and R' structures (Wilcox et al. 1973). As for the overturned strata near Carleton, they are interpreted as the result of counter-clockwise rotation of a strike-slip drag fold along a restraining bend on the SE block (Fig. 2a), suggesting sinistral movement as well (Biddle and Christie-Blick 1985).
THE BLACK CAPE AND NEW-RICHMOND FAULTS
Jutras and Prichonnet (2002) identified and named the New-Richmond and Black Cape faults, which limit the Black Cape Ridge on each side and which locally affect the Mississippian succession (Figs. 2 and 7). No kinematic markers were found in the unexposed New-Richmond Fault trace, except for an apparent vertical displacement of S0 m (minimum) to 920 m (maximum) (Jutras and Prichonnet 2002).
[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
The Black Cape Fault affected a Late Silurian to Early Devonian clastic unit that is unconformably overlain by the Visdan La Coulee calcrete and Bonaventure Formation (Figs. 2 and 7). This clastic unit below the unconformity was tentatively correlated with the New Mills Formation by Bourque et al. (2000). However, because it contains abundant limestone reef clasts from the Pridolian (uppermost Late Silurian) West Point Formation (Bourque and Lachambre 1980), correlation with the New Mills is not supported by the Ludlow (lowermost Late Silurian) zircon U-Pb dating (423 [+ or -] 3 Ma) from the Benjamin Volcanics (Walker and McCutcheon 1994), which overlie the New Mills Formation in its type section (Greiner 1967). The red beds that were assigned to the New Mills Formation at Black Cape (Bourque et al. 2000) are possibly also younger than similar red beds of the Harrison Member of the West Point Formation farther west, which are separated from the Black Cape Volcanics by the Late Silurian Indian Point Formation (D. Brisebois, personal communication, 2003). Instead of referring to these red beds as the New Mills Formation, we propose to informally refer to them as the Black Cape clastics until they are more solidly incorporated into the regional stratigraphic context.
No exposures of Mississippian rocks were found directly on the New-Richmond and Black Cape fault traces. However, as shown on Figs. 2 and 7, they form scarps that truncate an erosional surface developed within rocks that were deformed by the Acadian Orogeny and therefore post date the latter event. Moreover, the Mississippian succession dips 25[degrees] down from the Black Cape Fault on the SE block, but is sub-horizontal on the NW block, suggesting that it has been affected by movement on that fault. Hence, because the Mississippian succession of the Gaspe Peninsula is deformed only along faults and is otherwise flat-lying, it is postulated that the brittle deformation features observed in pre-Carboniferous basement rocks and described below are related to post-Visean fault activity, although this interpretation is not fully demonstrated by available exposure. This interpretation is supported by the similarity and compatibility of these brittle structures with those affecting the Mississippian succession in the Carleton and Saint-Jules areas.
No kinematic indicators were identified directly on the SW-striking Black Cape Fault trace, which is characterized by a 30 cm thick cataclastic corridor. Less than 1 km west of the Black Cape Fault along the shoreline, a thin succession of red clastic rocks, which Bourque and Lachambre (1980) informally refer to as the Lazy Cove sedimentary unit, is intercalated between two lava flows of the Early Devonian Black Cape Volcanics. This clastic unit is almost entirely pulverised within a cataclastic corridor that contains no reliable kinematic indicators. However, at the contact between this deformed sedimentary unit and the adjacent lava flow, well developed NNE-striking brittle sinistral fault planes plastered with calcite slickenfibers can be observed (Fig. 2b, stereonet 3; Table 1).
Approximately 750 m west of the Black Cape Fault, a brittle reverse fault, striking E-W, occurs within the Black Cape Volcanics (Fig. 2b). It is characterized by a 5 m thick cataclastic corridor developed in volcaniclastic rocks. Two subordinate reverse fault planes developed in basalt on the footwall of the main fault are plastered with calcite slickenfibers that are steeply plunging toward the south (Fig. 2b, stereonet 4; Table 1).
