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Algal community habitat preferences in Old Woman Creek Wetland, Erie County, Ohio.

ABSTRACT. Algal communities were examined from May through August 1993 in Old Woman Creek National Estuarine Research Reserve and State Natural Area and Preserve, a shallow (<0.5 meter deep) 56 ha hypereutrophic wetland, located in Erie County along the south-central shore of Lake Erie. Most of the wetland is open water; the dominant macrophyte, Nelumbo lutea, covers about 30% of the surface area. Therefore, open water algae can be the primary autotroph contributing to the wetland's energy flow. Inflow regions are the primary collector of watershed agricultural runoff, and therefore have greater concentrations of nutrients than waters closer to Lake Erie. We did not find any difference in phytoplankon diversity between the sites near the inflow compared to sites closer to Lake Erie (the outflow). In general, half the biovolume of phytoplankton was composed of diatoms, and one-third euglenophytes. Average algal volumes of the back sites (9.01 x [10.sup.6] [micro][m.sup.3]/ml) were higher than the front sites (5.92 x [10.sup.6] [micro][m.sup.3]/ml). Periphyton diversity was slightly higher near the inflow. Periphyton growing on artificial substrate had about five times greater biovolume than phytoplankton; however, periphyton inverse Simpson diversity was about half of nearby phytoplankton. All sites were dominated by green algae and euglenophytes by number of individuals. Diatoms dominated under Nelumbo lutea; euglenophytes and small green algae dominated in turbid open-water regions. We suggest that light, the presence of aquatic vegetation, and hydrologic dynamics may be more important to determining the community structure in this wetland than nutrient concentrations or interspecific competition.

INTRODUCTION

Coastal wetlands along the Laurentian Great Lakes have been subjected to a number of perturbations--including diking, drainage, introduction of exotic species, and increased pollution loading. These wetlands provide important functions, including ameliorating non-point pollution before it reaches the lakes. Algae are an important component of this nutrient removal and transformation (Reeder 1994). Current research on Great Lakes coastal wetlands use a variety of biological indicators to assess wetland ecosystem health, including primary producer communities (Brazner and others 2007) and benthic, periphytic and phytoplanktonic algal biomass (McNair and Chow-Frazier 2003). At one of the more studied coastal wetlands along lake Erie, Old Woman Creek National Estuarine Research Reserve and State Natural Area and Preserve (Old Woman Creek), there is spatial variability in the distribution of non-point pollution: areas near the inflow stream have higher maximum nutrient concentrations and pesticides than the outflow into Lake Erie (Heath 1987; Krieger 2003; Mitsch and Reeder 1992). The nutrient runoff is due mostly to agricultural practices and increased erosion within the watershed (Evans and Seamon 1997; Reeder and Eisner 1994).

Nutrient processing in Old Woman Creek is primarily (Mitsch and Reeder 1991 ; Reeder 1994), or to a large percentage (Francko and Whyte 1999) performed by algae. Casamata and others (1999) found algal communities in wetlands within impacted and unimpacted watersheds in Ohio were not discernibly different; however, they only sampled each wetland once, which may have been inadequate to determine patterns. Old Woman Creek's morphology makes it an excellent field model to observe the algal communities subjected to a variety of nutrient and light conditions. Accordingly, we investigated algal community structure in Old Woman Creek over a four-month period. In addition, we examined if communities associated with the dominant macrophyte, Nelumbo lutea.(Willd.) Pers. (American lotus), differed from those found in open water.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Site Description

Old Woman Creek is a 56 ha wetland on the southern edge of Lake Erie's western basin near Huron, Ohio, U.S.A. (Fig. 1). Depths in the wetland average about 0.5 m or less, but this can change dramatically (up to 1 m) throughout the year--not only because of storm surges from the watershed, but also because of adjacent lake level fluctuations. A barrier beach, which may be opened or closed by hydrologic events, also has profound effects on the wetland's hydroperiod (c.f. Mitsch and Reeder 1992). During our study, less than 30 percent of the wetland was covered by the dominant macrophyte, Nelumbo lutea; therefore, the system was dominated by open water primary producers. However, under certain conditions submersed and emergent vascular vegetation can become more prevalent (Francko and Whyte 1999).

