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Air transportation infrastructure in Indonesia.

Current Issue

Competition in the airport service business is sharper from year to year especially among international airports. Competition among international airports lies in a number of factors such as in security and services related to the availability of various facilities and convenience. After the government adopted the open sky policy, airport operators in the country--PT. Angkasa Pura I and PT. Angkasa Pura II--have continued to seek to improve services. A number of airport have been promoted in status to international airports.

Based on a report from IATA (International Air Transport Association), with the exception of China and India, air transport industry in Indonesia is quite fast among Asia Pacific countries. The number of air passengers in the Asia Pacific region is forecast to grow by 7% in 2006-2007 and in Indonesia the annual growth is 22%, according to the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS). The increase growth of the air transport industry also indicates improvement in the country's economic condition.

According to data at the Transport Ministry, the number of air passenger both domestic and international flights reached almost 25 million by mid 2006. The country has around 54 airlines not including those already licensed but not yet starting operation.

The fast growing air transport industry, however, is not followed with proportional growth in air transport infrastructure especially in the airport capacity. Some airports already are in difficulty to handle growing passengers and increase in flight frequency because of lack of facilities. Additional facilities or expansion of capacity such as passenger terminals, parking lots and runways are needed and vital to meet the growing demand.

In the recent Indonesia Infrastructure Conference & Exhibition (IICE) in November, 2006, the government offered a number of airport development projects to investors. The projects include the Kuala Namu air port project in Medan to cost around US$ 224.6 million, passenger terminal expansion project at the Soekarno-Hatta airport to cost around US$ 226 million and cargo terminal project also at the Soekarno-Hatta airport to cost around US$ 237 million.

Meanwhile booming is predicted in the tourism sector in the Asia Pacific region including in Indonesia, after the implementation of Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA) scheme in 2003 and ahead of the implementation of free market scheme of APEC in 2010 and world free trade scheme of WTO in 2020.

Almost all airports in Indonesia are expected to gain from the booming tourism sector expected in the coming years. The airports of Ngurah Rai (Bali), Adisutjipto (Yogyakarta), Adisumarmo (Solo), Hasanuddin (Makassar), Sam Ratulangi (Manado), Frans Kaisiepo (Biak), Pattimura (Ambon) and Selaparang (Mataram) are expected to be busier in handling foreign tourists.

The economic growth of Asia Pacific and North-South economic lane will open ample opportunity for the Sam Ratulangi airport which lies in the Pacific rim to expand. The airports of Juanda in Surabaya and Ahmad Yani in Semarang are also expected to expand with the fast growing provincial cities to become the second and third most important industrial cities in the country.

The development of Biak island as an Integrated Economic Development Area for eastern Indonesia will make the business prospects better for the airport of Frans Kaisiepo.

Number of airports operational

Indonesia has 187 airports including small and large airports. Large airports are operated by state-owned PT Angkasa Pura.

Around 120 small airports are under Technical Executive Units of the Transport Ministry. Most of the 120 small airports function as pioneer air terminals serving flights to isolated areas.

All airports under AP II are categorized as international airports having international airport standards equipped with Instrument Landing System (ILS) and Customer Immigration Quarantine (CIQ).

A number of major airports such as Soekarno-Hatta and Juanda have the facilities as follows:

Following is list of facilities of Juanda airport, the country's second largest airport after Sukarno Hatta:

Model of airport management

AP and regional administrations have profit sharing agreement. AP II and the Tangerang administration have income sharing ratio of 75:25 for income from parking lots of the Soekarno-Hatta airport.

Flight Service Tariffs

Adjustment of flight service tariffs for both domestic and international fights is made every two years. In special cases such as in case of an increase in basic costs adjustment could be made every year.

Main Players

Commercial airports are under two state companies namely PT Angkasa Pura I (AP I) and PT Angkasa Pura II (AP II).

PT AP I operates 13 airports including Juanda airport of Surabaya, Hasanuddin airport of Makassar, and Frans Kasiepo airport of Biak. PT AP II operates 10 airports including Soekarno Hatta airport of Cengkareng, Polonia airport of Medan. No airport is operated yet by private company in the country.

Angkasa Pura I was established in 1964 as the operator of the Kemayoran domestic airport of Jakarta. In 1985, it was named the operator of international airport of Soekarno Hatta and Halim Perdana Kusuma. Now it is the operator of 13 airports in eastern part of the country.

Angkasa Pura II was established in 1984 with the name of Perum Pelabuhan Udara Jakarta Cengkareng (PPUJC), In 1993 its name was changed with Angkasa Pura II. Now AP II operate 10 airport in western part of the country.

One of the airports operated by APIII is the Soekarno-Hatta airport, the country's largest airport handling 29 million air passengers in 2005.

AP I has the Juanda airport of Surabaya, the country's second largest airport with a capacity to handle 6 million air passengers a year. The capacity is to be expanded to 15 million passengers in 2015.