Within 50 to 150 m west of the Black Cape Fault, a dense network of brittle sinistral fault planes striking roughly NE and plastered with calcite slickenfibers (Fig. 2b, stereonet 5; Table 1) is truncated by a less dense network of dextral fault planes with similar fabrics striking NW (Fig. 2b, stereonet 6; Table 1). It is noteworthy that these Riedel fault planes (Fig. 2b, stereonets 3-6) are restricted to the Black Cape Volcanics and do not extend into the underlying 'Black Cape clastics' (Fig. 8). The fault planes abruptly stop at the contact between the two steeply dipping units. This observation indicates that movement on each of these secondary fault planes was centimetric in scale and only generated clearly defned brittle offsets in the volcanic rocks, whereas the underlying Black Cape clastics only responded to the stress by bending slightly. It also underlines the poor capacity ofclastic rocks to develop Riedel structures, even when they are as well indurated as the 'Black Cape clastics', which experienced the Acadian Orogeny.
[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]
Data on stereonets 3-6 (Fig. 2b) are compatible with sinistral motion on the Black Cape Fault (strike 040o), with the sinistral planes of stereonet 3 being interpreted as R structures, the dextral planes of stereonet 6 as R' structures, and the sinistral planes of stereonet 5 as a poorly constrained combination of P and R structures, the average orientation of which (044[degrees]) closely reflects that of the main fault trace (~040[degrees]) (Fig. 2c).
Also compatible with sinistral motion on that fault is the geometry of drag folding along the fault (Fig. 8). No reliable stratigraphic markers were identified to quantify the displacement, but kilometric displacement is considered unlikely due to the lack of major stratigraphic breaks along the fault. A main principal stress with a trend of 174[degrees]-354[degrees] is obtained halfway between the average R structures of stereonet 3 and the average R' structures of stereonet 6, which is compatible with the strike and slickenfiber orientation of the two reverse faults of stereonet 4 (Fig. 2b, c).
THE SAINT-JOGUES-SUD FAULT
Jutras and Schroeder (1999) named the Saint-Jogues-Sud Fault (Fig. 3) and attributed it to post-Acadian tectonic activity because it sharply truncates a post-Acadian erosional surface. As is the case for the Grande-Cascapedia and Black Cape faults, the NW block is uplifted with regards to the SE block. On air photos, the fault forms a well defined linear feature that transects the Bonaventure Formation west of New-Carlisle (Fig. 3), but the fault zone is not exposed within this unit. However, four ENE-striking brittle fault planes, two of which have surfaces that exhibit sinistral slickensides, are postulated to represent P structures associated with a sinistral splay of this fault because of their acute angle (~25[degrees]) with it (Fig. 3, stereonet 1; Table 1). The lack of major facies differences in Bonaventure Formation strata on either side of the trace of the Saint-Jogues-Sud Fault suggests minimal displacement, although this is difficult to establish within horizontal clastic beds that typically show significant lateral variability.
THE PORT-DANIEL FAULT
The Port Daniel area (Fig. 3) is characterized by a rugged Late Devonian paleosurface dominated by the Clemville Hogbacks, which are sculpted in Silurian limestone of the La Vieille and West Point formations (Bourque and Lachambre 1980; Bail 1983; Jutras 1995; Peulvast et al. 1996; Jutras and Schroeder 1999). After being buried by red clastic sediments of the Saint-Jules Formation during the Late Devonian or the early Mississippian, these hogbacks developed karstic features during early stages of their subsequent exhumation, which occurred after deposition of the Bonaventure Formation (Jutras and Schroeder 1999). Material derived from the Carboniferous cover synchronously filled the karsts.
A limestone quarry in one of the hogbacks, on the northeastern side of Port-Daniel, exposes a dense network of NNE-striking brittle fault planes with minor N-striking fault planes affecting both the limestone of the La Vieille Formation and the red clastic rocks within the karsts (Fig. 3, stereonet 2; Table 1). Slickensided calcite fibers plastered on several fault planes indicate sinistral movement. No major structures were recognized in the local Silurian succession, and therefore the SSE-striking fault planes may have accommodated most of the stress, whereas N-striking fault planes could correspond to R structures developed around them.