To study the effect of non-point pollution on the community structure of the phytoplankton, we selected two sites in the "front" (near Lake Erie), which tends to have lower nutrient concentrations and two near the "rear" of the wetland, which tend to accumulate non-point pollution. One site in each zone was in open water habitat; the other was in a bed of Nelumbo lutea. The rear sites are separated from the front of the wetland by a railroad bed--effectively dividing the wetland into two distinct basins. The railroad bridge often acts as a restriction to hold water and suspended sediments in the upper estuary. The front sites are near the wetland barrier beach in the lower estuary near the outflow to Lake Eric and tend to have lower nutrient and suspended sediment concentrations (Mitsch and Reeder 1992). All sites had similar depths (depth varied throughout the study period from about 0.3 to 1.3 meters).

Field and Laboratory Methods

Samples of water and phytoplankton were collected every two weeks from May-August 1993. To sample the phytoplankton at each site, 500 ml subsamples of Old Woman Creek water were collected with a five liter Van Dorn sampler. Algae were fixed with Lugol's Iodine, and allowed to settle in 500 ml graduated cylinders. The algae-free water from the cylinders was evacuated by siphoning from the top, being cautious not to disturb the settled algae. The resulting algal slurry (50 ml) was homogenized and two subsamples of known volume (usually 50[micro]l) were mounted on slides for identification and enumeration.

Periphyton samples were collected on artificial substrate samplers (Wildlife Supply Co., Model 156-A10). Floating periphyton samplers were suspended in the water column for at least three weeks. One slide was randomly removed from a sampler at each sampling date and immediately placed in 10 percent ethyl alcohol. Periphyton were removed with a razor blade and a slurry of a known volume was prepared for microscopic analysis (APHA 1985).

Algae were identified and enumerated using a Nikon light microscope with Hoffman Modulation Contrast, generally at 630X. Species determinations were made using keys by Prescott (1982), Tiffany and Britton (1952), and Tiffany (1934). To estimate algal volume, measurements were made on at least 12 representative taxa, when possible, and compared to equivalent geometric shapes to calculate the average species volume (Wetzel and Likens 2000). Because the artificial substrate favors the collection of certain species, we calculated an inverted Simpson's dominance index (d) for the periphyton communities.

Nutrient measurements included total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), nitrate (NO3), nitrite (N[O.sub.2]), and ammonia (N[H.sub.3]). SRP was determined as molybdate reactive phosphorus (Murphy and Riley 1962). TP was determined as orthophosphate released after digestion with ammonium persulfate (APHA 1985). Ammoniumwas analyzed usingthephenate method (Weatherburn 1967). Nitrate and nitrite nitrogen species were determined by passing the samples through a cadmium reduction column and determining the final nitrite concentrations using the sulfanilamide method (APHA 1985).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Differences between mean nutrient concentrations and biovolume at each of the four sites were compared with ANOVA (Zar 1984). Although diversity indicies calculated for each site were easily compared by inspection, we calculated phytoplankton Shannon diversity indicies and variance for each site, and used a modified AN OVAprocedure to compare between Shannon indicies (Zar 1984). Likewise, we assessed if the mean inverse Simpson community diversity from the front was the same as in the back using a modified Student's t-test (Zar 1984).

RESULTS

Because the sites were not more than 50 metcrs from each other; it was not surprising that there was not a significant difference between nutrient concentrations in Nelumbo lutea compared to those found in the open water at the same end of the wetland. Nutrients in the wetland were typically higher in the back sites than the front sites due to non-point loading (Table 1); however, only TP and SRP were statistically higher in back (ANOVA, p<0.05). Although nitrogen concentrations between sites were not statistically different (ANOVA, p>0.05), they are probably ecologically significant: the ratio of dissolved N: P was around 6:1 in the front sites, and above 11:1 in the back sites.

