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African musicology: a bibliographical guide to Nigerian art music (1927-2009).

ABSTRACT

This article provides a brief introduction to the history of art music in Nigeria, a concise discussion of three generations of music composition in Nigeria as well as an extensive bibliography of Nigerian art music comprised of articles, books, and discographic materials. The article is primarily set to present a list of sources on Nigerian art music, showcasing the depth and breadth of scholarly activities on this music. As such, this article is not focused on an overarching historical account of art music in Nigeria; this is outside the scope of this study. The bibliography encapsulates the focus of the extensive bibliographies which represent the scholarly contributions on modern Nigerian art music by various musicologists from Africa, Europe, and the United States. Most of the Nigerian authors are composers, ethnomusicologists, performers, and music educators, whose research is largely based on fieldwork, and their personal experiences in composing and performing this music. The bibliography includes articles, both published and unpublished, books, theses, and discographies, as well as papers presented at international conferences and symposia from 1927 to 2009. The topics cover every area pertinent to the study of art music in Nigeria--piano, organ, chamber, orchestra, vocal solo, choral, percussion, music and culture, music and dance, music and politics, music and text, music education, analytical and compositional techniques, theory, history, criticism, sacred and secular music, interculturalism, and composer biographies. The sound recordings of selected works were done by African, European, and American solo artists and orchestras.

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The musical landscape in Nigeria consists of a plethora of diverse and dynamic styles. Conversely, the various social strata are affixed to specific music genres. The discretion of musical taste in each group is influenced by socioeconomic and political factors. Thus, we have music popular in the circles of the rich, poor, elite, Christians, Muslims, as well as diverse ethnic groups. In the light of these factions, all the musical genres in Nigeria today can be broadly categorized into four major types--traditional music, popular dance music, church music, and art music. For the purpose of clarity, this article is divided into three sections: (1) a brief introduction to the history of art music in Nigeria; (2) a concise discussion of three generations of music composition in Nigeria; and (3) an extensive bibliography of Nigerian art music comprised of articles, books, and discographic materials. The article is primarily set to present a list of sources on Nigerian art music, showcasing the depth and breadth of scholarly activities on this music. As such, this article is not focused on an overarching historical account of art music in Nigeria; this is outside the scope of this study. Such comprehensive studies have been done and can be found in the articles and books listed in the bibliography.

The list below succinctly encapsulates the thrusts of the extensive bibliographies which represent the scholarly contributions on modern Nigerian art music by various musicologists from Africa, Europe, and the United States. Most of the Nigerian authors are composers, ethno-musicologists, performers, and music educators. The research is largely based on fieldwork, and their personal experiences in composing and performing this music. The bibliography documents articles, both published and unpublished, books, theses, and discographies, as well as papers presented at international conferences and symposia from 1927 to 2009. The topics cover every area pertinent to the study of art music in Nigeria--piano, organ, chamber, orchestra, vocal solo, choral, percussion, music and culture, music and dance, music and politics, music and text, music education, analytical and compositional techniques, theory, history, criticism, sacred and secular music, interculturalism, and composer biographies. The sound recordings of selected works were done by African, European, and American solo artists and orchestras.

BRIEF HISTORY

Modern art music in Nigeria is rooted in the emergence of the Christian faith and the established colonial schools dating back to the mid-nineteenth century. (1) It was in these two powerful institutions that potential Nigerian musicians had their formative tutorship and foundation in Western classical music. Historically, talented Nigerian musicians were first introduced to European musical instruments such as piano, organ, violin, flute, guitar, and other orchestra instruments in these two places. They received formal lessons in theory of music and musical instruments at the colonial schools, and from organists and choirmasters in their local churches where they sang as choristers. (2) Some of the talented Nigerians who came from upper-middle-class or affluent families received private lessons in their homes either from their school teachers, church organists, or British colonial administrators who had some training in Western classical music.

European classical music was also filtered into the Nigerian culture through the music curricula of institutions of higher learning such as departments of music in universities, colleges of education, and polytechnics (community colleges). In these institutions, Nigerian students were exposed to various aspects of Western classical music--history, theory, and performance on foreign instruments. (3) Concert activities in the "restricted" arenas were comprised mostly of repertoire by Western classical composers, such as Bach, Handel, Buxtehude, Vivaldi, Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, and Britten. (4) From the 1970s, concert programs began to incorporate works by modern Nigerian composers to the delight of the local audiences.

Other agents that facilitated the dissemination of Western classical music in Nigeria were the elite groups, military bands, as well as economic and political factors. The modern Nigerian elite and the military bands organized various types of classical concerts featuring both vocal and instrumental works at designated venues such as public auditoriums, churches, university and college campuses, garden parties, and at the homes of patrons. (5) The economic and political factors document the influx of foreign musical instruments into Nigeria through trade with the British Empire. Indeed, the economic policies of the colonial administration encouraged the sales of British goods, including musical instruments, to Nigerians. (6) Since this style of music emanated from the Christian church, the performers and composers were predominantly Christians.

The activities of elitist organizations such as the Musical Society of Nigeria (MUSON), the Steve Rhodes Voices, Lazarus Ekwueme Chorale, Music Circle, Terra Chorale, and the Ile-Ife Choral Society, have contributed immensely to the development and nurturing of art music in Nigeria. Since their inception, these groups have organized regular concerts of both Western and African art music in various parts of the country, particularly in Lagos, Ibadan, and Abuja. Consequently, the patrons and audiences of art music in Nigeria have been comprised of selected segments of the Nigerian populace--affluent, upper-middle-class, well-educated, students, expatriates, business tycoons, members of the diplomatic corps, intellectuals, as well as university and college professors. (7)

