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Agricultural exports totaled $43.5 billion in fiscal year 1994.

U.S. agricultural exports for fiscal year (FY) 1994 (October 1993-September 1994) totaled $43.5 billion. Strong exports in the fourth quarter (July-September) raised value above $43 billion for the first time since record exports of $43.8 billion in fiscal 1981. In 1994, bulk exports declined nearly $1 billion to $17.6 billion. High-value product (HVP) exports rose to a record $25.9 billion, accounting for U.S. export gains.

Bulk exports declined 5 percent to $17.6 billion in fiscal 1994, and total bulk volume dropped 17 percent to 92 million tons. Sharply higher prices due to flood reduced production for corn and soybeans, and lower import demand for grains and soybeans, particularly grain in the former Soviet Union (FSU), dampened U.S. bulk exports.

Wheat exports declined 14 percent to 31 million tons, and value fell 15 percent to $4 billion. The biggest decline was in shipments to the FSU which plunged over 50 percent to 2.2 million tons. Wheat shipments fell to Venezuela, India, and Morocco. The Philippines was a major growth market for U.S. wheat, as exports rose 34 percent to 2.1 million tons. The United States also increased sales to the Middle East 14 percent to 2.5 million tons.

High corn prices and competition from other exporting countries combined to decrease U.S. coarse grain exports 21 percent to 39.8 million tons. However, the 13 percent higher export unit value limited the value decline to 10 percent, from $5.1 billion to $4.6 billion. Coarse grain shipments to the FSU fell 49 percent to 2.7 million tons, as a shrinking FSU livestock sector continued to lower coarse grain import demand. Shipments to Japan were 16 percent lower at 13.7 million tons. U.S. corn exports to Portugal jumped from 306 to 434,000 tons as part of the Blair House agreement.

High soybean prices, tight supplies, and low foreign import demand, caused soybean exports to fall 20 percent to 16.4 million tons in fiscal 1994. Shipments to the European Union (EU), the largest market for U.S. soybeans, dropped 22 percent to 6.4 million tons because of higher EU oilseed production and increased grain use for feeding due to lower EU grain prices. Shipments also dropped to Asian markets, particularly Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

Export gains for cotton and rice helped offset the decline in grains and soybeans. U.S. cotton exports rose 32 percent to 1.6 million tons, and value increased 50 percent to $2.3 billion. Rice exports declined 10 percent to 2.4 million tons, however, sharply higher export prices pushed value up 16 percent to $890 million. The United States shipped 518,000 tons of rice to Japan, making Japan the leading market for U.S. rice exports in 1994.

HVP Exports Rise To Near $26 Billion

High-value product exports rose 8 percent to a record $25.9 billion in fiscal 1994. Record sales of red meat, poultry meat, fruits, and vegetables accounted for much of the $1.9-billion gain in HVP exports.

Vegetable exports rose 10 percent to $3.5 billion, with most of the gain in frozen and processed vegetables. Frozen vegetable exports increased to $313 million because of a strong 19-percent gain to $186 million in frozen potato exports. There was strong growth in the highly prepared vegetable category, which includes commodities such as potato chips, tomato sauces, and prepared vegetable foods, as exports increased 17 percent to $1.6 billion. Canada was the largest market for U.S. vegetables with imports of $1.2 billion, including $626 million in fresh vegetables. The United States shipped a record $598 million worth of fresh and processed vegetables to Japan. Fresh vegetables totaled $146 million; the main fresh vegetables shipped were asparagus, broccoli, and cauliflower. The United States also exported record levels of vegetables to Taiwan ($136 million) and Hong Kong ($132 million).

Fruit exports rose 11 percent to $2.5 billion, led by strong gains in fresh deciduous fruit shipments. Deciduous fruit exports increased 21 percent to $1.3 billion, and volume rose even more, up 25 percent to 1.6 million tons. Mexico, Japan, Taiwan, and Southeast Asia were major markets for fresh U.S. apples, berries, grapes, and pears.

The value of U.S. beef exports rose 6 percent to a record $2.2 billion. The volume of beef exports increased a strong 15 percent to a record 494,000 tons, but lower beef export prices limited value gains. Japan was the largest market with imports of 266,000 tons valued at $1.3 billion. Increased beef consumption in Japan and the strong yen relative to the dollar, pushed exports higher. There were also substantial gains to Mexico, Taiwan, and Korea. The value of beef exports to Canada remained unchanged, although volume rose 9 percent to 90,000 tons.

The United States exported a record 172,000 tons of pork, valued at $525 million in fiscal 1994. Japan was the leading market for U.S. pork at 83,000 tons valued at $348 million. There were substantial gains to Mexico, up from $61 million to $84 million, and the FSU, up from $850,000 to $29 million.

The United States exported a record 1.4 million tons of poultry meat valued at $1.4 billion, both volume and value gained nearly 50 percent compared with 1993. U.S. exports were boosted by strong world demand for poultry meat and competitively priced U.S. products. Poultry meat exports increased because of record shipments to the FSU and strong gains to Hong Kong and Mexico. U.S. exports to the FSU jumped from $27 million to $282 million because of increased demand and the expansion of private marketing channels in the FSU for food items. Exports to Hong Kong rose 44 percent to $231 million.

Joel Greene, Trade Analysis Branch, 202-219-0816.
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Author:Greene, Joel
Publication:Frozen Food Digest
Date:Apr 1, 1995
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