The phytoplankton volume was the greatest during August, when production was generallylower than in June and July (Figure 2). Algal volumes of the back sites (9.013 x [l0.sup.6] [micro][m.sup.3]/ml) were significantly higher than the front sites (5.916 x [10.sup.6] [micro][m.sup.3]/ml); however there were no significant differences within macrophytes versus the open water. Front sites were dominated by diatoms nearly exclusively; however, euglenophytes and small green algae are also important contributors to the community volume. The back sites were dominated mutually by diatoms and euglenophytes, with other algal groups making less of a contribution to total community volume. Sites located within a macrophyte bed tended to be dominated by euglenophytes in early June and by diatoms at the other times in the growing season, whereas those in open water are dominated by diatoms early in the year and euglenophytes in late July (Fig. 2).

All periphyton communities were dominated by diatoms--which composed 48 percent of the community volume, with green algae (30 percent) and euglenophytes (18 percent) also making large contributions to the community volume. The back sites, with typically higher nutrients than the front sites, were dominated also by diatoms (42 percent); however green algae (37 percent) made a greater contribution to the community volume than in the front. The front sites were dominated by diatoms (55 percent) with green algae (23 percent) and euglenophytes (19 percent).

We observed 63 species of algae (Table 2). Many species appeared at nearly all sites throughout the sampling period. Species found in more than half of all plankton samples included Akistrodesmus convulutus, A. falcatus, Lagerheimia quadriseta, Scenedsmus quadricauda, Schroederia setigera, Cyclotella menegheniana, Diploneis puella, Melosira distans, Navicula mutica, Nitzschia acicularis (this was the only species found in every sample), Merismopedia tenuissima, and Phacus caudatus. Only Scenedesmus denticulatus showed apreference for higher nutrient concentrations in the back sites. Tetaedron quadrature, Micractinium pusillum, and Treubaria setigerum preferred sites near the lake. Seventy-two percent of the planktonic species were also found on the periphyton samplers; only 12 percent showed any preference for either open water or Nelumbo beds.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Common chlorophytes included Ankistrodesmus sp., Lagerheimia sp., and Scenedesmus sp. Other common genera included Cryptomonas erosa, and diatoms, such as Cydotdla menegheniana, Diploneis sp., Mdosira (=Aulacoseira) sp., Navicula sp., and Nitzschia sp. Some species were typically located at the front sites, such as Treubaria setigera, however, patterns were not well-defined.

We observed 46 species of periphyton on artificial substrate (glass microscope slides). Of these, 36 were also found planktonic. Periphyton not found in the open water were Scenedesmus abundans, Oedogonium sp., Achnanthes sp., Cymbella sp., Fragilaria sp, Meridion sp., Stauroneis sp., Terpsinoe sp., Oscillatoria sp., and Phacus pleuronectes.

Diatoms and chlorophytes were dominant members of the periphyton throughout the study period. Species found in 75 percent or more of the samples were Ankistrodesmus faculatus, Scenedesumus quadricauda, Cyclotella menegheniana, Fragilaria sp., Melosira distans, Navicula muticata, Nitzchia acicularis, and Oscillatoria sp. Species normally found in the back sites higher nutrient concentrations included Cryptomanas erosa, Crucigenia tetrapedia, Pediastrum duplex, Clasterium acerasum, Phacus caudatus, and Trachdamanas armata. Periphyton which were more likely to be located in near the mouth of the wetland (lower nutrient concentrations) were Scenedesmus abundans, S. bijuga, S. opoliensis, Tetradron quadratum, Gleocystis ampla, Chlamydomonas globosa, Achnanthes sp., Terpsinoe sp. Phormidium tenue, Euglena convoluta, and Trachdomonas volvocina.