Another positive force toward the dissemination of art music in Nigeria is the recordings that are played on state and national radio stations. The program has been a weekly production for short periods over the years, and the broadcasts are usually aired at off-peak hours between 9:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. Short biographies of the composers and brief analysis of their music precedes the playing of the music in order to serve as background information for the listeners. (8) Notable Nigerian music broadcast commentators are Fela Sowande, Christopher Oyesiku, Samuel Akpabot, Ayo Bankole, Akin Euba, Kehinde Okusanya, Kayode Oni, Banke Ademola, Regina Anajemba, and joy Nwosu Lo-Bamijoko. In addition to the efforts of Nigerian composers through broadcasting, modern African composers and scholars began to record and document indigenous art music on long playing records, compact discs, and videotapes beginning in the late twentieth century. Few recordings have been made in Nigeria; most of the recordings are presently done in Europe and the United States. Three prominent organizations responsible for these efforts are Iwalewa-Haus, Afrikazentrum der Universitat Bayreuth, Germany; (9) the Center for Intercultural Music Arts (CIMA), University of London, England; (10) and the Center for Black Music Research (CBMR), Columbia College Chicago. (11)

THREE GENERATIONS OF COMPOSERS

In the course of in-depth research on Nigerian art music spanning over twenty years, the author has been able to identify and codify music composition in Nigeria into three basic generations: (1) file golden age of church music; (2) the age of concert music; and (3) the age of atonality. The periodization is based on the style of music that these musicians wrote in the epochs, rather than using chronological dates of birth to delineate the eras. By using style for the categorization of the music periods, progressive development of the works from the simplest entities to the most complex forms is vividly illuminated.

Golden Age of Church Music

The fledgling "Nigerian composition school" came into being around 1902. (12) As would be expected, the first generation of Nigerian composers (1900-50) was comprised mainly of church organists and choirmasters. They concentrated on writing exclusively sacred music for worship in the newly-founded churches. Their compositions include church hymns, canticles (responsorial prayer songs for soloist and congregation), chants for singing Psalms, choral anthems, and cantatas. Therefore, their works represent the first attempts by indigenous Nigerian composers in writing Western classical music. Most of the music is simple, short, and tonal. There is a strong imprint of Western classical music in the works of the first generation of Nigerian composers. The music was written for Western musical instruments such as piano, harmonium or organ, while the form, harmony, and style are clearly European. Examples of works in this category are Thomas Ekundayo Phillips's Emi Orun Gbadura Wa (Heavenly Spirit Hear Our Prayer), Versicles and Responses, Venite, Nunc Dimitis, Te Deum, Magnificat in C, Emi O Gbe Oju Mi s'Oke (I Will Lift My Eyes to the Hills), for SATB and organ; Three Offertory Sentences, for unison voices and organ; Ninu Agbala Olorun Wa (In the Courts of Our God), for unison voices and organ; Choral Suite, for SATB and piano or organ, he Oluwa (The Work of the Lord), for SATB and piano or organ, From Glory to Glory, for SATB and organ; and Samuel: Judge, Priest, and. Prophet, a cantata for soloists, chorus, and organ.

Nigerian traditional musical instruments were not incorporated into these compositions during this era because they were prohibited in worship by the pioneer foreign missionaries. (13) In other words, the only instruments that early Nigerian composers could write for were European. Ironically, in spite of the embargo on traditional instruments, it was in this period that we began to witness musical synthesis of European and African idioms. The experimental process of conjoining Western elements with traditional Nigerian music actually began in the early church. This took the form of employing indigenous languages as texts of songs, and the use of indigenous songs as melodic themes in the compositions. (14) Notable composers from the first generation include Rev. Canon J. J. Ransome-Kuti, Rev. T. A. Olude, Ayo Bankole's father T. A. Bankole (1900-1978), Dayo Dedeke, Akin George, Ikoli Harcourt-Whyte (1905-1977), Fela Sowande's father Emmanuel Sowande, Robert Coker, (15) and Thomas King Ekundayo Phillips (1884-1969). (l6)

Age of Concert Music

The second era of music composition in Nigeria took place between 1950 and 1960. The period was represented by Nigeria's most celebrated musician, Fela Sowande (1905-1987), who wrote most of his mature-works during this era. Sowande continued to compose sacred music for divine services in the church, but he also introduced secular works for performances in public concerts, institutions of higher learning, and radio stations. To the Nigerian art music repertoire, he introduced solo art songs with piano or organ accompaniment, concert organ pieces, chamber music, and orchestra works. Although Thomas Ekundayo Phillips claims to have written three short pieces for organ solo, his organ pieces were improvisations on indigenous themes, and thus there are no scores or music notation for them. It was Sowande who composed several large works for organ employing traditional folk songs and indigenous church hymn tunes. No other Nigerian composer has written such a large body of solo pieces for organ as Sowande. Examples of Sowande's famous organ pieces are K'a Mura, Obangiji, Kyrie, Jesu Olugbala, Go Down Moses, Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho, Prayer, and Sacred Idioms of the Negro.

Prior to this era, musical activities were often confined to the church during festive occasions such as Christmas and Easter seasons. With the introduction of secular works, the venue of musical activities shifted from the church to public auditoriums where secular compositions could be performed without restrictions. In terms of tonality, Sowande introduced chromaticism into the musical lexicon of Nigerian compositions. He refused to align himself with the "atonal school" of composers that was in vogue in Europe and America at the time. He rather chose to move his Nigerian audience gradually from the tonal convention of the baroque and classical eras towards romantic chromaticism. Chromatic passages are more prevalent in his organ works, such as Via Dolorosa and Bury Me Eas' or Wes (from Sacred Idioms of the Negro). Sowande left the idea of a tonality to the next generation of Nigerian composers.

The second generation of Nigerian musical expression also ushered in a new patois of musical integration known as pan-Africanism. Sowande, unlike his predecessors, went beyond employing Nigerian songs in his works; rather, he assimilated popular tunes from other African countries into his compositions. In this process of acculturation, one would hear indigenous songs from Nigeria and other African societies in his music. For instance, he employs Ghanaian tunes in his African Suite, for string orchestra. In addition, the Sowande era introduced the concept of global interculturalism into Nigerian musical language. We must give credit to Fela Sowande for being the first Nigerian composer to go so far as to borrow spiritual tunes from the African American culture. He uses spirituals in his solo art songs, choral works, as well as organ pieces. Spiritual themes are incorporated into his Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho for organ, Go Down Moses for organ, Wheel, Oh Wheel, for unaccompanied chorus, and Roll De O[tau] Chariot for SATBB and piano.