Karst is preferentially developed along the fault planes, which also affect the karst-fill. Hence, it is concluded that fault activity, karst formation, and karst infill were contemporaneous in this sector. If correlation of the karst-fill with the Bonaventure Formation detritus is correct (Peulvast et al. 1996;Jutras and Schroeder 1999), the deformation was post-Visean.
LATE TENSILE FRACTURES
Vertical tensile fractures filled with calcite, ranging from a few millimetres to more than 10 cm in width, are common throughout the post-Acadian succession in the Gaspe Peninsula. The veins are either laminated or massive. Orientation of the tensile fracture-cast veins is extremely regular, from one end of the peninsula to the other, where they strike 040[degrees]-220[degrees] ([+ or -] 5[degrees]). They are not concentrated in the above-mentioned fault zones, which suggests that they are not coeval with them. The tensile veins are parallel to large Mesozoic mafic dykes cutting through the New Brunswick Platform, less than 100 km to the south (New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources and Energy 2000). Both features are probably related to extensional stress associated with the initial opening of the Fundy Rift and Atlantic Ocean in the Triassic to Jurassic.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
The paucity of paleostress indicators in Mississippian rocks of the Gaspe Peninsula led several authors to conclude that these rocks were not affected by late brittle strike-slip deformation affecting older rocks (Alcock 1935; St-Julien and Hubert 1975; Bernard and St-Julien 1986; Kirkwood 1989; Bourque et al. 1993), which Malo and Kirkwood (1995) and Kirkwood et al. (1995) associated with the "Acadian Phase III". However, this scarcity can be explained by the poorly consolidated, coarse-grained nature of the rocks involved. The Black Cape exposures, where abundant slickensided fault planes abruptly end at the contact between Early Devonian basalt and underlying clastic rocks (Fig. 8), underline the fact that coarse clastic rocks are poor recorders of paleostress indicators compared to more massive, fine-grained and competent rocks such as basalt. A similar contrast between the respective abundances in Riedel structures in massive fine-grained rocks (carbonate in this case) and coarse clastic rocks was also noted in the eastern Gaspe area (Jutras et al. 2003).
The SW-striking sinistral faults of southwestern Gaspe (Fig. 2) are possibly coeval with the NW-striking dextral strike-slip faults that were identified by Jutras et al. (2003) in eastern Gaspe, as both sets of faults are compatible with a NNW- to N-trending main principal stress ([[sigma].sub.1]) (Fig. 2c). Contrary to the eastern Gaspe area, where only Alleghanian Riedel structures related to a late NE-trending [[sigma].sub.1] are well preserved, Alleghanian Riedel structures related to an early NNW- to N-trending [[sigma].sub.1] are well represented in southern Gaspe and support the more indirect evidence for this paleostress orientation in eastern Gaspe, which is thought to have generated the most important block displacements in that area (Jutras et al. 2003).
Whereas evidence for the reactivation of inherited faults is present in eastern Gaspe (Jutras et al. 1999, 2003), such evidence is lacking in southern Gaspe. None of the brittle structures described in this paper intermingle with older ductile-brittle structures, apart from the Acadian folding. Only the Grande-Cascapedia fault system shows significant displacement of pre-Carboniferous units, but this fault system is also the only one in southern Gaspe that overturned Carboniferous rocks and seemingly generated kilometric displacement, as movement of such a scale is necessary to form the large drag fold that developed along its trace (Fig. 2a).
The lack of large post-Acadian SW-striking sinistral strike-slip faults in eastern Gaspe may be related to the former presence of NW-striking faults, which easily accommodated a roughly N-S main paleostress by experiencing dextral motion. On the other hand, sinistral strike-slip occurred on SW-striking faults in southern Gaspe as a response to the same stress, possibly reflecting the SW-striking Acadian tectonic grain in that area (Figs. 2 and 3), along which rocks were mechanically weaker.