Thirty-seven percent of the periphyton species had a site preference; whereas only eight percent of the plankton algae were more or less associated with sites upstream of the railroad bridge. Shannon diversity of the phytoplankton communities was highest in the back sites (H'=2.80 back v. 2.65 in the front), and the sites in the macrophyte beds (H' 2.79 back v. 2.65 in the open water); however, there was no significant difference in diversity indices between any sites. There was no seasonal trend to phytoplankton diversity. Periphyton diversity was the highest during June when the periphyton density was also the greatest. Diversity indices indicated that periphyton diversity was highest at the back sites ([d.sub.s] = 7.29 back v. 5.95 in the front); but this was not consistent throughout the season.

DISCUSSION

Seasonal Trends

There are few well-defined successional species replacements in the phytoplankton communities at Old Woman Creek. This may be due to sediment perturbation, either by wind and water, or biotic action (Havens, 1991; Klarer and Millie, 1994). Algal communities at Old Woman Creek have a bimodal seasonality (Klarer and Millie 1992). This is common in phytoplankton of temperate wetlands (Vymazal 1995). During 1993, our algal numbers exhibit this bimodal trend, however, the peak in early May is quite large--1.81 x [10.sup.9] cells [l.sup.-1], which is larger than the May blooms reported by Klarer and Millie (1992). The high volume during the 1993 vernal peak was largely due to euglenophytes. The autumnal peak, which actually begins in late July and early August, is of similar magnitude to that reported by Klarer and Millie (1992)--having 2.8 x [l0.sup.7] cells [l.sup.-1].

Algal volumes, however, do not show the same bimodal seasonality as algal numbers. They have a small peak in May, followed by a much larger peak in late July and early August. This is somewhat related to algal numbers; however, we see temporal differences in communities. The early peak is dominated by small euglenophytes; whereas the late summer peak is dominated by the much larger diatoms--producing higher total community algal volumes.

Despite the extended sampling, we were not able to determine any statistically significant differences in algal communities. The high variability may make algae poor indicators of environmental perturbations in these systems. This is similar to the problem that Casamatta and others (1999) found when they examined Ohio wetlands. However, in sharp contrast to Casamatta and others, who found that Cyanobacteria and Cryptopytes dominated, we, like Klarer and Millie (1992), found that diatoms and Euglenophytes dominate at Old Woman Creek. This may be due to other ecological factors that were not prevalent at the wetlands that Casamatta and others (1999) examined.

McNair and Chow-Fraser (2003) examined peak growing season biomass of phytoplankton, periphyton, and benthic algae in 24 Great Lakes coastal wetlands, including Old Woman Creek. Their statistical analysis grouping wetlands by physiochemical environmental variables suggested Old Woman Creek was a consistent outlier. Old Woman Creek's periphyton and phytoplankton chlorophyll concentrations (usually over 150 [micro]g [l.sup.-1] for periphyton, and phytoplankton generally > 100 [micro]g [l.sup.-1]) far exceeded those found in the other wetlands (around 20 [micro]g [l.sup.-1] in periphyton and usually around 10 [micro]g [l.sup.-1] for phytoplankton).

Nutrients

McNair and Chow Fraser (2003) suggested Old Woman Creek wetland's high phosphorus and low water clarity contributed to the high primaryproductivity. Nutrient loading is generally considered the primary factor that may affect community structure in aquatic ecosystems (Wetze12003) includingwetlands (Pan and Stevenson 1996, Pan and others 2000, Ortega-Mayagoitra 2003, Zimmer and others 2003, Brazner and others 2007). Algal communities are known to change in response to different macronutrient ratios (Kilham, 1971; Kilham and Kilham 1978; Smith, 1983). The high phosphorus loading and high algal productivity would cause most limnologists to classify this water body as hypereutrophic (Wetzel 2001). However, it is interesting to note that unlike eutrophic lakes, which generally have blue-green algae blooms, low oxygen levels, and low diversity (Wetzel, 2001) this wetland is dominated by green algae and diatoms, moderate oxygen levels (with profound daily fluctuations (Reeder and Binion 2001, Cornell and Klarer 2008), and high diversity. This wetland, as well as many others, may not conform to limnologically derived definitions of trophic status.