Age of Atonality

The third generation of modern Nigerian composers began in the 1960s. This group consists of highly talented musicians who studied at the royal schools of music in London and at American universities. They were musicologists as well as composers. They received intensive training in European traditions in England, as well as training in ethnomusicology in America. Thus, it would be right to characterize these musicians as composer-ethnomusicologists. From the 1960s, Nigerian-trained composers embarked on intensive research into the traditional music of their society to construe its component materials, structure, stylistic principles, tonality, function and meaning in the society, the instrumental resources, organization of ensembles, rhythmic basis of instrumental music, organization and techniques of vocal music, melody, and polyphony in vocal as well as instrumental ensemble, speech and melody, theoretical principles, and interrelatedness of music and dance. The focal point has been cultural renaissance and the search for nationalistic identity, that is, how to make the music sound more Nigerian. In addition to their contributions to Nigerian art music literature, they are the authors of most of the articles and books listed in the bibliographies below.

It is also from this period that we witness for the first time compositions involving traditional African and Western musical instruments. Prior to this era, the music utilized only Western instruments. African instruments were not included in the scores of the pioneer composers, but rather were used for supportive purposes and to create spontaneous improvised rhythmic background for vocal songs in live performances. Therefore, rhythms of traditional musical instruments were not notated, but were confined to oral conventions. Such instrumental rhythmic patterns were not notated until the era of the composer-ethnomusicologists. (17) Invariably, the third generation composers intend to make the music more appealing to their local audiences. In other words, the indigenous elements in the music are meant to captivate and endear the larger society to the works. Compositions utilizing Nigerian traditional and Western musical instruments include Samuel Akpabot's Ofala Festival, a tone poem for wind orchestra and five African instruments; and Nigeria in Conflict, a tone poem for wind orchestra and eight African instruments; Akin Euba's Chaka, for soloists, chorus, Yoruba chanter, and a mixed ensemble of African and Western instruments; Bethlehem, an African opera for soloists, chorus, dancers, rock ensemble, and African instruments; Igi Nla So, for piano and four Yoruba drums; Joshua Uzoigwe's Masquerade I and II, for iyaalu and piano; and his Ritual Procession, for African and European orchestra.

In terms of tonal organization, this group of Nigerian composers was tutored in the Western theoretical principles of the early twentieth century such as the twelve-tone-row method, atonality, dodecaphony, dissonance, pandiatonicism, serialism, octatonic scales, and so forth. Suffice it to say that pioneers of atonal compositions in Nigeria employ the various tonal schemes in two ways. First, some of the compositions are strictly written in Western idiom following the styles of Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Anton Webern, Olivier Messiaen, and Igor Stravinsky. Works in this category are practically European in conception without any interjection of African traits. The form, texture, instrumentation, rhythmic organization, and tonality are exclusively Western oriented. Compositions in this category include Ayo Bankole's Piano Sonata No. 2 in C ("The Passion"), and Three Toccatas for organ. The second category of twentieth-century atonal compositions in Nigeria incorporated some indigenous elements. These compositions are partly Western and partly African. As such, they are best described as syncretic or intercultural compositions--the amalgamation of Nigerian music resources with other world cultures. (18) Examples of works in this category using diverse tonal schemes include Ayo Bankole's Three Yoruba Songs for baritone and piano; Joshua Uzoigwe's Oja a for wind quartet; Akin Euba's Scenes from Traditional Life for piano, Impressions from an Akwete Cloth for piano, and Saturday Night at Cuban Bamboo for piano; Samuel Akpabot's Verba Christi, cantata for chorus, orchestra, and soloists; and Godwin Sadoh's Five African Dances for organ, Three Dances for piano, Three Sketches on Atonality for piano, Three Pieces for flute, Illusion for violin and piano, and his Potpouri for trombone, flute, oboe, clarinet, and string quartet. Prominent composers of atonal music in Nigeria are Samuel Akpabot (1932-2000), Ayo Bankole (1935-1976), Akin Euba (b. 1935), Joshua Uzoigwe (1946-2005), and Godwin Sadoh (b. 1965). (19)

CONCLUSION

According to Kofi Agawu, the emergence of art music in Nigeria is the African response to the Western classical music imposed during the missionary era and colonization that lasted almost a century. (20) As it turns out to be, this experience initiated the genesis of modern intercultural musical practice between the continent of Africa and other foreign cultures. In this way, art music in Nigeria provides a platform and forum for native composers to experiment with the combination of indigenous musical resources with foreign idioms. Second, the introduction of Western classical music to Nigeria created a newfound social arena in the form of the concert hall for musical performance that encourages a contemplative, unflappable, and "passive" experience from its audience. Rather than the traditional participatory experience of singing, dancing, hand clapping, or even playing some of the simple musical instruments during performance, the audience could only smile and applaud at the end of musical selections. Certainly, this style of music making expands the cultural landscape as well as the process of performance-creativity in twenty-first-century Nigerian society.

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NIGERIAN ART MUSIC

Articles

Adeniyi, Dapo. "A Concert of Praise in Ile-Ife, Nigeria." Daily Times of Nigeria, 9 May 1992.

Agawu, Victor Kofi. "Analytical Issues Raised by Contemporary Art Music." In Intercultural Music III: Third Biennial International Symposium and Festival, London, 1994, edited by Akin Euba and Cynthia Tse Kimberlin, 135-47. Richmond, CA.: Music Research Institute Press, 2001.

Akpabot, Samuel. "The Conflict Between Foreign and Traditional Culture in Nigeria." in Reflect ions on Afro-American Music, edited by Dominique-Rene De Lerma, 124-30. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1973.

--."Nigerian Traditional and Popular Music: Problems of Growth and Development." In Nigeria Since Independence: The first Twenty-Five. Years: Culture, edited by Peter Ekeh and Garba Ashiwaju, 88-106. Ibadan, Nigeria: Heinemann Educational Books, 1989.