Angkasa Pura I

Airports under AP I could be put in different categories by their condition namely growing, in the take off, nearing the break even point and losing and serving more to meet public service obligation.

Those included in the category of growing are Juanda, Ngurah Rai, and Hasanuddin which serve more than 3 million air passengers a year. Those in the take off are Sepinggan and Adisutjipto handling from 2 to 3 million air passengers a year. Losing airports, serving more for public service obligation include Pattimura of Ambon, Adisumarmo of Solo, El Tari of Kupang, Frans Kaisiepo of Biak with passengers totaling only less than 500,000 a year. The four airports, therefore, survive on cross subsidy with operating cost partly covered with profit from other profitable airports such as Juanda of Surabaya, Ngurah Rai of Denpasar, and Hasanuddin of Makassar.

In 2005, AP I reported net profit amounting to RP 395.2 billion or a 30% increase from the previous year when net profit was recorded at Rp 286.5 billion. From Hasanuddin airport, AP I posted Rp 300 billion in air traffic service (ATS) income. The Makassar airport contributed 30% to the total profit of AP I. In 2006, AP I targeted to earn Rp 434 billion in pre tax profit with total income of Rp 1.5 trillion. Angkasa Pura I (AP I) plans to expand the Hasanuddin airport in 2007 with an investment of RP 534 billion. AP I will issue bond valued at Rp400 billion to raise fund to finance the project.

AP I also plans to sell the Selaparang airport of Lombok to the private sector. Investors from Malaysia and South Korea have indicated interest in buying the airport, which is priced at Rp 400 billion. The fund will be used to finance the construction of a new airport in Central Lombok as the Selaparang airport could not be expanded.

Angkasa Pura II plans to build new airports

Angkasa Pura II (AP II) plans to build new airports. The projects were already offered to investors in the last IICE in November 2006. Kuala Namu airport is to be built at an estimated cost of US$ 224.6 million to replace the old Medan's airport of Polonia. AP II also plans to expand Jakarta's Soekarno Hatta airport with a third terminal to cost US$ 226 million and a new cargo terminal to cost around US$ 237 million.

AP II also plans to build railway track to link Soekarno-Hatta with the Manggarai railway station in South Jakarta. The railway rack project will cost an estimated Rp 900 billion to be completed in 2009. The project will be under PT. Rail Link, which is a joint venture between AP II and state-owned railway company PT. Kereta Api Indonesia.

In addition, AP II plans to expand a number of airports outside Java including Sultan Iskandar Muda in Aceh, Minangkabau International airport of Padang and Sultan Syarif Kasim II airport of Pekan Baru. The expansion projects are estimated to cost Rp 924.36 billion.

Development and Rehabilitation of Air Infrastructure

The transport ministry said in the period of 2001-2006, the government repaired and built runways in a number of airports. In 2005, repairs and construction totaled 1,105,812 meters , up to around 2,026,942 meters in 2006 including in the new Juanda airport in Surabaya that was completed and put into operation in November, 2006.

--Juanda Airport

The new Juanda International Airport , which came on line in November, 2006 has he facilities as follows: domestic terminal 20,131.50 m2, international terminal 7,957 m2 with 11 units of aviobridge, cargo terminal 6,528 m2, runway 3,000 m x 45 m facing the Madura Strait, VIP Parking lot 1,235 m2, domestic terminal parking lot 7,621 m2, and international parking lot 4,012 m2. Other facilities include three floor office building with a floor space of 5,300 m2 and 15-floor tower over 486 m2 plot of land.

Everyday, 110 units of aircraft take off and land at the Juanda airport serving 227 times of domestic flights. It has the capacity to handle 30 international flights everyday.

The new airport was built with 90% of the cost provided in loan of 27 billion yens by Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC). Construction took 54 months by a consortium of Kawamite which groups Kajima Corporation, PT Waskita Karya, Mitsubishi Corporation, and PT Teguh Reksa Jaya

--Hasanudin Airport

In 2007, PT AP I will issue bond valued at Rp 400 billion to finance the expansion of Hasanuddin airport of Makassar to start early 2007. The project is estimated to cost RP 534 billion. The fund is for first phase expansion that will include construction of passenger terminals, apron, and taxiway. The central government will arrange the finance for the construction of its runway.

AP I set aside Rp 688.29 billion for expenditure in 2006 and the largest portion of it was for the Hasanuddin airport. The cost of expanding the airport swelled by 20% from the amount previously estimated as a result of the 125% hike in the prices of oil fuels in October, 2005. In addition, the completion schedule for the first phase of the expansion plan is also three months delayed from October, 2006.

The central government will provide Rp 1 trillion to continue the expansion of the airport to become an international airport in 2010. Air Transport Director General Moh. Iksan Tatang said the fund will include Rp 550 billion in foreign loan from i Asia Development Bank (ADB) to be disbursed by phase from 2006 to 2010. The rest will be in domestic funding. The foreign loan will be used to finance the development of air side facilities including runway, taxiway and apron.

