After half century at helm in Cuba, Castro bows out.
Ailing leader Fidel Castro yesterday resigned as Cuba's leader after nearly a half-century, saying he would not accept a new term when the newly elected parliament meets on Sunday.
"I will not aspire nor accept - I repeat I will not aspire or accept, the post of President of the Council of State and Commander in Chief," read a letter signed by Castro published quietly overnight online.
The new National Assembly is meeting for first time on Sunday since January elections to pick the governing Council of State, including the presidency Castro holds.
There had been wide speculation about whether he would accept a nomination for reelection to that post or retire.
The 81-year-old's overnight announcement effectively ends his rule of almost 50 years over Cuba, positioning his 76-year-old brother Raul for permanent succession to the presidency.
Castro temporarily ceded his powers to his brother on July 31, 2006, when he announced that he had undergone intestinal surgery.
Since then, the elder Castro has not been seen in public, appearing only sporadically in official photographs and videotapes and publishing dense essays about mostly international themes, as his younger brother has consolidated his rule.
Castro rose to power on New Year's Day 1959 and reshaped Cuba into a communist state 90 miles from US shores.
The fiery guerrilla leader survived assassination attempts, a CIA-backed invasion and a missile crisis that brought the world to the brink of nuclear war. Ten US administrations tried to topple him, most famously in the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961.
His ironclad rule ensured Cuba remained communist long after the break-up of the Soviet Union and the collapse of communism across Eastern Europe.
Monarchs excepted, Fidel Castro was the world's longest ruling head of state.
Raul Castro had long been his brother's designated successor. The long-time defence minister had been in his brother's rebel movements since 1953 and spent decades as second-in-command of Cuba's power structure.
The US, bent on ensuring neither brother is in power, built a detailed plan in 2005 for American assistance to ensure a democratic transition on the island of 11.2 million people after Castro's death.
But Cuban officials insisted there would be no transition, saying the island's socialist political and economic systems would outlive Castro.
Castro's supporters admired his ability to provide a high level of health care and education for citizens while remaining fully independent of the US.
His detractors called him a dictator whose totalitarian government systematically denied individual freedoms and civil liberties such as speech, movement and assembly.
The US was the first country to recognise Castro after his guerrilla movement drove out then-President Fulgencio Batista in 1959. But the two countries soon clashed over Castro's increasingly radical path. Castro seized American property and businesses and invited Soviet aid.
On April 16, 1961, Castro declared his revolution to be socialist. A day later, he defeated the CIA-backed Bay of Pigs invasion.
The US squeezed Cuba's economy and the CIA plotted to kill Castro. Undaunted, the Cuban president supplied troops and support to revolutionaries in Africa and Latin America.
Hostility over Cuba reached its peak on October 22, 1962, when US President John F Kennedy announced there were Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba. After a tense week of diplomacy, Soviet Premier Nikita Krushchev withdrew the weapons.
With the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, Castro eventually made peace with many governments that once shunned him.Pope John Paul II visited the island in January 1998.
The loss of Soviet aid plunged Cuba into financial crisis, but the economy slowly recovered in the late 1990s with a tourism boom.
Fidel Castro Ruz was born in eastern Cuba, where his Spanish immigrant father ran a prosperous plantation. His official birthday is August 13, 1926, although some say he was born a year later.
He attended Roman Catholic schools and the University of Havana, where he received law and social science degrees.
Castro launched his revolutionary battle as a young man, organising an unsuccessful attack on a military barracks.
Later freed under a pardon, Castro went to Mexico and organised a rebel army that returned to Cuba, taking power when Batista was forced to flee.