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Age morphology of immune structures of rabbit's jejunum in the period of the early postnatal ontogenesis.


The functioning of the organs of digestive system after birth of the animals led to the some adaptation-morphologic changes of the immune structures, although the general appropriateness and principles of structural organizations were still without changes. In the realization of the immune reaction it is important to know the development lymphoid tissue in ontogenesis (Zavarin, 1985). There have some scientific works dedicated to the study of the immune structures of jejunum in the normal condition (Novakovskaya, Archakova, and Gurin, 2004; Chava, 2004, 2008) and during the influence some factors (Azizova, Hasanov, and Tulemetov, 2004; Tuhtaev, Azizova, and Hasanov, 2004; Chava, 2006; and others). Although in the structure of the immune structures there have numerous parallelisms, perhaps in each class of vertebrates complication of this organization could be reached independently (Gorishina and Chaga, 1990). Jejunum is the important part of the digestive tube where the final chemical processing of chime and absorption of nutritious substances in the organisms occur. Perhaps the morphology of the structural reorganization of the immune structures of jejunum in mammals in the period of the early postnatal ontogenesis is a problem which has not studied yet. Determination of the structural features of morphology of the immune structures of jejunum in animals in the different periods of postnatal ontogenesis is the actual problem. Taking into account the above mentioned we studied morphology of the local immune structures of the rabbits' jejunum in the different period of the early postnatal ontogenesis. Elucidation of this problem could have significant theoretical and applied importance in the basis of organ's immune status in these periods and in regulate of dietherapy in the different diseases of the jejunum.

Therefore, the study concerns age morphology of immune structures of rabbits' jejunum in the period of the early postnatal ontogenesis.

Materials and study methods

Materials for our investigations were the jejunum of the young rabbits of 1, 10, 20, and 30 days of age. Material was received just after slaughter of the animals under the etaminal-sodium narcosis. Jejunum was gathered as roulette and in this shape it was fixated in 12% of neutral formalin. Histological processing of the materials and giving a wash of paraffin was performed according to generally accepted method. A series of paraffin cuts were painted by use of methods hematoxylin-eosin, Van-Gizon, Mellory and it was impregnirated by use of argentums nitrogen by Grimelius. During the use of the last method morphology of lymph nodes have the most clearly determined. Review and photocopies was performed by use of microscope Leica microsystems Wetzlar GmbH (Portugal).

The results of investigation

Immune structures of jejunum of the young rabbits are the most formulated. Basically, it is represented by the diffuse localized intra-tissue lymphocytes and its accumulation and formed nodes, and also by insignificant accumulation of these nodes which could rarely happen. The diffuse localized lymphocytes were settled submucosal basis and proper mucous plate. In the other layers they were determined in the composition of the connective tissue around blood vessels and in the composition of the stratum of connective tissue between the other tissue structures. The localization density of intratissue lymphocytes could have tendency to increase to the direction of lumen intestine. The most its density was noted around the crypts and in the composition of the intestine villas. Sometimes the separate lymphocytes we could determine in the composition epithelium of the mucous membrane. They usually hyper chromed and localized in the different distances from the basal membrane and sometimes in the nearest epithelium surface. In very seldom cases we could determine single lymphocytes and in the crypt lumen, around its epithelium. The single lymph nodules were localized mainly in the proper mucous plate. This part of the mucous membrane is stick out in the lumen of intestine. The outpouching form could be different depending on the form of lymph nodules, but most often it has domelike form. In all cases around protuberances it has deep grove surrounding outpouching which covered by intestine epithelium. The bottom of the grove could reach to the muscular plate. Sometimes from the bottom of the grove it was formed the crypts which can reach to the muscular plate.

In rabbits of the 10 years old it was determined small accumulations of lymph nodules. These accumulations consisted of a few lymph nodes. The most accumulations of the lymph-nodules by the size and by the amount it was determined in the wall of jejunum near the ileum and the duodenum. Such accumulations in the wall of the middle part of the jejunum were rarely noted. In the location of these accumulations it was absent the muscle plate of the mucous membrane and submucosal base of the intestine was combined with the proper mucous plate. Consequently the localization territory of these accumulations was captured the proper mucous plate and submucosal base of the jejunum. These accumulations consist of the near located nodules, between them it has a small distance littered with lymphocytes.