Even with extraordinary primary production, we did not see any biotically induced nutrient depletion. This is consistent with the findings of Heath (1985), who did not find evidence of phosphorus limitation in Old Woman Creek. Green algae and diatoms were usually dominant--suggesting that neither nitrogen (a high N:P in the case of green algae) nor silicates (a high Si:P in the case of diatoms) are ever in relatively limiting concentrations during the growing season.

Nutrient concentrations are not effected by the presence of macrophytes. This is not surprising due to the closeness of the sites, and wind mixing. This is not to suggest that biotically or chemically induced nutrient exchange from the sediments are not important or do not occur, it is just not the most significant factor regulating nutrient concentrations between sites in versus out of macrophyte beds.

Given the marked differences in nutrient concentrations, especially dissolved inorganic nitrogen, between the front and back of the wetland (Table 1), we expected to see more profound differences in the algal diversity at each site. This did not hold true for phytoplankton nor epiphytes. Diversity was not markedly different, and most of the algal species were found at both sites. However, there were changes in the community as the season progressed and as the Nelumbo lutea beds expanded to cover large areas of the open water.

The nutrient loading at the back sites appears to affect phytoplankton community algal volume more than community structure. This could have important ecological consequences, since algal volumes are more closely related to primary production than algal numbers (Reeder and Binion, 2001). The back sites had higher periphyton volumes, indicating that periphyton would be more important contributors to primary production in higher nutrient conditions. In the back sites, green algae composed alarger percentage of the community periphyton than at the front sites.

Light Limitations

Whether the community is located in the front or back of the wetland (nutrient loading) is not as important to community structure as the presence of macrophytes. The macrophytes tend to change the community structure (although not the diversity). We suggest this is due to reduced light penetration. The dominant macrophyte, Nelumbo lutea, probably has little effect on the community structure (e.g. shading) until at least the middle of June, when the aerial leaves appear. At this time we see the sites in the macrophyte beds shift from an euglenophyte to diatom dominated community. This is not a common trend. Algal communities in eutrophic and hypereutrophic systems--which tend to shift from diatom dominated systems to some other group, such as green or blue-green algae (Reynolds 1984). Old Woman Creek maintains a high enough N:P ratio that a secondary nitrogen limitation does not occur--which tend to favor blue-green algae for their nitrogen fixing abilities (Smith 1983). The soluble inorganic N:P ratio was always above 6:1 in the front sites, and above 11:1 in the back.

As the season progresses, in the periphyton in the macrophyte beds, community dominance shifts from euglenophyte to diatoms. The open water communities, at nearly the same time, shift from a diatom to a euglenophyte-dominated community--as would be considered a typical seasonal community succession (Reynolds 1984). Therefore, theNelumbo appears to provide some competitive advantage for the diatoms over the euglenophytes, possibly due to shading, or providing substrate for attachment.

The hypothesis that shading is important would help determine how turbidity affects community structure. Mitsch and Reeder (1990) suggested that resuspended nutrients in Old Woman Creek might be important contributors of P to the water, thus enhancing productivity. Havens (1991) demonstrated that biotically-induced sediment resuspension in Old Woman Creek created a kind of early successional stage community, composed largely of r-strategists. Our more hydrologically active sites in the back did seem to conform to Haven's suggestion of dominance by small green algae; however, we also found more large diatoms in the areas with low light (in Nelumbo). Krieger and Klarer (1991) discussed one possible way this could occur. They found that sediment resuspension in Old Woman Creek can also suspend large benthic diatoms into the plankton. It seems that muddywater appears to favor euglenophytes and small green algae; whereas similar low-light situations in beds of Nelumbo favor diatoms. Ortega-Mayagoitia and others (2003) found sediment resuspension in a central Spain wetland increased nutrients and resulted in a more diverse phytoplankton community.