Alaja-Browne, Afolabi. "A History of Intercultural Art Music in Nigeria." In Intercultural Music I, edited by Akin Euba and Cynthia Tse Kimberlin, 79-86. Bayreuth African Studies, 29. Bayreuth, Ger.: Breitinger, 1995.

Avorgbedor, Daniel. "Uzoigwe, Joshua." In Grove Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/public/ (accessed 18 November 2009).

Baker, David. "Godwin Sadoh: Three Books." The Organ 80, no. 343 (March 2008): 53. Review of Sadoh's The Organ Works of Fela Sowande: Cultural Perspectives, Intercultural Dimensions in Ayo Bankole's Music, and Joshua Uzoigwe: Memoirs of a Nigerian Composer-Ethnomusicologist.

Baldacchino, John. "From African Pianism to a New Commonwealth of Interculturalism." Commonwealth Music 1, no. 2 (1996): 2-5. Review of Modern African Music, by Akin Euba: and Akin Euba: An Introduction to the Life, and Music of a Nigerian Composer, by Joshua Uzoigwe.

Balogun, Sola. "Colors and Thrills at Children's Choral." Lagos Life, 16 September 1992.

--. "Ife Choral Society At it Again." Guardian Express, 6 January 1993.

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Brooks, Christopher A. "Fela Sowande." In International Dictionary of Black Composers, edited by Samuel A. Floyd Jr., 1052-56, Chicago; London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999.

Dixon, P. A. F. "Joshua Uzoigwe." In Contemporary Composers, edited by Brian Morton and Pamela Collins, 937-38. Chicago: St. James Press, 1992.

Echezona, William W. C. "Compositional Techniques of Nigerian Traditional Music." Composer l9 (1966): 41-49.

Ekwueme, Lazarus. "African Music in Christian Liturgy: The Igbo Experiment." African Music: Journal of the African Music Society 5, no. 3 (1.973-74): 12-33.

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--. "Linguistic Determinants of Some Igbo Musical Properties." journal of African Studies 1, no. 3 (Fall 1974): 335-53.

--. "Structural Levels of Rhythm and Form in African Music, with Particular Reference to the West Coast." African Music: journal of the African Music Society 5, no. 4 (1976): 27-35.

--. "Analysis and Analytic Techniques in African Music: A Theory of Melodic Scales." African Music: Journal of the international Library of African Music 6, no. 1 (1980): 89-106.

Euba, Akin, "Multiple Pitch Lines in Yoruba Choral Music." journal of the Inter national Folk Music Council 19 (1967): 66-71.

--. "In Search of a Common Language of African Music." Interlink: 'The Nigerian-American Quarterly Magazine 3, no. 3 (1967).

--. "Traditional Elements as the Basis of New African Art Music." African Urban Studies 5, no. 4 (Winter 1970): 52-63.

--. "The Potential of African Traditional Music as a Contemplative Art." Black Orpheus 3, no. 1 (1974).

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--. "Yoruba Music in the Church: The Development of Neo-African Art among the Yoruba. of Nigeria." In African Musicology: Current Trends: A Festschrift Presented to J. H. Kwabena Nkelia. 2 vols., edited by Jacqueline Cogdell DjeDje, 2:45-63. Los Angeles: University of California African Studies Center; Atlanta, GA: Crossroads Press, 1989-92.

--. "Neo-African Art Music and Jazz: Related Paths." international jazz Archives journal 1, no. 1 (Fall 1993): 3-14.

--. "African Traditional Musical Instruments in Neo-African Idioms and Contexts." In Turn Up the Volume!: A Celebration of African, Music, edited by Jacqueline Cogdell DjeDje, 68-77, 338-39. Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 1999.

--. "The African Composer in Europe: The Challenge of Interculturalism." Journal of the Indian Musicological Society 27 (1996): 59-71. Reprint in Music, Intercultural Aspects: A Collection of Essays, edited by S. A. K. Durga. Mumbai: Indian Musicological Society, 1999.

--. "Text Setting in African Composition." Research in African Literatures 32, no. 2 (Summer 2001): 119-32.

--. "Theory, Scholarship, Myth and Mysticism: Sources of My Creativity." Paper presented at the 7th Biennial International Symposium and Festival of the Center for Intercultural Music Arts, Churchill College, University of Cambridge, 2002.

--. "Concepts of Neo-African Music as Manifested in the Yoruba Folk Opera." In The African Diaspora: A Musical Perspective, edited by Ingrid Monson, 207-41. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, 1995. New York: Garland, 2000; London: Routledge, 2003.

--. "African Drums in Symphony Hail: Village Signals in Intercontinental Encounters." Tri Quarterly 116 (2003): 323.

--. "Intercultural Music in Africa and Latin America: A Comparative View of Fela Sowande and Carlos Chavez." In Musical Cultures of Latin America: Global Effects, Past and Present, edited by Steven Loza, 309-20. Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology, 11. Los Angeles: University of California, Department of Ethnomusicology and Systematic Musicology, 2003.

--. "Post-Diasporic Homecomings: Myth or Possibility?" Paper presented at the 2d Biennial International Symposium and Festival on the theme Composition in Africa and the Diaspora, Churchill College, University of Cambridge, 2003.

--. "Orunmila's Voices: Yoruba Ritual Arts in Modern Composition: A Process of Secularization." Paper presented at an International Symposium on the Music of Africa, Princeton University, 2003.

--. "Neo-African Church Music: Continuity and Change in African Traditional Music in the Twentieth Century." Keynote address at a Symposium on African Music in the Church, Azusa Pacific University, 2004.

--. "Modern Music and the African Aesthetic." Paper presented at the 8th Biennial International Symposium and Festival of the Center for Intercultural Music Arts, Institute of Education, University of London, 2004.

--. "Remembering Joshua Uzoigwe: Exponent of African Pianism (1946-2005)." Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa 2 (2005): 84-88.

--. Editorial notes to Intercultural Musicology: Bulletin of the Centre for Intercultural Music Arts, London, UK 1, nos. 1-2. Point Richmond, CA: Music Research Institute Press, 2005.

Flinchbaugh, Brent. "Jesu Oba: King Jesus." International Trumpet Guild Journal 32, no. 3 (March 2008). Review of Jesu Oba for trumpet and organ, by Godwin Sadoh.