Although we cannot identify evidence for a clockwise rotation of paleostress from the NNW to the NE in southern Gaspe, as was proposed for eastern Gaspe (Jutras et al. 2003), it should be pointed out that Faure et al. (1996) recorded evidence for such rotation in Carboniferous rocks of the Carleton area, but did not conclude that any significant block displacement was involved. Faure et al. (1996) also recorded evidence for this clockwise rotation of paleostress in Late Devonian plutons of southern Quebec, more than 500 km to the southwest. Hence, post-Acadian faults in the Gaspe Peninsula may be local expressions of a regional stress regime that may have affected much of the Canadian Appalachian orogen.
Jutras et al. (2003) proposed that both the formation and deformation of the Maritimes Basin occurred in response to plate readjustments related to the closure of the Theic (Rheic for some authors) Ocean during the Carboniferous. Transcurrent Carboniferous structures similar to those presented in this paper have been reported in several areas of the nearby Maritime Provinces (Fralick and Schenk 1981; Bradley 1982; Keppie 1982; Ruitenberg and McCutcheon 1982; Nance and Warner 1986; Gibling et al. 1987, 2002; McCutcheon and Robinson 1987; Nance 1987; Yeo and Ruixiang 1987; Reed et al. 1993; Murphy et al. 1995; Pascucci et al. 2000) and are thought to be distal expressions of the Alleghanian Orogeny, which was most penetrative in the southeastern United States (Hatcher 1989).
In conclusion, results presented here indicate that the Alleghanian structures of eastern Gaspe are part of a set of structures that affected a large area, although their magnitude does not compare with that of older Acadian or Taconian structures. From this observation, it is suggested that Alleghanian block displacements also affected the southwestern sectors of the Quebec Appalachians, which are devoid of Carboniferous rocks, but which are closer to areas of peak Alleghanian metamorphism in the southeastern United States.
Table 1. Structural data used in this study. Stereonet Fault plane locality strike ([degrees]) dip ([degrees]) Southwest Gaspe (Fig. 2) 1 353 46 1 18 48 1 40 66 1 55 75 1 355 68 1 292 72 2 85 45 2 90 45 3 200 75 3 220 80 3 195 65 4 80 55 4 100 50 5 40 89 5 211 89 5 259 81 5 221 75 5 58 80 5 242 65 5 85 80 5 245 86 5 51 85 5 52 65 5 241 84 5 221 50 5 35 81 5 31 79 5 251 80 5 41 77 5 60 80 5 21 86 5 30 78 5 225 82 5 31 81 5 39 60 5 21 69 5 210 83 5 219 72 5 29 76 5 52 84 5 49 88 5 41 78 5 39 87 5 51 72 5 35 73 6 160 80 6 317 70 6 340 65 Southern Gaspe (Fig. 3) 1 75 90 1 60 70 1 260 90 1 245 90 2 205 86 2 220 60 2 205 90 2 210 78 2 20 85 2 210 80 2 5 38 2 355 45 Stereonet Slickenfibre locality plunge ([degrees])trend ([degrees]) Southwest Gaspe (Fig. 2) 1 14 360 1 10 195 1 34 203 1 35 200 1 20 175 1 0 292 2 45 175 2 45 175 3 18 190 3 20 210 3 39 195 4 55 170 4 50 190 5 30 215 5 30 200 5 15 70 5 20 220 5 20 60 5 30 240 5 7 85 5 10 245 5 15 50 5 10 50 5 60 15 5 40 15 5 8 35 5 5 210 5 10 70 5 10 40 5 20 60 5 20 40 5 10 50 5 10 45 5 15 30 5 18 40 5 4 200 5 12 30 5 5 40 5 2 39 5 15 52 5 8 50 5 15 41 5 12 38 5 1 52 5 11 215 6 35 160 6 8 315 5 135 6 5 340 7 160 Southern Gaspe (Fig. 3) 1 0 75 1 1 15 85 5 55 1 15 65 2 0 205 2 0 220 2 25 205 2 15 210 2 15 20 2 0 210 2 0 5 2 0 355 Stereonet Sense of locality displacement Southwest Gaspe (Fig. 2) 1 sinistral 1 sinistral 1 sinistral 1 sinistral 1 sinistral 1 dextral 2 reverse 2 reverse 3 sinistral 3 sinistral 3 sinistral 4 reverse 4 reverse 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 5 sinistral 6 dextral 6 dextral dextral 6 dextral dextral Southern Gaspe (Fig. 3) 1 sinistral 1 1 sinistral sinistral 1 sinistral 2 sinistral 2 sinistral 2 sinistral 2 sinistral 2 sinistral 2 sinistral 2 sinistral 2 sinistral
We wish to thank S. Faure, M. Bardoux, N. Goulet, J. Waldron, D. Roy, P. Cousineau, M. Gibling and V. Owen for constructive discussions during this project, which was supported by a doctoral fellowship from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada (NSERC) to P. Jutras. We also thank B. Murphy and D. Kirkwood for constructive reviews that helped improve this paper.