Although nutrients and competition are usually thought of as important components determiningbiodiversity and growth in algal communities, we find this may not be the case at Old Woman Creek. The wetland may be somewhat nutrient limited at times (Heath 1985), however, this may not be the most important limitation. The peak nutrient input is in late May and early June; however, production in Old Woman Creek usually peaks in July (Reeder 1994, Reeder and Binion 2001), when nutrients concentrations are much lower than the maximum values. Perhaps non-point runoff brings in copious amounts of herbicides and pesticides, causing declines in community volumes--especially at sites nearer the "source" of the non-point pollution. However, algal volume is significantly higher at the back sites, where presumably higher pesticide loading should be. It appears that sunlight restriction, either by Nelumbo shading or turbidity, may be an important limiting factor. It can explain the community structure shifts we and other researchers have seen in Old Woman Creek.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. Excellent support was provided by the staff of Old Woman Creek, especially Dr. David Klarer and Gene Wright. The National Science Foundation's Kentucky EPSCoR Program, Morehead State University Research and Creative Productions Committee, and Morehead State University Institute for Regional Analysis and Public Policy provided financial support.

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BRIAN C. REEDER and BRIAN M. BINION (1), Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Morehead State University, Morchead, KY

(1) Address correspondence to Brian C. Reeder, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Morehead State University, Morchead, KY 40351. Email: b.rccdcr@moreheadstate.edu
TABLE 1

Mean ([micro]g/1(SD)] nutrient concentrations, chorophyll, algal
volume and diversity in Old Woman Creek wetland during the growing
season.

 Front Sites

 Nelumbo Open
 Nutrients Water

Soluble Reactive P 26 (13) 28 (16)

Total P 83 (30) 81 (35)

Nitrate N 30 (25) 50 (43)

Nitrite N 23 (21) 22 (19)

Ammonium N 115 (58) 114 (65)

 Phytoplankton

Chlorophyll (a) 144 (50) 90 (72)

Volume ([10.sup.6] [micro][m.sup.3]/ml) 6.90 (2.30) 5.00 (3.18)

Inverse Simpson's Diversity 11.06 12.41

 Periphyton

Volume ([10.sup.6] [micro][m.sup.3]/ml) 38.1 (28.4)

Inverse Simpson's Diversity 5.95

 Back Sites

 Nelumbo Open
 Nutrients Water

Soluble Reactive P 26 (12) 26 (13)

Total P 105 34) 103 (31)

Nitrate N 105 (181) 155 (249)

Nitrite N 43 (47) 57 (51)

Ammonium N 127 (91) 156 (83)

 Phytoplankton

Chlorophyll (a) 125 (83) 126 (86)

Volume ([10.sup.6] [micro][m.sup.3]/ml) 9.25 (4.23) 8.7 (3.3)

Inverse Simpson's Diversity 13.8 13.4

 Periphyton

Volume ([10.sup.6] [micro][m.sup.3]/ml) 47.3 (21.6)

Inverse Simpson's Diversity 7.3

TABLE 2
Algae found (percent occurence in samples for each site) in Old Woman
Creek wetland