Hawn, Michael. "E Korin S'Oluwa: Fifty Indigenous Christian Hymns from Nigeria." The Hymn 57, no. 3 (Summer 2006): 56-57. Review of E Korin S'Oluwa: Fifty Indigenous Christian Hymns from Nigeria, by Godwin Sadoh.

Henahan, Donal. "Why Do They Want to Get Away From Their Roots?" New York Times, 8 October 1967.

Henry, Derrick. "ASO Performs Invigorating Program Featuring Works by Black Composers." Atlanta Constitution, 2 August 1988.

Holoham, Meghan. "Musical Safari." Pitt Magazine (Winter 2004): 30-33.

Irele, Abiola. "Is African Music Possible?" ransition 61 (1993): 56-71.

Kwami, Roberts. "Music Education in Ghana and Nigeria: A Brief Survey." Africa: Journal of the Internationals African Institute 64, no. 4 (1994): 544-60.

Lo-Bamijoko, Joy Nwosu. "Art Singing in Nigeria: The Composers and the Performers." In African Art Music in Nigeria, edited by Mosunmola Omibiyi-Obidike, 70-76. Ibadan, Nigeria: Stirling Horden, 2001.

--. "New Hymn Book." The Diapason 97, no. 7 (July 2006): 19. Review of E Korin S'Oluwa: Fifty Indigenous Christian Hymns from Nigeria, by Godwin Sadoh.

--."Godwin Sadoh's Choral Works." The Diapason 98, no. 1 (January 2007): 16-1 7. Review of six choral works by Godwin Sadoh.

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Musa, Isaac. "Akin Euba." In Contemporary Composers, edited by Brian Morton and Pamela Collins, 274-75. Chicago: St. James Press, 1992.

Nzewi, Meki. "Social-Dramatic Implications of Performance-Composition in Igbo Music." In International Musicological Society: Report of the Twelfth Congress, Berkeley, 1977, edited by Daniel Heartz and Bonnie Wade, 391-92. Kassel: Barenreiter, 1981.

"Olufela Sowande, 81, Retired Professor at KSU." The Beacon Journal, 15 March 1987. Obituary.

"Olufela Sowande: 1906-1987." Inside, 6 April 1987. Obituary.

"Olufela Sowande, Taught of Roots." Plain Dealer, 25 March 1987. Obituary.

Omibiyi-Obidike, Mosunmola. "The Process of Education and the Search for Identity in Contemporary African Music." In African Musicology: Current Trends: A Festschrift Presented to J. H. Kwabena Nketia. 2 vols., edited by Jacqueline Cogdell DjeDje, 2:27-44. Los Angeles: University of California African Studies Center; Atlanta, GA: Crossroads Press, 1992.

--. "Issues in the Study of Contemporary African Art Music in Nigeria." Paper presented at the International Conference on African Music and Dance, Bellagio, Italy, 1992.

Price, Anne. "Pursuing Music and Ministry." The. Advocate (Baton Rouge, LA), 2 March 2003.

Proehl, Paul. "1971 Prize Winners." African Arts. 5, no. 2 (Winter 1972): 8. Rayner, Roger. "Nigerian Organ Symphony." The Organ 87, no. 345 (August 2008): 51. Review of Nigerian Organ Symphony, by Godwin Sadoh.

--. "Five African Dances." The Organ 87, no. 344 (May 2008): 47. Review of Five African Dances for organ solo, by Godwin Sadoh.

Sadoh, Godwin. "Music at the Anglican Youth Fellowship, Ile-Ife, Nigeria: An Intercultural Experience." The Hymn 52, no. 1 (January 2001): 16-20.

--. "A Centennial Epitome of the Organs at the Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos, Nigeria." The Organ 80, no. 320 (May 2002): 27-30.

--. "The Creative Process in Nigerian Hymn-Based Compositions." The, Diapason 93, no. 8 (August 2002): 15-17.

--. "A Profile of Nigerian Organist-Composers." The Organ 82, no. 323 (February-March 2003): 18-23.

--. "Creativity and Dance in Joshua Uzoigwe's Music." Composer-USA 9, no. 2 (Spring 2003):4-5.

--. "A Profile of Nigerian Organist-Composers." The Diapason 94, no. 8 (August 2003): 20-23.

--. "Intercultural Creativity in Joshua Uzoigwe's Music." Africa: journal of the International African Institute 74, no. 4 (December 2004): 633-61.

--. "The Creative Experience of a Contemporary Nigerian Composer." Living Music Journal 20, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 6-9.

--. "Fela Sowande: The Legacy of a Nigerian Music Legend." The Diapason 96, no. 12 (December 2005): 22-23.

--. "Understanding Akin Euba's Wakar Duru: Studies in African Pianism Nos. I-III." Living Music Journal 21, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 19-23.

--. "Hybrid Composition: An Introduction to the Age of Atonality in Nigeria." The Diapason 97, no. 11 (November 2006): 22-25.

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--. "Twentieth-Century Nigerian Composers." Choral Journal 47, no. 10 (April 2007): 32-39.

--. "Samuel Akpabot: Profile of a Nigerian Modern Composer." Living Music Journal 22, no. 1 (March 2008): 9-14.

--. "Thomas Ekundayo Phillips: Pioneer in Nigerian Church Hymn Composition." The Diapason 99, no. 3 (March 2008): 29-33.

--. "Celebrating the Cathedral Church of Christ Choir, Lagos, Nigeria, at Ninety." The Diapason 99, no. 9 (September 2008): 25-29.

--. "The Emergence of Percussion in Nigerian Art Music." Percussive Notes 46, no. 6 (December 2008): 52-61.

--. "Understanding the Orchestra Works of Samuel Akpabot: A Nigerian Composer-Ethnomusicologist." Accepted July 2009 for the Musical Times.

--. "Modern Nigerian Music: The Post-Colonial Experience." Musical Times 150, no. 1908 (Autumn 2009): 79-81.

--. "Classical Music Personalities." http://musicinnigeria.blogspot.com/ (accessed 18 November 2009).

