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All about growing carrots.

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Sweet, delicate carrots that can't be found in supermarkets are among a home gardener--s greatest culinary rewards. By growing varieties suited to your soil, you can grow carrots in spring and fall, and the fall carrots can be left in the ground for harvesting in early winter.

Types to Try

Nantes are fast and easy to grow, and adapt to a range of climates and soils.

Chantenay carrots develop stocky roots that become sweeter as the soil cools in the fall.

Miniature carrots have small, shallow roots that are often quite sweet. They're good for heavy clay soil.

Imperator carrots are long and need deep, sandy soil to thrive.

Danvers carrots make great juice, and the sturdy roots store well, too.

When to Plant

In the spring, sow carrot seeds in fertile, well-worked soil about two weeks before your last frost date. In cool climates, continue planting every three weeks until midsummer.

In summer, begin sowing seeds for fall and winter carrots 10 to 12 weeks before your average first fall frost. (To find your frost dates, go to www.MotherEarthNews. corn and search for "frost dates.") Many gardeners plant carrots after their spring peas are finished.

How to Plant

Prepare the planting bed by loosening the soil to at least 12 inches deep. Thoroughly mix in a 1-inch layer of mature compost or a half-inch layer of vermicompost (carrots love what earthworms leave behind).

Sow your seeds about a quarter inch deep and 2 inches apart, in rows spaced at least 10 inches apart; carrots do well in double or triple rows. Thin seedlings to 4 to 6 inches apart, depending on the variety's mature size.

Harvesting and Storage

Pull or dig spring-sown carrots when roots reach mature size and show rich color. Taste improves as carrots mature, but do not leave mature carrots in warm soil any longer than necessary (many critters like carrots). Summer-sown carrots that mature in cool fall soil can be left in the ground longer, but should be dug before the ground freezes to preserve their quality. Remove tops to prevent moisture loss, rinse dean, and store in a refrigerator or cold root cellar. Most varieties keep for several months in the fridge. Carrots also may be canned, pickled, dried or frozen.

Saving Seeds

Carrots are biennial and therefore won't flower and make seed until their second year. In cold climates, open-pollinated carrots kept in cold storage through winter can be replanted in early spring for seed production purposes. When the seed clusters have ripened to brown, collect them in a paper bag. Then allow them to dry for another week indoors before crushing the clusters and gathering the seeds. Discard the smallest seeds. Store the largest seeds in a cool, dry place for up to three years.

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Pest and Disease Prevention Tips

* Aster leafhoppers look like one-eighth-inch green slivers, which hop about when the foliage is disturbed. Leafhopper feeding causes light damage, but leaflaoppers can spread aster yellows, a disease caused by a tumor-forming bacterium sometimes present in otherwise healthy soils. Trying to eliminate it would be unwise because of its close family ties with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that benefit legumes. Instead, grow carrots in compost-enriched soil far from grapes and nut or fruit trees, which often host the parasitic bacteria. Use row covers to exclude the leafhoppers.

* Row covers also protect a crop from carrot rust flies and carrot weevils, which make grooves and tunnels in carrots as they feed.

* Hairy or misshapen roots can be caused by excessive nitrogen or aster yellows disease.

Growing Tips

Keep the soil moist for at least 10 consecutive days after sowing, because carrots take longer to germinate than other vegetables. To reduce surface evaporation during the germination period, cover newly seeded soil with boards or old blankets for five to six days. Check daily, and remove the covers as soon as the first seeds germinate. Seeds germinate best when soil temperatures range between 60 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit.

Reduce weed competition by sowing carrot seeds in shallow furrows filled with weed-flee potting soil. Cover the ground between rows with newspapers topped by a mulch of grass clippings.

Sow carrots with a "nurse crop" of radishes. The fast-growing radishes will shelter tiny carrot seedlings while helping to suppress weeds.