ALCOCK, F.J. 1935. Geology of the Chaleur Bay region. Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 183, 146 p.
AYRTON, W.G. 1967. Region de Chandler--Port-Daniel. Ministere des Richesses Naturelles du Quebec, RG 120, 197 p.
BAIL, P. 1983. Problemes geomorphologiques de l'englacement et de la transgression marine pleistocenes en Gaspesie sudorientale. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, McGill University, 356p.
BELL, W.A. 1944. Carboniferous rocks and fossil floras of Northern Nova Scotia. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 238, 276p.
BERNARD, D., & ST-JULIEN, P. 1986. Analyse structurale du Siluro-Devonien du centre de la Gaspesie et du Carbonifere du sud et de l'est de la Gaspesie. Ministere de l'Energie et des Ressources de la Province de Quebec, MB 86-36, 132 p.
BIDDLE, K.T., & CHRISTIE-BLICK, N. 1985. Glossary--Strike-slip deformation, basin formation and sedimentation. In Strike-slip deformation, basin formation and sedimentation. Edited by K.T. Biddle and N. Christie-Blick. SEPM Special Publication 37, pp. 375-386.
BOURQUE, P. A., & LACHAMBRE, G. 1980. Stratigraphie du Silurien et du Devonien basal du sud de la Gaspesie. Ministere de l'Energie et des Ressources, Quebec, ES-30,123 p.
BOURQUE, P.A., GOSSELIN, C., KIRKWOOD, D., MALO, M., & ST.-JULIEN, P. 1993. Le Silurien du segment appalachien Gaspesie-Matapedia-Temiscouata: stratigraphie, geologie structurale et paleogeographie. Ministere de l'Energie et des Ressources, Quebec, MB 93-25, 115 p.
BOURQUE, P.-A., MALO, M., & KIRKWOOD, D. 2000. Paleogeography and tectono-sedimentary history at the margin of Laurentia during Silurian to earliest Devonian time: The Gaspe Belt, Quebec. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 112, pp. 4-20.
BRADLEY, D.C. 1982. Subsidence of Late Paleozoic basins in the northern Appalachians. Tectonics, 1, pp. 107-123.
BRIDEAUX, W.W., & RADFORTH, N.W. 1970. Upper Devonian miospores from the Escuminac Formation, eastern Quebec, Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 7, pp. 29-45.
BRISEBOIS, D., LACHAMBRE, G., & PICHE, G. 1992. Carte geologique, pp. Peninsule de la Gaspesie. Ministere de l'Energie et des Ressources, Quebec, DV 91-21, scale 1: 250 000.
CALDER, J.H. 1998. The Carboniferous evolution of Nova Scotia. In Lyell: the Pastis the Key to the Present. Edited by D.J. Blundell and A.C. Scott. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 143, pp. 261-302.
DE BROUCKER, G. 1987. Stratigraphie, petrographie et structure de la boutonniere de Maquereau-Mictaw. Ministere de l'Energie et des Ressources, Quebec, MM 86-03,170 p.
FAURE, S., TREMBLAY, A., & ANGELIER, J. 1996. Alleghanian paleostress reconstruction in the northern Appalachians: Intraplate deformation between Laurentia and Gondwana. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 108, pp. 1467-1480.