--. "Nigerian Art Music Composers" (January 2007). NTAMA Journal of African Music and Popular Culture. http://www.uni-hildesheim.de/ntama/ (accessed 18 November 2009).

--. "Joy Nwosu Lo-Bamijoko: A Nigerian Music Icon and Trail Blazer" (January 2007). NTAMA Journal of African Music and Popular Culture, hup://www.uni-hildesheim.de/ntama/(accessed 18 November 2009).

Sherley, Eric. "Concert Choir Brings Christmas from Around the World." LeMoyne-Owen College Observer, December 2006.

Sowande, Fela. "Nigerian Music and Musicians: Then and Now." Composer 19 (Spring 1966): 25-34.

--. "The African Musician in Nigeria." The World of Music 9, no. 3 (1967): 27-36.

Southern, Eileen. "Conversation with Fela Sowande: High Priest of Music." Black Perspective in Music 4, no. 1 (1976): 90-104.

--. "Fela Sowande Obituary.'" Black Perspective in Music if; no. 2 (Fall 1987): 227-28.

Steve, Ayorinde. "Pioneer in Public Solo Recital." Cuardian, 15 May 1.993.

Terry, Mickey Thomas. "The. Organ Works of Fela. Sowande: Cultural Perspectives, and Intercultural Dimensions in Ayo Bankole's Music." The Diapason 100, no. 9 (September 2009): 17-18. Review of two books by Godwin Sadoh.

Thompson, Marilyn. "Nigerian Ethnomusicologist-Organist-Composer Godwin Sadoh Authors Three Books on Important Nigerian Composers." Reverberations 5, Issue 2 (December 2007): 3-4. Review of The Organ Works of Fela Sowande: Cultural perspectives, Intercultural Dimensions in Ayo Bankole's Music. and Joshua Uzoigwe: Memoirs of a Nigerian Composer-Ethnomusicologist, all by Godwin Sadoh.

Uzoigwe, Joshua, and Gary Weltz. "Three Songs." African Arts 7, no. 3 (Spring 1974): 53-55.

Uzoigwe, Joshua. "Contemporary Techniques of Compositions by African Composers". A Preliminary Investigation." International Folk Music Newsletter (1978).

--. "A Cultural Analysis of Akin Euba's Musical Works." Odu: Journal of West African Studies 24 (1983): 44-60.

--. "Nigerian Composers and Their Works." Daily Times (Lagos), 25 August 1990.

--. "Nigerian Composers and Their Works." Daily Times (Lagos), 1 September 1990."

--. "African Pianism: The Problem of Tonality and Atonality." In Towards an African Pianism: Keyboard Music of Africa and the Diaspora. 2 vols., edited by Akin Euba and Cynthia Tse Kimberlin, 1:103-11. Point Richmond, CA: Music Research Institute Press, 2005.

Westbrook, Vine B. "Church and Organ Music: Nigerian Folk Music." Musical Times 68, no. 1018 (December 1927): 1104-15.

Books

Aehinivu, Kanu. Ikoli Harcourt Whyte, the Man and His Music: A Case Study of Musical Acculturation in Nigeria. Beitrage zur Ethnomusikologie, 7. Hamburg: Verlag der Musikalienhandlung Wagner, 1979.

Agawu, Victor Kofi. Representing African Music:Postcolonial Notes, Queries, Positions. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Alaja-Browne, Afolabi. "Ayo Bankole: His Life and Work." M.A. thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 1981.

Ayandele, E. A. The Missionary Impact on Modern Nigeria, 1842-1914: A Political and Social Analysis. London: Longmans, 1966; New York: Humanities Press, 1967.

Baker, David, Lida Belt Baker, and Herman C. Hudson, eds. The Black Composer Speaks. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1977.

De Lerma, Dominique-Rene. Reflections on Afro-American Music. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1973.

--. Bibliography of Black Music. Greenwood Encyclopedia of Black Music. Vol. 3, Geographical Studies, foreword by Samuel A. Floyd Jr. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1982.

Echeruo, Michael J. C. Victorian Lagos: Aspects of Nineteenth Century Lagos Life. London: Macmillan Education Limited, 1977.

Ekwueme, Lazarus. "Igbo Choral Music: Its Theory and Practice." Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1972.

--. Choir Training and Choral Conducting for Africans. Lagos, Nigeria: Lenaus Advertizing Publishing Limited, 1993.

Euba, Akin. Essays on Music in Africa 1. Bayreuth, Ger.: Iwalewa-Haus, 1988.

--. Essays on Music in Africa 2: Intercultural Perspectives. Bayreuth African Studies Series, 16. Lagos, Nigeria: Elekoto Music Centre; Bayreuth, Ger.: Iwalewa-Haus, 1989.

--. Modern African Music: A Catalogue of Selected Archival Materials at Iwalewa-Haus, University of Bayreuth. Bayreuth, Ger.: Iwalewa-Haus, 1993.

Euba, Akin, and Cynthia Tse Kimberlin. eds. Intercultural. Music I: First International Symposium and Festival on Intercullural Music, London, England, 1990. Bayreuth African Studies Series, 29. Bayreuth, Ger.: Breitinger, 1995.

--. Towards an African Pianism: Keyboard Music of Africa and the Diaspora. 2 vols. Point Richmond, CA: Music Research Institute Press, 2005.

Gray, John. African Music: A Bibliographical Guide to the Traditional, Popular, Art, and Liturgical Musics of Sub-Saharan Africa. African Special Bibliographic Series, 14. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1991.

Hildreth, John Wesley. "Keyboard Works of Selected Black Composers." 2 vols. Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1978.

Isichei, Elizabeth, ed. Varieties of Christian Experience, in Nigeria. London: Macmillan, 1982.

Jeyifo, Biodun. The Truthful Lie: Essays in a Sociology of African Drama. London: New Beacons, 1985.

Kwami, Robert. "African Music, Education, and the School Curriculum." 2 vols. Ph.D. diss., University of London Institute of Education, 1989.

Laidman, Janet Loretta. "The Use of Black Spirituals in the Organ Music of Contemporary Black Composers as Illustrated in the Works of Three Composers." Ed.D. diss., Columbia University Teachers College, 1989.