Phylum Genus or Species Authority

Cryptopbyta Cryptomonas erosa Ehrenberg
Cbloraphyta Actinastrum hantzchii Lagerheim
Chlorophyta Ankistrodesmus Corda
 convulutus
Chlorophyta Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda) Ralfs
Chlorophyta Characium ambiguum Hermann
Chlorophyta Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck
Chlorophyta Crucigenia fenestrata (Schmidle) Schmidle
Chlorophyta Crucigenia quadrata Morren
Chlorophyta Crucigenia tetrapedia (Kirch.) West and West
Chlorophyta Franceia droescheri (Lemm.) G.M. Smith
Chlorophyta Kirchneriella G.S. West
 subsolitaria
Chlorophyta Lagerheimia quadriseta (Lemm.) G.M. Smith
Chlorophyta Lagerheimia
 wratislaviensis Schroder
Cbloraphyta Micractinium pusillum Fresenius
Chlorophyta Pediastrum duplex Meyen
Chlorophyta Scenedesmus abundans (Kirch.) Chodat
Chlorophyta S. bijuga (Turp.) Lagerheim
Chlorophyta S. desticulatus Lagerheim
Chlorophyta S. dimorpbus (Turp.) Kuetzing
Chlorophyta S. opoliensis P. Richter
Chlorophyta S. quadricauda (Turp.) de Brebisson
Chlorophyta Schroederia setigera (Schroder) Lemmermann
Chlorophyta Tetraedron quadratum (Reinsch) Hansgirg
Chlorophyta T. regulare Kuetzing
Chlorophyta Tetrastrum glabrum (Roll) Ahlstrom and
 Tiffany
Chlorophyta T. heteracanthum (Nordstedt) Chodat
Chlorophyta Oedogonium sp. Link
Chlorophyta Treubaria setigerum (Archer) G.M. Smith
Chlorophyta Gloeocystis ampla Playfair
Chlorophyta Chlamydomonas globosa J. Snow
Charophyta Closterium acerosum (Schrank) Ehrenberg
 ex Ralfs
Charophyta Cosmarium biretum Playfair
Heterokontophyta Dinobyron divergens O.E. Imhof
Bacillariaphyta Achnanthes sp. Bory de Saint-Vincent
Bacillariaphyta Cyclotella meneghiniana Kutzing
Bacillariaphyta Cymbella sp. C. Agardh
Bacillariaphyta Diploneis puella (Schumann) Cleve
Bacillariopbyta Fragilaria sp. Lyngbye
Bacillariaphyta Gomphonema sp. Ehrenberg
Bacillariaphyta Melosira distans (Ehrenberg) Kutz
Bacillariaphyta Melosira granulata (Ehrenberg) Ralfs
Bacillariaphyta Meridian sp. C. Agardh
Bacillariaphyta Navicula mutica Kutzing
Bacillariaphyta Nitzschia acicularis (Kutzing) W Smith
Bacillariaphyta Rhoicosphenia sp. Grunow
Bacillariaphyta Stauroneis sp. Ehrenberg
Bacillariaphyta Terpsinoe sp. Ehrenberg
Cyanobacteria Aphanocapsa rivularis (Charmicheal) Rabenhorst
Cyanobacteria Merismopedia tenuissima Lemmermann
Cyanobacteria Oscillatoria sp. Voucher ex Gomont
Cyanobacteria Phormidium tenue (Meneghini) Gamont
Cyanobacteria Spirulina nordstedii Gomont
Euglenozoa Euglena acus Ehrenberg
Euglenozoa E. convoluta Korshikov
Euglenozoa E. gracilis Klebs
Euglenozoa E. minuta Prescott
Euglenozoa Phacus caudatus Hubner
Euglenozoa P. longicauda (Ehrenberg) Dujardin
Euglenozoa P. pleuronectes (O.F. Muller) Dujardin
Euglenozoa Trachelomonas armata (Ehrenberg) F. Stein
Euglenozoa T. playfairii Deflandre
Euglenozoa T. volvocina Ehrenberg
Myzozoa Glenodinium pulvisculus (Ehrenberg) F. Stein