In July 2005, the new Minangkabau airport of Padang came on line with runway 2,750 meters and the old Tabing airport was closed. The new international airport located at Ketaping, in he regency of Padang Pariaman, is around 29 kilometers north of the provincial city.

The old airport could handle only the arrival of not more than 10 aircraft a day. It could not accommodate wide bodied aircraft that a number of foreign airlines could not fly directly to Padang. The new airport could handle 40 arrivals and departures of aircraft with 4,000 passengers a day.

Meanwhile, a number of other airports have been expanded including Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin airport of Palembang, and Kijang airport of Tanjung Pinang. A number of small airports such as Sultan Thaha airport of Jambi and Depati Amir airport of Pangkal Pinang, Bangka have also been expanded. The two small airports were taken over by API II from the Technical Executive Units (UPT) of he Transport Ministry late 2006.

Renovation of old airport and construction of new airports totaled 19,224 m2 in 2005 and in 2006, renovation and construction are expected to reach 37,252 m2.

Construction of Terminals

A number of airports have been furnished with new facilities such as the Adisutjipto airport, which has new logistics cargo shipping facility or cargo hub center (CHC) complete with customs service.

With the facility, the process of goods distribution and taxation process could be handled and carried out on spot. It will also reduce the possibility of illegal imports of dangerous goods. The CHC facility will make Adisutjipto airport as air cargo distribution center for southern Java.

The facility could be utilized by export and import traders, and freight forwarders, couriers and distributors. CHC also has good packaging service and customs documentation.

The CHC is managed by PT Global Anindya Mataram (PT. GAM), a joint venture between AP I and PT Anindya Mitra Internasional (AMI) and PT Global International. PT GAM is supported by an international cargo network of PT Global International, which has 1,100 units of branch office and partners all over the world.

According to data at the Transport Ministry, renovation and construction of terminal facility in a number of airports totaled 66,164 m2 in 2005 and in 2006 such renovation and construction are estimated to total 24,503 m2.

Passenger and Cargo Traffics

The number of domestic air passengers was recorded at 28.99 million in 2005 or an increase of 22.0% from the previous year. The number of international flight passengers rose 18.0% to 3.26 million in 2005 from the previous year.

The Soekarno-Hatta airport alone reported 2.91 million international flight passengers or 89.0% of the total number of international flight passengers Indonesia in 2005, and the Ngurah Rai airport of Bali reported 1.51 million international flight passengers in the same year.

The number of international flight passengers in December, 2005 totaled 539,800, up sharply by 36.35% from November. Soekarno Hatta airport alone recorded a 59.56% increase, Polonia by 28.27% and Juanda 4.74%. A decline of 7.53% was recorded by Ngurah Rai.

The number of domestic passengers recorded by the Soekarno-Hatta airport totaled 9.75 million in 2005 or 34.0% of the total domestic passengers in the country. Surabaya's Juanda airport recorded the second largest number of 3.26 million.

Meanwhile, a number of airports recorded an increase in the flows of cargoes bringing the total volume of air cargoes to 418,467 tons in 2005 up 113% from 196,707 tons in 2001. See the following table

In Western Indonesia, Soekarno-Hatta and Polonia are the largest and busiest airports. Soekarno Hatta with two terminals, alone recorded 29 million passengers annually in the past five years, exceeding its installed capacity of 18 million. AP II, therefore, plans to build a third terminal.

In Eastern Indonesia, the largest is the Juanda airport of Surabaya. The new airport has the capacity to handle 6 million passengers a year. The country's second largest airport after Soekarno-Hatta serves to provide links between the Western and Eastern parts of the country apart from being an international airport having direct links with Singapore, Malaysia, Bandar Seri Begawan and Taipei. It also serves haj flight.

Juanda needs further expansion to handle fast growing number of passengers estimated to reach 15 million in 2015.

Ngurah Rai of Denpasar (Bali) is another busy airport in eastern part of the country. Bali is world famous tourist island. This airport is designed to be able to handle 13 million passengers a year by 2020.

The Hasanuddin airport has a vital role in the efforts to develop eastern Indonesia. The airport has the capacity to handle more than 3 million passengers a year. AP II plans the expansion of the airport to meet growing number of passengers and flows of goods between the eastern and western parts of the country.

Pioneer airports

The program in air transport include development of pioneer air terminals. Air transport facility is vital for the archipelagic country. The Transport Ministry provides subsidy for pioneer airports serving isolated areas.

In 2005, subsidy for pioneer transport included Rp 19.98 billion for pioneer buses serving 124 routes, Rp 86.91 billion for pioneer flights serving 91 routes, Rp 2.73 billion for the transport of 2,342 drums of oil fuels, Rp 126.15 billion for pioneer sea transport serving 48 routes, and Rp 57.68 billion for pioneer ferry transport in 22,104 trips.