Morton, Brian, and Pamela Collins, eds. Contemporary Composers. Chicago: Saint James Press, 1992.

Munday, Myron C. "A Selected Bibliography of Solo Organ Works by Black Composers." D.M. diss., Florida State University, 1992.

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2d ed. London: Macmillan, 2001.

Nyaho, William Chapman, ed. Piano Music of Africa and the African Diaspora: The Complete Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Nzewi, Meki. Ese Music: Notation and Modern Concert Presentation. Bayreuth, Ger.: Iwalewa-Haus, 1990.

--. Musical Practice and Creativity: An African Traditional Perspective. Bayreuth, Ger.: Iwalewa-Haus, 1991.

--. African Music: Theoretical Content and Creative Continuum: The Culture-Exponent's Definitions. Olderhausen, Ger.: Institut fur Popularer Musik, 1997.

Ogunnaike, Anna. "Contemporary Nigerian Art Music: The Works of Bankole, Euba, and Ekwueme." M.A. thesis, University of Lagos, 1986.

Omibiyi-Obidike, Mosunmola, ed. African Art Music in Nigeria: Fela Sowande Memorial Lecture and Seminar. Ibadan, Nigeria: Stirling-Horden, 2001.

Peel, John David. Religious Encounter and the Making of the Yoruba. African Systems of Thought. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000.

Peil, Margaret. Lagos: The City is the People. Boston: G. K. Hall; London: Belhaven Press, 1991.

Phillips, Ekundayo. Yoruba Music (African): Fusion of Speech and Music. Johannes-burg: African Music Society, 1953.

Sadoh, Godwin. "The Organ Works of Fela Sowande: A Nigerian Organist-Composer." D.M.A. diss., Louisiana State University, 2004.

--. The Organ Works of Fela Sowande: Cultural Perspectives. New York: iUniverse, 2007.

--. Intercultural Dimensions in Ayo Bankole's Music. New York: iUniverse, 2007.

--. Joshua Uzoigwe: Memoirs of a Nigerian Composer-Ethnomusicologist. Charleston, SC: BookSurge, 2007.

--. Samuel Akpabot: The Odyssey of a Nigerian Composer-Ethnomusicologist. New York: iUniverse, 2008.

--. Thomas Ekundayo Phillips: The Doyen of Nigerian Church Music. New York: iUniverse, 2009.

Southern, Eileen. Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1982.

Uzoigwe, Joshua. Akin Euba: An Introduction to the Life and Music of a Nigerian Composer. Bayreuth African Studies Series, 25. Bayreuth, Ger.: Breitinger, 1992.

Discography

Akpabot, Samuel. Three Nigerian Dances. South African Broadcasting Corporation National Symphony Orchestra/Richard Cock. Marco Polo 8.223832 (1995), CD. Collection title: African Songs.

Bankole, Ayo. Toccata III. Eugene Hancock. American Guild of Organists 0-51 (1992), audio cassette. Collection title: Organ Music by Black Composers.

Euba, Akin. Selections from. Bethlehem: A Gospel Opera. Akin Euba, University of Pittsburgh Department of Music (2004), CD. Contents: Annunciation; Mary's song; The birth of Christ; The Virgin Mary has a baby boy; The shepherds; Adoration of the Magi; Abi Jesu eyo = Jesus is born.

--. Wakar Duru: Studies in African Pianism, Nos. 1-3; Scenes from Traditional Life. Peter Schmalfuss. Elekoto Music Center (Lagos, Nigeria) EMC LP 001 (1989), LP.

--. Chaka: Opera en Two Chants. City of Birmingham Touring Opera/Simon Halsey. Music Research Institute MRI CD 0001, OWR-0336-2 (1999), CD.

Phillips, Thomas Ekundayo. Ninu Agbala Olorun Wa; Ise Oluwa. Kole Baje; From Glory to Glory Advancing. Cathedral Church of Christ Choir, Lagos/Tolu Obajimi. Lagos, n.p. (2006), CD.

Sadoh, Godwin. Nigerian Suite No. 1. Paul Fejko. Serge Tani STCD01 (2004), CD. Collection title: Paul Fejko Plays the Peter Wood & Son, Organ.

--. Nigerian Wedding Dance for Piano Solo. Jeffrey Grossman. Cambridge, MA, n.p. (2006), CD. Collection title: There and Back.

Sowande, Fela. Obangiji for Organ. David Hurd. Minnesota Public Radio MPR CD-1003 (2000), CD. Collection title: Pipedreams Premieres: A Collection of Music for the King of Instruments, vol. 2.

--. Jubilate for Organ. Eugene W. Hancock. American Guild of Organists 0-51 (1992), audio cassette.

--. Prayer fir Organ. James Kibbie. Organ Historical Society OHS-95 (1995), CD.

--. Onipe (from African Suite for String Orchestra). Morton Gould and His Orchestra/Morton Gould. RCA Victor 09026-68479-2 (1996), CD. Collection title: Moon, Wind and Stars.

--. Nigerian Prayer for Organ. James Kibbie. Organ Historical Society OHS-95 (1998), CD. Collection title: Historic Organs of Michigan.

--. African Suite for String Orchestra [Selections]. Chicago Sinfonietta/Paul Freeman. Cedille CDR 90000 055 (2000), CD. Contents: "Joyful day" (mvt. 1); "Nostalgia" (mvt. 2): "Akinla" (mvt. 5). Collection lisle: African Heritage Symphonic Series, vol. 1.

--. African Suite for String Orchestra. CBC Vancouver Orchestra/Mario Bernardi. CBC Records SMCD 5135 (1994), CD. Also includes works by Darius Milhaud, Paule Maurice, Malcolm Forsyth.

--. Yoruba Lament for Organ. Lucius Weathersby. Albany TROY440 (2001), CD. Collection title: Spiritual Fantasy.

--. Go Down Moses for Organ. Nancy Cooper. Pro Organo CD 7139 (2001), CD. Collection title: The Road Less Traveled.