Be stingy with nitrogen. Among fertilizers, carrots favor compost or vermicompost worked into the soil prior to planting; they respond to abundant phosphorous and potassium more than to high nitrogen levels. Carrots take up nutrients best in soil with a pH between 5.8 and 7.0. Use lime to raise the pH of acidic soil.

Harvest carefully. Before pulling carrots, use a digging fork to loosen the soil just outside the row.

Harvest small blossom clusters from overwintered plants to use as cut flowers. Thinning the blossoms helps the plants channel energy to the biggest seed-bearing umbels (flower clusters springing from the same point).

Max out the season. To eat carrots year round, grow fast-maturing varieties in spring, and make summer sowings for a season-stretching fall crop.

Use soaker hoses or drip irrigation lines to keep the soil constantly moist.

Cover the shoulders of all maturing carrots with mulch to keep them from turning green.

In the Kitchen

Carrots will caramelize with their own sugars when braised in a little oil or grilled until tender. Grate raw carrots into muffins, cakes or pancakes to provide moisture and extra vitamin A. Use carrots generously to bring nutritious color to salads, stir-fries and soups. Try steamed carrots with fresh mint and a dab of honey or brown sugar. Orange and yellow carrots are great as nutritious raw snacks, but red carrots taste best cooked.

For more in-depth information about growing carrots, read "Crunchy, Colorful Carrots, "from the April/May 2006 issue, at www.MotherEarthNews.com.
Type             Description                  Cultural Tips

Nantes           Easy and widely adapted;     Grow in loose, sandy soil
55 to 70 days    straight, cylindrical        or in raised beds
(spring)         roots 5 to 7 inches long;    enriched with plenty of
60 to 75 days    sweet flavor and crisp       organic matter, but no
(fall)           texture; limited storage     fresh manure.
                 potential.

Chantenay        Conical roots with broad     Excellent type to grow
55 to 70 days    shoulders and rounded        from summer to fall, and
(spring)         tips; rich, sweet flavor     not as picky about soil
70 to 110 days   and good storage             as other types. Usually
(fall)           potential.                   sizes up well in clay
                                              soils with high organic
                                              matter content.

Miniature/Baby   Round, cylindrical or        Grows in any fertile soil
50 to 60 days    tapered roots less           that drains well. Makes
(spring)         than 5 inches long; crisp    good "marker" plants to
60 to 70 days    texture and frequently       separate sowings of salad
(fall)           quite sweet when mature;     greens.
                 limited storage potential.

Imperator        Long, tapered roots with     Roots size up best in
55 to 100 days   stocky shoulders and         deep, sandy loam. When
(spring)         strong tops; slightly        pleased with their site,
80 to 110 days   fibrous texture. Stores      roots can become quite
(fall)           well.                        large.

Danvers          Thick-rooted cylindrical     Grow in raised
70 to 80 days    shape, often with            beds or in deep, sandy
(spring)         yellowish core; widely       loam. Good main crop type
80 to 110 days   used in processing,          for cool climates.
(fall)           good for juicing. Stores
                 well.

Type             Varieties *

Nantes           'Early Nantes'
55 to 70 days    'Nelson'
(spring)         'Mokum'
60 to 75 days
(fall)

Chantenay        'Red Core'
55 to 70 days    'Kuttiger'
(spring)         'Kurota'
70 to 110 days
(fall)

Miniature/Baby   'Thumbelina'
50 to 60 days    'Little Finger'
(spring)         'Parmex'
60 to 70 days
(fall)

Imperator        'Yellowstone'
55 to 100 days   'Purple Haze'
(spring)         'Sugarsnax'
80 to 110 days
(fall)

Danvers          'Danvers'
70 to 80 days    'Healthmaster'
(spring)         'Danvers Half Long'
80 to 110 days
(fall)

* To find sources for these varieties, use our Seed and Plant Finder at
www.MotherEarthNews.com.
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Title Annotation:CROP AT GLANCE
Author:Pleasant, Barbara
Publication:Mother Earth News
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Aug 1, 2008
Words:1311
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