By 2005, there were 90 routes from pioneer airports, up from 52 routes in 2001. The number of cities visited in pioneer flights rose to 81 in 2005 from 67 in 2001.

Plans to build new airports

A number of the existing airports are no longer fit from the point of view of environment and capacity. Replacement, therefore is needed.

Kualanamu Airports

Kualanamu has been decided to replace the Polonia airport of Medan. Polonia is no longer fit from the point of view of the environment as it is located around crowded area in the North Sumatra capital.

The plan to build the new airport was already made in 1994 with a presidential decree No 76/1994. The decree was followed up with a MoU between PT. Angkasa Pura II and PT. Citra Lamtoro Gung Persada on investment and operation of the airport, but the agreement was cancelled with the crisis in 1997/1998 and the change in the government. After the recovery of the economy from the crisis, the plan to build the Kualanamu airport was resumed with a new presidential decree No. 15 in 2002.

Currently, the project is still in the stage of groundbreaking, building water channels and completing administrative process. The central government will handle the construction of the airside of the project including runway.

The first phase of the construction of the airport is estimated to cost Rp 3 trillion including Rp 1.3 trillion for land side facilities and Rp 1.7 for air side facilities. A foreign loan of US$ 225 million will be used for the air side construction and PT. Angkasa Pura II will provide Rp 1.2 trillion for the construction of land side facilities.

The airport will occupy a land plot of 1,365 hectares, which were already cleared by PT AP II in 1997. The plan is the airport with 3,750 meter runway, will have the capacity to handle 10 million passengers in the first phase and it will be able to accommodate wide bodied aircraft such as Boeing 747-400 aircraft. The new airport is to be operational in 2010. On Dec. 21, 2006, Wiratman & Associates was declared as the tender winner to provide the design of the airport with a fee of Rp 3.245 billion to be completed in 240 days.

Lombok Tengah Airport

The Lombok Tengah airport will built over a 510 hectare plot of land at a cost of around Rp 625 billion. The airport will be a first class airport with a landing strip of 3,000 m.

The airport is to be able to land wide bodied aircraft such as Airbus. It will equal the Ngurah Rai airport of Denpasar, Bali.

Currently the Selaparang airport of Mataram is the largest airport in West Nusatenggara. It has a 2,100 meter runway 40 meter wide, that it could not be used by wide bodied aircraft.

Majalengka Airport

The Majalengka airport in West Java was first planned in April, 2006. The project is estimated to cost Rp 30 trillion. It is to be built over a 5,000 hectare plot of land with two runways parallel with taxiway with high accessibility.

The runways are 3,000--3,500 meters long. It will have a parking lot that could accommodate 1,000 cars.

The airport location is 40 meters above the sea level with wind speed in the past five years averaging 10 knots still within the international standard under which landing will be safe.

The selection of Majalengka, is based on the availability of land and to suit the West Java's layout plan until 2010. In addition it will have high accessibility as it is located close to the Cirebon-Sumedang-Dawuan toll road to be built and the Cikampek toll road.

Soekarno-Hatta's third Terminal

The Soekarno- Hatta airport will have its third terminal to be built at a cost of US$ 226 million and a new cargo terminal to cost US$ 237 million. The additional facilities will be built in 2007.

AP II also plans to build a shopping mall between the first and second terminals of the Soekarno Hatta airport to cost Rp 12 trillion.

The country's largest airport has an installed capacity to handle 18 million passengers a year but now it has to operate above its capacity handling 29 million passenger a year.

Railway Transport to Soekarno Hatta airport

A railway track will be built to link the Soekarno-Hatta airport to the Manggarai railway station in South Jakarta. The project is estimated to cost Rp 900 billion. The railway will facilitate transport of passengers from and to the airport. Construction will start in 2007 to be completed in 2009 by a consortium PT. Rail Link

Rail Link is a joint venture between state-owned railway company PT Kereta Api Indonesia (60%) and PT AP II (40%). It will also build such railway tracks in Medan, Padang, Palembang, Yogyakarta and Surabaya.

A number of banks and contractors have indicated interest in building the project such as Bank Internasional Indonesia (BII), Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and the Bukaka Group. Currently PT. Rail Link is still studying funding schemes offered by 10 investors.

Developments of Indonesian air fleets

A fast growth has been recorded for the country's aviation industry. The expansion came with a sharp decline of 35% on the average in the ticket prices. Flight frequency also increased fast with the number of passenger peaked at more than 25 million in 2005.

The Indonesia National Air Carriers Association (INACA) predicted that domestic flight service will grow by 15% in 2007 and international service by 8%. The prediction is based on plan by a number of airlines to increase the number of aircraft to strengthen their fleets. Some of the airlines use the latest makes of aircraft.

Currently the country has 213 aircraft serving regular commercial flights up from 135 aircraft in 2001. Lion Air and Adam Air both have ambitious plans to increase their fleets with the latest models of aircraft.