 Front of Wetland Back of Wetland
Phylum
 Open Water Nelumbo Open Water Nelumbo

Cryptopbyta 43 57 71 57
Cbloraphyta 57 57 29 57
Chlorophyta 86 100 86 71
Chlorophyta 86 100 100 100
Chlorophyta 29 14 14
Chlorophyta 29 29 29
Chlorophyta 29 14 29
Chlorophyta 29 14 14 29
Chlorophyta 29 29 29 43
Chlorophyta 14 14 14 14
Chlorophyta 29 43 43 57
Chlorophyta 57 71 100 57
Chlorophyta
Cbloraphyta 71 14 14 29
Chlorophyta 14 43 43 29
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta 43 29 29 57
Chlorophyta 14 14
Chlorophyta 29 29 29 14
Chlorophyta 29 14 14 14
Chlorophyta 86 86 100 100
Chlorophyta 86 86 100 100
Chlorophyta 14
Chlorophyta 43 57 43 57
Chlorophyta 29 43 43 71
Chlorophyta 0 29 14 0
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta 14 57 14
Chlorophyta 29 29 29 43
Chlorophyta 86 29 57 43
Charophyta 86 57 57 71
Charophyta 71 57 71 71
Heterokontophyta 29 43 14 29
Bacillariaphyta
Bacillariaphyta 86 86 86 86
Bacillariaphyta
Bacillariaphyta 86 100 100 100
Bacillariopbyta
Bacillariaphyta 43 29 43 57
Bacillariaphyta 100 100 86 100
Bacillariaphyta 29 29 57 0
Bacillariaphyta
Bacillariaphyta 86 100 100 100
Bacillariaphyta 100 100 100 100
Bacillariaphyta 14 0 14 14
Bacillariaphyta
Bacillariaphyta
Cyanobacteria 14 29 29 14
Cyanobacteria 86 100 86 71
Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria 29 29 14 57
Cyanobacteria 29 29 14 29
Euglenozoa 43 43 86 71
Euglenozoa 29 43 86 100
Euglenozoa 29 71 57 71
Euglenozoa 29 14 29 29
Euglenozoa 86 86 86 86
Euglenozoa 14 57 43 29
Euglenozoa
Euglenozoa 14 14 43 14
Euglenozoa 14 0 14 14
Euglenozoa 43 29 29 43
Myzozoa 14 29 0 29

Phylum Periphyton

 Front Back

Cryptopbyta 50
Cbloraphyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta 83 100
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta 17 50
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta 33 17
Chlorophyta 17 17
Chlorophyta
Cbloraphyta 67 67
Chlorophyta 33
Chlorophyta 17 0
Chlorophyta 33 0
Chlorophyta 17 0
Chlorophyta 33 33
Chlorophyta 17 0
Chlorophyta 100 83
Chlorophyta 33 17
Chlorophyta 17
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta 0 17
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta 33 50
Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta 17 0
Chlorophyta 33 0
Charophyta 0 33
Charophyta 50 83
Heterokontophyta
Bacillariaphyta 50
Bacillariaphyta 100 100
Bacillariaphyta 50 50
Bacillariaphyta 67 83
Bacillariopbyta 100 100
Bacillariaphyta 67 83
Bacillariaphyta 83 100
Bacillariaphyta 50 50
Bacillariaphyta 33 33
Bacillariaphyta 100 100
Bacillariaphyta 100 100
Bacillariaphyta 67 100
Bacillariaphyta 17 17
Bacillariaphyta 17 0
Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria 17 33
Cyanobacteria 100 100
Cyanobacteria 50 50
Cyanobacteria
Euglenozoa 17 17
Euglenozoa 17 0
Euglenozoa 33 33
Euglenozoa 33 17
Euglenozoa 0 33
Euglenozoa
Euglenozoa 50 83
Euglenozoa 0 17
Euglenozoa
Euglenozoa 17 0
Myzozoa
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Article Details
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Author:Reeder, Brian C.; Binion, Brian M.
Publication:The Ohio Journal of Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1U3OH
Date:Dec 1, 2008
Words:5386
Previous Article:Obituaries of the members of The Ohio Academy of Science report of the Necrology Committee, 2008.
Next Article:Parvodinium gen. nov. for the Umbonatum Group of Peridinium (Dinophyceae).
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