FRALICK, P.W., & SCHENK, P.E. 1981. Molasse deposition and basin evolution in a wrench tectonic setting: the Late Paleozoic, Eastern Cumberland Basin, Maritime Canada. In Sedimentation and Tectonics in Alluvial Basins. Edited by A.D. Miall. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 23, pp. 77-97.
GIBLING, M.R., BOEHNER, R.C., & RUST, B.R. 1987. The Sydney Basin of Atlantic Canada: an Upper Paleozoic strike-slip basin in a collisional setting. In Sedimentary basins and basin-forming mechanisms. Edited by C. Beaumont and A.J. Tankard. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 12, pp. 269-285.
GIBLING, M.R., CALDER, J.H., RYAN, R., VAN DE POLL, H.W., & YEO, G.M. 1992. Late Carboniferous and Early Permian drainage patterns in Atlantic Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 29, pp. 338-352.
GIBLING, M.R., LANOENBERG, W., KALKREUTH, W.D., WALDRON, J.W.F., COURTNEY, R., PAUL, J., & GRIST, A.M. 2002. Deformation of Upper Carboniferous coal measures in the Sydney Basin: Evidence for late Alleghanian tectonism in Atlantic Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 39, pp. 79-93.
GOSSELIN, C. 1988. Geologie de la region de Maria (Gaspesie). Ministere de l'Energie et des Ressources, Quebec, ET 87-01, 28p.
GREINER, H.R. 1967. Silurian-Devonian relationships of the Charlo map area, New Brunswick. In International Symposium on the Devonian System, Calgary, Alberta 1967. Edited by D.H. Oswald. Alberta Society of Petroleum Geologists, 2, pp. 973-979.
HATCHER, R.D., JR. 1989. Tectonic synthesis of the U.S. Appalachians. In The Appalachian-Ouachita orogen in the United States. Edited by R.D. Hatcher Jr., W.A. Thomas and G.W. Vide. Geological Society of America; Geology of North America, Volume F-2, pp. 511-535.
HESSE, R., & SAWH, H. 1992. Geology and sedimentation of the Upper Devonian Escuminac Formation, Quebec, and evaluation of its paleoenvironment: lacustrine versus estuarine turbidite succession. Atlantic Geology, 28, pp. 347-363.
HOWIE, R.D., & BARSS, M.S. 1975. Upper Paleozoic rocks of the Atlantic provinces, Gulf of St.-Lawrence and adjacent continental shelf: Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 7430, 2, pp. 35-50.
JUTRAS, P. 1995. Synthese geomorphologique de la Gaspesie. Unpublished M. Sc. thesis, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 109 p.
JUTRAS, P., & PRICHONNET, G. 2002, Stratigraphy, depositional setting and diagenetic history of the Saint-Jules Formation (Upper Devonian or Mississippian), a newly identified post-Acadian red clastic unit in the southern Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 39, pp. 1541-1551.
JUTRAS, P., & PRICHONNET, G. 2004. Integration of geomorphic, sedimentologic and stratigraphic data in the paleogeographic reconstruction of the Paspebiac Graben, a recently identified Late Devonian to Tournaisian basin in the southern Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec, Canada. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 116, in press.
JUTRAS, P., & SCHROEDER, J. 1999. Geomorphology of an exhumed Carboniferous paleosurface in the southern Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec; paleoenvironmental and tectonic implications. Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, 53, pp. 249-263.
JUTRAS, P., PRICHONNET, G., & VON BITTER, P. 1999. The La Coulee Formation, a new post-Acadian stratigraphic unit bearing groundwater calcretes, Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec. Atlantic Geology, 35, pp. 139-156.
JUTRAS, P., PRICHONNET, G., & UTTING, J. 2001. Newly identified Carboniferous units (The Pointe Sawyer and Chemindes-Pecheurs formations) in the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec; implications regarding the evolution of the northwestern sector of the Maritimes Basin. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 38, pp. 1-19.