Main players in aviation industry

Lion Air, which started operation only in 2000, is now the largest airline for domestic flights. The airline is the first budget airline in the country introducing low cost carrier service, followed by other private airlines including Batavia Air, Sriwijaya Air, etc.

In 2005, Lion Air had 24 aircraft including 19 units of MD80 and 5 units of DHC-8-301. Lion Air has placed order for 60 units Boeing 737-900ER at a price of US$ 3.9 billion to be delivered in from 2007 to 2010.

Lion Air recorded up to 600,000 passengers a month or 40% of the domestic market. In 2004, Lion Air was the second in market share after Garuda Indonesia. Now Lion Air serves flights to 36 cities in the country. The airline also serve international routes to Singapore, Penang, Kuala Lumpur, Ho Chi Minh, and Seoul. It also plans to serve flights to Central Asia and East Asia such as Hong Kong and China.

Lion Air cooperates with the Air Force, and aircraft maker PT Dirgantara Indonesia in renting hangar at Husein Sastranegara airport of Bandung to be made Lion Maintenance Facility (LMF). Lion Air has bought used aircraft simulator from Scandinavia Air to train its pilots. It cooperates with the Air Force to manage the Halim Perdanakusuma airport of Jakarta. Lion Air aircraft, therefore, will likely have their base at the airport.

A number of other airlines such as Batavia Air, Adam Air, Indonesia Air Asia and Sriwijaya Air also plan to expand their domestic flight services. The load factor of the airlines serving domestic flights is quite high prompting them to bring in more aircraft.

Garuda Indonesia, the nation's flag carrier and the older airline in the country remains the largest with 62 aircrafts. Garuda has continued to report losses but it has not stopped seeking expansion. In 2007 it plans to add 30 more air crafts including Boeing 737-800 and Boeing 787 Dreamliner. In Sept. 2006 the government injected Rp 1 trillion as capital participation in Garuda. The fund was used to revitalize the airline, repay debt and US$ 2.4 million are to be used to lease aircraft.

Government Policy

Operation and management of airports are regulated under the government regulation PP No. 70/2005. A decision of the transport minister No 81/2004 requires an airline to have at least two aircraft of its own.

In January, 2005, the government decided to stop issuing license for new airline. A new regulation was issued requiring an airline to operate at least 5 aircrafts including two own aircrafts.

Recently the House of Representatives called for the establishment of a separate company to take over the running and management of Air Traffic Service (ATS) from PT AP to enable PT AP to focus more airport service.

AP II will lose around 35% of its income or Rp 1.2 trillion a year if it is to let go of ATS business. The air transport director general said the government plans to form single ATS provider.

Problems to be handled

--Services and facility

Airport operators are required to provide services and facility up to international standards in quality. The terminal facilities and flight safety systems are audited every year by the Federation of Aviation Association (FAA). The air transport directorate general also conducts audit of flight safety.

--Coordination systems

Airport operators are responsible for controlling air traffic and holding coordination especially with neighboring countries such as Malaysia and Singapore to avoid misunderstanding in determining borders of air territory.

--Slot time

Airport operators must arrange flight schedules for landing and take-off to keep efficiency and prevent air accident.

--Access to airports

Access road to airport is important for ones located far from city center to reduce time to cover the distance. Limited means of public transport to and from Jakarta's Soekarno Hatta airport, for example, is a problem for many passengers.

Business Risks

Risks faced by airport operators include :

--Flight accident

Flight accidents could be caused by a number of factors such as bad weather, poor condition of airport, aircraft damage, pilot's errors, etc.

--Natural disasters

Though rare, natural disasters also pose a risk for airport operators. Natural disasters could disrupt flight scheduled that will cause losses to airport operators. The devastating earthquakes in Yogyakarta in May, 2006, forced the closure of Adisutjipto airport for several days, causing a potential loss of up to Rp 151 million to the airport operator per day in landing service, taxing and keeping of aircraft and passenger services.

Prospects and Conclusion

The prospects are still good for business in development of new airports and expansion of ones with the growing trend of air passengers from 11.52 million in 2001 to 32.25 million in 2005.

The fast growing number of air passenger necessitates addition of infrastructure including new airports and airport facilities. After the operation of the new Juanda airport in Nov. 2006, more airports have been planned. Kualanamu is to be built to replace Medan's old airport of Polonia. The Soekarno Hatta airport will have a third terminal as the two terminals could no longer handle growing number of passengers needing the service of the airport. The Hasanuddin airport of Makassar also needs expansion to handle growing number of passengers both those of domestic and international flights.

The surge in the number of air passengers in the country followed the launching of low cost carrier service such as offered by Lion Air, Batavia Air, Sriwijaya Air, Adam Air, etc. Some of the private airlines are expected to increase the number of their aircraft such as Lion Air, Adam Air and Batavia Air, which have placed orders for new aircraft for delivery in 2007.