--. Obangiji for Organ. David Hurd. Minnesota Public Radio CD-1003 (2000), CD. Collection title: Pipedreams Premieres: A Collection, of Music for the King of Instruments, vol. 2.

--. K'a Mara for Organ. Michael Stewart. New Zealand, n.p., CD.

--. Nostalgia (from African Suite for String Orchestra). Chicago Sinfonietta/Paul Freeman. Cedille CDR 8001 (2005), CD. Collection title: Serenely Cedille: Relaxing Rarities from Chicago 's Classical Label.

Towards an African Pianism: An Anthology of Keyboard Music from Africa and, the Diaspora, Daryl Hollister, Glen Inanga. University of Pittsburgh Department of Music ABA 0001-0002 (2005), 2 CDs. Recorded anthology for the book Towards an African Pianism (see bibliography of books). Contents: disc 1. Dagarti work song; Buisa work song; Dagomba; Libation; Volta fantasy/J. H. Kwabena Nketia. Themes from Chaka no. 1/Akin Euba. Dance of the honey monkey/Eric Moe. Lustra variations/Joshua Uzoigwe. Homage a Scriabin; Sharpeville I960; Duo Napolitain (Naples street); Valse musette; Last spring; Scherzino/Andres Wheatley. Anger and, jubilation/Mark Boozer. The village children at play; Dusk/Nkeiru Okoye. American progressions/Amy Rubin.--disc 2. Three African miniature songs without words/Paul Konye. Three preludes/Wallace Cheatham. Themes from Chaka 2/Akin Enba. Three ivory magnolia fantasies/Gary Powell Nash. Piano piece no. 6/Robert Mawuena Kwami. January dance/Robert Mawuena Kwami. Agbigbo/Joshua Uzoigwe.

Uzoigwe, Joshua. Talking Drums for Piano. William Chapman Nyaho. Musicians Showcase Recordings MS 1091 (2003), CD. Collection title: Senku: Piano Music by Composers of African Descent.

(1.) Fela Sowande, "Nigerian Music and Musicians: Then and Now," Composer 19 (Spring 1966): 25.

(2.) Godwin Sadoh, Samuel Akpabot: The Odyssey of a Nigerian Composer-Ethnomusicologist (New York: iUniverse, 2008), 1-2.

(3.) Godwin Sadoh, The Organ Works of Fela Sowande: Cultural Perspectives (New York: iUniverse, 2007), 7-8.

(4.) Margaret Peil, Lagos: The City is the People (New York: G. K. Hall; London: Belhaven Press, 1991), 126-27.

(5.) J. H. Kwabena Nketia, The Musk of Africa (New York: W. W. Norton, 1974), 14-16.

(6.) Akin Euba, "Neo-African Art Music and Jazz: Related Paths," International Jazz Archives Journal 1, no. 1 (Fall 1993): 4.

(7.) Afolabi Alaja-Browne, "A History of Intercultural Art Music in Nigeria," in Intercultural Music I, edited by Akin Euba and Cynthia Tse Kimberlin, Bayreuth African Studies Series, 29 (Bayreuth, Ger.: Breitinger, 1995), 80.

(8.) Godwin Sadoh, Intercultural Dimensions in Ayo Bankole's Music (New York: i Universe, 2007), 15.

(9.) Akin Euba, Modern African Music: A Catalogue of Selected Archival Materials at Iwalewa-Haus, University of Bayreuth (Bayreuth: Iwalewa-Haus, 1993), 1-3.

(10.) Robert Mawuena Kwami, "CIMA Archival List," Intercultural Musicology 4, no. 2 (March 2003): 1-7.

(11.) http://www.colum.edu/cbmr (accessed 18 November 2009).

(12.) Afolabi Alaja-Browne, "Ayo Bankole: His Life and Work" (M.A. thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 1981), 4.

(13.) Lazarus Ekwueme, "African Music in Christian Liturgy: The lgbo Kxperiment," African. Music: Journal, of the African Music Society 5, no. 3 (1973-74): 13.

(14.) Akin Euba, "Yoruba Music in the Church: The Development of a Neo-African Art among the Yoruba of Nigeria," in African Musicology: Current Trends: A Festschrift Presented to J. H. Kwabena Nketia, ed. by Jacqueline Cogdell DjeDje and William Grandvil Carter, 2 vols. (Los Angeles: University of California African Studies Center; Atlanta, GA: Crossroads Press, 1989-92). 2:46-18.

(15.) Robert Coker was the first Nigerian to receive professional training in music in Great Britain in 1871. He was the first organist and choirmaster at the renowned Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos, Nigeria, in the late nineteenth century. Coker organized the first choir in this church in 1895. For further information on Robert Coker, see Godwin Sadoh, "A Centennial Epitome of the Organs at the Cathedral Church of Christ. Lagos. Nigeria," The Organ SO. no. 320 (May 2002): 27-30.

(16.) Thomas Ekundayo Phillips was the second Nigerian to receive professional (raining in music in Great Britain. He was the organist and master of the music at the Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos, 1914-62.

(17.) Sadoh, Intercultural Dimensions, 14.

(18.) Akin Euba, Essays on. Music in Africa 2: Intercultural Perspectives, Bayreuth African Studies Series, 16 (Lagos, Nigeria: Elekoto Music Centre; Bayreuth: Iwalewa-Haus, 1989), 115-48.

(19.) Some oilier contemporary Nigerian composers whose names and works have not been mentioned include Adam Fiberesima (b. 1926), Lazarus Ekwueme (b. 1936), Meki Nzewi (b. 1938), Okechuckwu Ndubuisi (b. 1939), Samuel Ojukwu, Felix Nwuba, Nelson E. Okoli, W. W. C. Echezona, David Okongwu, and Nwokolobia Agu.

(20.) Victor Kofi Agawu, Representing African Music: Postcolonial Notes, Queries, Positions (New York: Routledge, 2003), 16.

Godwin Sadoh is a Nigerian organist-composer and ethnomusicologist with degrees in piano and organ performance, composition, and ethnomusicology. He is the author of numerous books and essays on Nigerian music. He has taught at numerous institutions, and is currently professor of music at Talladega College.
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