JUTRAS, P., PRICHONNET, G., & MCCUTCHEON, S. 2003. Alleghanian deformation in the eastern Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec, Canada. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 115, pp. 1538-1551.
KEPPIE, J.D. 1982. The Minas Geofracture. In Major structural zones and faults of the northern Appalachians. Edited by P. St.-Julien and J. Beland. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 24, pp. 263-280.
KIRKWOOD, D. 1989. Geologie structurale de la region de Perce. Ministere de l'Energie et des Ressources, Quebec, ET 87-17, 42 p.
KIRKWOOD, D., MALO, M., ST-JULIEN, P., & THERRIEN, M. 1995. Vertical and fold-axis parallel extension within a slate belt in a transpressive setting, northern Appalachians. Journal of Structural Geology, 17. pp. 329-343.
MALO, M., & BELAND, J. 1989. Acadian strike-slip tectonics in the Gaspe region, Quebec Appalachians. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 26, pp. 1764-1777.
MALO, M., & KIRKWOOD, D. 1995. Faulting and progressive strain history of the Gaspe Peninsula in post-Taconian time: a review. In Current perspectives in the Appalachian--Caledonian Orogen. Edited by J.P. Hibbard, C.R. van Staal, & P.A. Cawood. Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 41, pp. 267-282.
MALO, M., KIRKWOOD, D., DE BROUCKER, G., & ST.-JULIEN, P. 1992. A reevaluation of the position of the Baie Verte--Brompton Line in the Quebec Appalachians: the influence of Middle Devonian strike-slip faulting in the Gaspe Peninsula. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 29, pp. 1265-1273.
MALO, M., TREMBLAY, A., KIRKWOOD, D., & COUSINEAU, P. 1995. Along-strike Acadian structural variations in the Quebec Appalachians: consuccession of a collision along an irregular margin. Tectonics, 14, pp. 1327-1338.
MAMET, B.L. 1970 Carbonate microfacies of the Windsor Group (Carboniferous), Nova Scotia and New Brunswick; Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 70-21, 78p.
MARTEL, A.T., MCGREGOR, D.C., & UTTING, J. 1993. Stratigraphic significance of Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous miospores from the type area of Horton Group, Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 30, pp. 1091-1098.
MCCUTCHEON, S.R., & ROBINSON, P.T. 1987. Geological constraints on the genesis of the Maritimes Basin, Atlantic Canada. In Sedimentary basins and basin-forming mechanisms. Edited by C. Beaumont and A.J. Tankard. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 12, pp. 287-297.
MURPHY, J.B., RICE, R.J., STOKES, T.R., & KEPPIE, D.F. 1995. St. Mary's Basin, central mainland Nova Scotia, late Paleozoic basin formation and deformation along the Avalon-Meguma Terrane boundary, Canadian Appalachians. In Current perspectives in the Appalachian--Caledonian Orogen. Edited by J.P. Hibbard, C.R. van Staal, & P.A. Cawood. Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 41, pp. 409-420.
NANCE, R.D. 1987. Dextral transpression and Late Carboniferous sedimentation in the Fundy coastal zone of southern New Brunswick. In Sedimentary basins and basin-forming mechanisms. Edited by C. Beaumont and A.J. Tankard. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 12, pp. 363-377.
NANCE, R.D., & WARNER, J.B. 1986. Variscan tectonostratigraphy of the Mispec Group, southern New Brunswick; structural geometry and deformational history. Geological Society of Canada Paper 86-1A, pp. 351-358.
NEW BRUNSWICK DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENERGY 2000. Bedrock Geology of New Brunswick. Minerals and Energy Division. Map NR-1 (2000 Edition), Scale 1:500 000.
OKULITCH, A.V. 1999. Geological Time Chart 1999. In The National Earth Science Series Geological Atlas. Edited by A.V. Okulitch. Geological Survey of Canada Open-File 3040, Revision from GEOLOG 29, part. I.
PASCUCCI, V, GIBLING, M.R., & WILLIAMSON, M.A. 2000. Late Paleozoic to Cenozoic history of the offshore Sydney Basin, Atlantic Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 37, pp. 1143-1165.