Based on official record of the air transport directorate general, the number of air passenger in the country has continued to increase from year to year and the trend is expected to continue until 2010. The number of air passengers is estimated to reach 38 million in 2006 and the number of is forecast to rise to 62 million in 2010.

The implementation agreements of AFTA in 2003 and APEC in 2010 will contribute to growth of the regional economy including its air transport industry.

The growing number of air passenger necessitates development of new airport or expansion of the existing ones, offering an opportunity for investors to venture in this business area. The participation of the private sector in the construction of new airports is needed by the cash strapped government.

Meanwhile, the government needs to improve security in the country so as not to discourage visitors to the country. With security better guaranteed, more tourists are expected to visit the country.
Table - 1
Main airports in Indonesia

Name of airport Class Size of

Adi Sumarmo II A 2.600 x 45 M

Ahmad Yani I 2.252 x 45 M

Adi Sucipto I B 2.220 x 45 M

Juanda I 3.000 x 45 M

Ngurah Rai I 3.000 x 45 M

Selaparang I B 1.850 x 40 M

Syamsudin Noor I B 2.220 x 45 M

Sepinggan I B 2.500 x 45 M

Sam Ratulangi I B 2.500 x 45 M

Hasanuddin I A 2.500 x 45 M

Patimura I B 1.850 x 45 M

Frans Kaisiepo I B 3.570 x 45 M

Eltari I B 2.500 x 45 M

Sultan Iskandar Muda I B 2.250 x 45 M

Polonia I 2.900 x 45 M

Minangkabau I 2.749 x 45 M

Sultan Syarif Kasim II I B 2.240 x 30 M

Kijang II A 1.856 x 30 M

Sultan Mahmud I B 2.200 x 45 M
Badarudin II

Soekarno Hatta I 3.660 x 60 M
 3.600 x 60 M
Halim Perdanakusumah I 3.000 x 45 M

Husein Sastranegara I B 2.250 x 45 M

Supadio I B 1.850 x 30 M

Name of airport Accommodating

Adi Sumarmo B-737 = 8 aircraft

Ahmad Yani B-737; F-28

Adi Sucipto B-737 = 8 aircraft

Juanda B-737 = 14; A-300 =
 4 aircraft

Ngurah Rai B-747; MD-411; etc.;

Selaparang 7 F-28

Syamsudin Noor 5 B-737 - 200

Sepinggan MD-11 = 3; B-707 =
 10 aircraft

Sam Ratulangi B-737=3; F-27=6;

Hasanuddin A-300; DC-10; DC-9;

Patimura F-28=5; C-212=8;

Frans Kaisiepo B-747 = 2; B-737 =
 4 aircraft

Eltari B-737-200

Sultan Iskandar Muda DC-9; B-737

Polonia B-747; A-300

Minangkabau B-737 = 4

Sultan Syarif Kasim II F-28; F-100; F-27;
 CN 235

Kijang F-27; C-130

Sultan Mahmud DC-9; F-28
Badarudin II

Soekarno Hatta B-747; A-300, DC-9;

Halim Perdanakusumah B-747; A-300

Husein Sastranegara F-28

Supadio F-28; casa; Heli

Source: Angkasa Pura

Table - 2
Facilities of Soekarno-Hatta airport

 Facilities Description

Area 1,800 ha

Distance from city center 20 km, west of Jakarta

Runway capacity 74 aircraft an hour

Runway constructions Chicken scrawl

Apron area A,B,C and remote 266,326 m2
 D,E,F and remote 472,853 m2

Remote stands Terminal I : 8 F-28
 Terminal II : 8 B-747

Cargo apron 4 B-747

Night stop 13 DC-9

Capacity Terminal A 7 B-747
 Terminal B 7 A-300
 Terminal C 16 F-28/DC-9
 Terminal D 8 B-747
 Terminal E 8 B-747
 Terminal F 8 B-747

Aeronautical Service --Air Traffic Control
 --Aeronautical Communication Facilities
 --Air Navigation Facilities
 --Visual Aids Facilities
 --Meteorological Services
Terminal facilities

Telescopic gangway Terminal I : 21 units, Terminal II : 44
 Conveyor belt units

Counter Check-in Terminal I : 36 units, Terminal II :
 27 units

Warehouse Entrepot area Terminal I: 39 units, Terminal II :
 96 units

Fire Brigade Category IX 12,710 m2

Aviation Medical Emergency

Hydrant Fuelling System

Cargo Terminal

Flight Kitchen

Ground Handling Services

Source: AP II

Table - 3
Facilities of Juanda airport






 Magnetic corner : 297 MECHANICAL / AIR
 Size : 3000 m x 45 m
 Strength : PCN 73
 Surface : Asphalted

 Surface : BETONS
 Capacity : Type B-
 737 = 14, A-300 = 4
 ; Max a/c ; A-300
 Width : Main Apron
 = 72,262 [m.sup.2]
 West Apron =
 12,177 [m.sup.2]
 East Apron =
 12,177 [m.sup.2]