Around every nodule it has an epithelial grove from the bottom from which it began intestinal crypts. The bottom of these crypts could reach muscular tunic of the intestine wall. It was observed the cases when the crypts passed through the territory of the nodule. The amount of crypts around the nodules was different, and on the flatness cuts their cross-cuts surrounded the lymph nodule. The size and morphology of the lymph nodules was identical with the single localizing lymph nodules. They have good expressed germinative centers (20-30 days). We have determined special epithelial tubules which connected the intestine lumen with single localizing lymph nodule or with the accumulations of them. In one case we could determine a longitudinal cut of this tubule for a significant distance. Epithelial channel differs from the cross-sectional cut of the intestine crypts by the relatively big diameter. The epithelium covering the channel differs from the crypts epithelium and fibers by the relatively lower height of epitheliocytes and the absence of goblet cells between them. The amount of epithelial tubules in the accumulations of lymph nodules was different. We have not determined the relationship between amount with accumulation size and the amount of nodules. Quite often near the single lymph nodule we could determine two epithelial tubules, sometimes among the big accumulations of nodules it was determined a single epithelial channel. Diameter of these epithelial tubules was also different and it was not depended on the conditions which was discussed the above. Tubule blindly begins from the accumulation or from the single lymph nodule. In this place it is sharply enlarged and then it is narrowed like excretory ducts of glands and it is opened to the intestine cavity. We have determined that the character feature of the single localizing lymph nodules of the young rabbits' jejunum wall at 20 days of age was the presence of the deeper grove like epithelial bottom around the nodule. It is differentiated the lymph nodule which invaginated in the intestine cavity from the neighboring parts of the mucous membrane. The character feature of the lymph structures of the jejunum of 20 and 30 days of age is the appearing of the small accumulations of lymph nodules and epithelial tubules which are connected these accumulations with the intestine cavity.

Determination of the localization density of the diffuse localizing intra-tissue lymphocytes in the proper mucous plate of the jejunum in the ontogenesis have showed that in rabbits in the process of the early postnatal ontogenesis it has occurred the increase of the spreading density of the intra-tissue lymphocytes. In this case the most increase is occurred before 20 days. As you can see from the diagram before 20 days the increase of the localization density of the intra-tissue lymphocytes is significantly high from the moment of birth until 10 days in general in 32% in the contrast with newborns and until 20 days in general in 21% in the contrast with the rabbits at the 10 days of age. Beginning from the 20 days of age the increasing of localization density of the intra-tissue lymphocytes was less notable. This tendency was observed basically on the all structural components of the mucous membrane and submucous base of the rabbits' jejunum wall (Figure 1).

Thus, the immune structures of the jejunum wall in rabbits of the different period of the early postnatal ontogenesis were identical, they differed by the some morphological and morphometric parameters. In the latest periods it was determined the small accumulations and deeper localized lymph nodules. They have special epithelial tubules connecting them with the jejunum lumen. In rabbits at the early periods of postnatal ontogenesis the immune structures of the jejunum was presented by the diffuse localized lymphocytes in the proper mucous plate and nodule like accumulations surrounding by the significantly deeper crypts. The localization density of the intra-tissue lymphocytes was intensively increased until 20 days of postnatal ontogenesis and then the increasing temp was less.


Azizova, F., Hasanov, B., Tulemetov, S., 2004. "Morphological and morphometric features of the immune system of jejunum in the experimental salmonellesis in the early postnatal ontogenesis," Problems of Biology and Medicine [Problemi biologii i medicini], in Russian, Vol.38, pp.14-16.

Chava, S., 2004. "Morphofunctional characteristics of lymphoid structures in the wall of the small intestine," Morphology [Morfologija], in Russian, Vol.126, pp.91-93.

Chava, S., 2006. "Some aspects of morphology of the aggregated glands of mouse in the experiment," Morphology [Morfologija], in Russian, Vol.129, pp.134-36.

Chava, S., 2008. "Immune structures of the small intestines during the injection of the immunomodulator polyoxidone in the organism," Some aspects of morphology of the aggregated glands of mouse in the experiment," Morphology [Morfologija], in Russian, Vol.133, pp.148-50.

Gorishina, E., Chaga, O., 1990. "The comparative histology of the tissues of the inside environmental with the basis of immunology", [Sravniteljnaya gistologiya tkaney vnutrenney sredi s osnovami immunologii] in Russian. Leningrad. p.320.

Ivanova, E., 2000. "Morphological investigation of the group of lymph nodules in the rats of vistar line with the different behavioral activities in the acute stress intervention," Morphology [Morfologija], in Russian, Vol.135, No.3, pp.55-58.

Novakovskaya, S., Archakova, L., Gurin, V., 2004. "Morphological bases of the relationships of the nerve, immune and endocrine systems in the small intestine," Morphology [Morfologija], in Russian, Vol.126, pp.91-96.

Tuhtaev, K., Azizova, F., Hasanov, B., 2004. "Toxic intervention and structural-functional features of aggregated glands," Problems of Biology and Medicine [Problemi biologii i medicini], in Russian, Vol.38, pp.107-108.

Zavarin, A., 1985. "The basis of the comparable histology," [Osnovi sravniteljnoy gistologii], in Russian, Leningrad.


Samarkand Medical Institute


    Row1   Row2   Row3

2   30%    40%    27%
3   30%    20%    34%
4    5%     9%     5%

Note: Row 1--in the composition of submucosal membrane; Row 2--in
the composition of villas; Row 3--in the composition of crypts.
1--Newborns; 2--Rabbits at the age of 10 days; 3--Rabbits at the
age of 20 days; 4--Rabbits at the age of 30 days. Figures in the
columns are the indexes of the growing percentage in the comparison
of the previous age.

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Author:Oripov, Firdavs
Publication:Medical and Health Science Journal
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2011
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