PEULVAST J.-P., BOUCHARD, M., JOLICOEUR, S., PIERRE, G., & SCHROEDER, J. 1996. Paleotopographies and Post-Orogenic Morphotectonic Evolution Around the Baie-des-Chaleurs (Eastern Canada). Geomorphology, 16, pp. 5-32.
PRICHONNET, G., DI VERGILIO, M., & CHIDIAK, Y. 1996. Stratigraphical, sedimentological and paleontological context of the Escuminac Formation: Paleoenvironmental hypothesis. In Devonian fishes and plants of Miguasha, Quebec, Canada. Edited by H.-P. Schultze and R. Cloutier. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich, pp. 23-36.
REED, B.C., NANCE, R.D., CALDER, J.H., & MURPHY, J.B. 1993. The Athol syncline: tectonic evolution of a Westphalien A-B depocenter in the Maritimes Basin, Nova Scotia. Atlantic Geology, 29, pp. 179-186.
RODGERS, J. 1967. Chronology of tectonic movements in the Appalachian region of Eastern North-America. American Journal of Science, 265, pp. 408-427.
RUITENBERG, A.A., & MCCUTCHEON, S.R. 1982. Acadian and Hercynian structural evolution of southern New Brunswick. In Major structural zones and faults of the northern Appalachians. Edited by P. St.-Julien and J. Beland. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 24, pp. 131-148.
RYAN, R.J., BOEHNER, R.C., & CALDER, J.H. 1991. Lithostratigraphic Revisions of the upper Carboniferous to lower Permian strata in the Cumberland Basin, Nova Scotia and their regional implications for the Maritimes Basin in Atlantic Canada. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 39, pp. 289-314.
ST-JULIEN, P., & HUBERT, C. 1975. Evolution of the Taconian Orogen in the Quebec Appalachians. American Journal of Science, 275-A, pp. 337-362.
UTTING, J. 1987. Palynology of the Lower Carboniferous Windsor Group and Windsor-Canso boundary beds of Nova Scotia, and their equivalents in Quebec, New Brunswick and Newfoundland. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 374, 34p.
UTTING, J., KEPPIE, J.D., & GILES, P.S. 1989. Palynology and stratigraphy of the Lower Carboniferous Horton Group, Nova Scotia. In Contributions to Canadian Paleontology, Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 396, pp. 117-143.
WALKER, J.A., & MCCUTCHEON, S.R. 1994. Siluro-Devonian tectonostratigraphy of the Tetagouche Lakes map area (NTS 21 O/9), Restigouche County, New Brunswick. In Current Research 1993. Edited by S.A.A. Merlini. New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources, Minerals and Energy Division, Miscellaneous Report 12, pp. 205-214.
WILCOX, R.E., HARDING, T.P., & SEELEY, D.R. 1973. Basic wrench tectonics. American Association of Petrology and Geology Bulletin, 57, pp. 74-96.
YEO, G.M., & RUIXIANG, G. 1987. Stellarton Basin, a pull-apart basin. In Sedimentary basins and basin-forming mechanisms. Edited by C. Beaumont and A.J. Tankard. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 12, pp. 298-309.
Editorial responsibility: Sandra M. Barr
P. JUTRAS, (1) G. PRICHONNET, (2) AND S. MCCUTCHEON (3)
(1.) Department of Geology, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 <firstname.lastname@example.org>
(2.) GEOTERAP, Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l'Atmosphere, Universite du Quebec 'a Montreal, C.P. 8888, Succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3P8
(3.) New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 50, Bathurst, NB E2A 3Z1
Date received: July 11, 2003 Date accepted: January 7, 2004
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Jutras, P.; Prichonnet, G.; McCutcheon, S.|
|Date:||Nov 1, 2003|
|Previous Article:||U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Galway Granite, Connemara, Ireland: implications for the timing of late Caledonian tectonic and magmatic events and...|
|Next Article:||Archived U-Pb (zircon) dates from southern New Brunswick.|