 Arrival and departure SUPPORTING
 Width : 10,043.99 [m.sup.2] FACILITIES
 ~ [+ or -] 20,000 [M.sup.2]
 Arrival and
 Width : 5,580 [m.sup.2]

FASILITAS x-ray, walk trough, GENERAL
AUDIO VISUAL & detector, fire alrm,
KOMPUTER explosive detector,

PATH AND 1. Path 85,304 [m.sup.2]
PARKING LOT 2. Parking 8,.514 [m.sup.2]

 Stand By Genset :
 1,750 KVA
 UPS : 50 KVA

 Direct Speech,
 TTY, Telex ATIS,
 AFTN, Facsimile

 Available : CAT 8

 Outer Marker,
 Radar (ASR &


LANDING STRIP Observation :
 Forecast : EXIST



TERMINAL immigration,
 quarantine, cargo

FASILITAS bank, cafe, public
PENGAMANAN / telephone, waving
AUDIO VISUAL & gallery, souvenir



Source: AP I

Table - 4
Types of business managed by Angkasa Pura I and
Angkasa Pura II

 Types of business Covering

I. Flight service Domestic, international and
 overflying flights
II. Airport services
1. Flight service
 a. Landing service, Placing and
 storage of aircraft (PJP$U)

 b. Air passenger service

 c. Counter service

 d. Aviobridge service

2. Airport supporting services

A.. Flight direct support services : 1. Provision of aircraft hangar

 2. Aircraft maintenance service

 3. Warehousing

 4. Aircraft food service

 5. Aircraft handling technical
 service on land

 6. Baggage and passenger

 7. Cargo handling service

B. Flight indirect support service 1. Accommodation/hotel service

 2. Store & restaurant services

 3. Motor vehicle parking

 4. Terminal service

 5. Land usage service

 6. Electricity, telephone and
 water service

 7. Other services

Source: AP

Table - 5
Flight service tariffs in several airports, 2005

Description Units Juanda (Surabaya)

 Domestic International
 (Rp) (US$)

PSC Pax 25,000 75,000

Landing fee 0-40 tons 2,590/tons 4.01/tons
 40 -100 103,600 + 160.40 +
 tons 3,440/tons 4.62/tons
 > 100 tons 310,000 + 437.60+
 4,020/tons 521/tons
Parking fee tons 630 0.43

Storage tons 600 0.82

Route units 750 0.65

Counter fee pax 525 0.4

Description Hasanuddin

 Domestic International

PSC 25,000 75,000

Landing fee 2,590/tons 4.01/tons
 103,600 + 160.40 +
 3,440/tons 4.62/tons
 310,000 + 437.60 +
 4,020/tons 5.21/tons

Parking fee 600 0.43

Storage 600 0.82

Route 750 0.65

Counter fee 700 0.4

Description Adi Sucipto

 Domestic InternaTional

PSC 25,000 75,000

Landing fee 1,815/tons 2.75/tons
 72,600 + 109.20 +
 2.410/tons 3.14/tons
 217,200 + 297.60 +
 2,810/tons 3.54/tons

Parking fee 410 0.24

Storage 415 0.49

Route 750 0.65

Counter fee 440 0.35

Source: AP I

Table - 6
Major airports in Indonesia and operators

 Name of airports Location Operators

Adi Sumarmo Solo, Central Java AP I

Ahmad Yani Semarang, AP I
 Central Java

Adi Sucipto Yogyakarta AP I

Juanda Surabaya, East Java AP I

Ngurah Rai Denpasar, Bali AP I

Selaparang Mataram, West Nusa AP I

Sepinggan Balikpapan, AP I
 East Kalimantan

Syamsuddin Noor Banjarmasin, AP I
 South Kalimantan

Sam Ratulangi Manado, AP I
 North Sulawesi

Hasanuddin Makassar, AP I
 South Sulawesi

Patimura Ambon, Maluku AP I

Frans Kaisiepo Biak, Papua AP I

Eltari Kupang, AP I
 East Nusa Tenggara

Soekarno-Hatta Cengkareng, Banten AP II

Halim Jakarta AP II

Husein Sastranegara Bandung, West Java AP II

Supadio Pontianak, AP II
 West Kalimantan

Sultan Iskandar Banda Aceh AP II

Polonia Medan, AP II
 North Sumatra

Minangkabau Padang, AP II
 West Sumatra

Sultan Syarif Kasim II Pekanbaru, Riau AP II

Kijang Tanjung Pinang AP II

Sultan Mahmud Palembang, AP II
Badarudin II South Sumatra

Name of airports Name of airports

Adi Sumarmo Adi Sumarmo

Ahmad Yani Ahmad Yani

Adi Sucipto Adi Sucipto

Juanda Juanda

Ngurah Rai Ngurah Rai

Selaparang Selaparang

Sepinggan Sepinggan

Syamsuddin Noor Syamsuddin Noor

Sam Ratulangi Sam Ratulangi

Hasanuddin Hasanuddin

Patimura Patimura

Frans Kaisiepo Frans Kaisiepo

Eltari Eltari

Soekarno-Hatta Soekarno-Hatta

Halim Halim
Perdanakusumah Perdanakusumah

Husein Sastranegara Husein Sastranegara

Supadio Supadio

Sultan Iskandar Sultan Iskandar
Muda Muda

Polonia Polonia

Minangkabau MInangkabau

Sultan Syarif Kasim II Sultan Syarif Kasim II

Kijang Kijang

Sultan Mahmud Sultan Mahmud
Badarudin II Badarudin II

Source: AP

Table - 7
Construction of airport runways, 2001-2006

Year Rehabilitation Construction Total (m) Growth
 of runways (m) of new (%)
 runways (m)

2001 234,277 150,505 384,782 --
2002 621,280 312,476 933,756 142.67
2003 374,818 666,905 1,241,723 32.98
2004 470,928 431,179 902,107 -27.35
2005 648,341 457,471 1,105,812 22.58
2006 745,950 1,281,022 2,026,942 83.30

Source: Transport ministry

Table - 8
Construction of airport facilities, 2001-2006

Year Renovation of Construction Total Growth
 airport of new (m2) (%)
 facilities (m2) airports (m2)

2001 1,353 2,581 3,934 --
2002 1,290 4,349 5,639 43.34
2003 22,069 19,179 41,248 631.48
2004 18,318 14,431 32,741 -20.62
2005 7,823 11,401 19,224 -41.28
2006 29,579 7,673 37,252 93.78

Source: Air Transport Directorate General

Table - 9
Construction and renovation of air terminals,

Year Rehabilitation Construction of Total (m2) Growth (%)
 terminal (m2) terminal (m2)

2001 2,000 5,150 7,150 --
2002 2,833 1,576 4,409 -38.34
2003 4,450 6,634 11,084 151.39
2004 1,726 1,811 3,537 -68.09
2005 4,014 61,150 66,164 1.742.35
2006 17,941 6,562 24,503 -62.40

Source: Transport Ministry

Table - 10
Flows of passengers and cargoes carried by regular airlines,

Year Number of passengers Cargoes (tons)

 Domestic International Domestic International

2001 9,168,059 2,350,855 136,152 60,555
2002 12,333,035 2,579,957 158,145 66,285
2003 19,181,294 2,085,920 184,170 46,768
2004 23,763,950 2,757,344 208,902 50,429
2005 28,992,019 3,257,992 254,880 163,587

Source: Transport Ministry

Table - 11
Developments of pioneer flights

 Year Number of Number of Number of
 routes cities visited passengers

 2001 52 67 44,604
 2002 55 73 81,021
 2003 74 92 110,521
 2004 83 76 79,513
 2005 90 81 102,741

Source: Air transport directorate general

Table - 12
Profile of Kualanamu airport and cost of construction


Private Sector Phase 1 Phase 2

A. Passenger Terminal Complex 202,736,311 52,368,501
B. Cargo Terminal Complex 14,322,446 6,068,921
C. Airport Access Road 2,193,929 -
D. Fuel Supply System 24.062.814 7.503.304
E. Road and Car Park 5,301,455 -
F. Building Work (Crew Center) 218,816 -
G. Public Utilities 51,070,808 13,779,610
VAT 31,547,387 8,388,619
Total Private 347,021,252 92,274,806

Private Sector Total

A. Passenger Terminal Complex 255,104,812
B. Cargo Terminal Complex 20,391,367
C. Airport Access Road 2,193,929
D. Fuel Supply System 31,566,118
E. Road and Car Park 5,301,455
F. Building Work (Crew Center) 218,816
G. Public Utilities 64,850,418
VAT 37,962,692
Total Private 417,589,607

Source: AP

Table - 13
Profile of airport railway track project
Routes Length

Grogol - Tanah Abang (existing double track) 3,632
Tanah Abang - Manggarai (existing double track) 6,026
Airport - Kali Deres (existing double track) 9.3
Rawa Buaya - Pesing (yet to be built) 5.1
Kali Deres - Rawa Buaya (existing single track) 2.2
Pesing - Grogol (existing single track) 3,726
Kyai Tapa (planned by pass) 1.2

Source: AP II

Table - 14
Number of aircraft serving regular flights,

Year Air craft in Growth
 operation (%)

2001 135 --
2002 143 0.74
2003 193 0.74
2004 222 0.74
2005 213 0.68
2006 213 0.68

Source: INACA

Table - 15
Projection of number of air passengers in Indonesia,

 Year Passengers Growth
 (million) (%)

 2006 38 --
 2007 44 15
 2008 51 13
 2009 57 11
 2010 62 10

Source: Air transport directorate general, Data Consult
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Publication:Indonesian Commercial Newsletter
Article Type:Industry overview
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:Nov 1, 2006
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