Printer Friendly

Aerobic exercise effect along with fenugreek supplemental consumption on cholesterol and triglyceride changes in blood.

Introduction

Obesity is the main dangerous factor for many prevalent diseases in the world such as diabetes, heart-vascular diseases, high blood pressure, metabolic disorders, and cancer species. Todays , obesity prevalence in the world is as a big challenge in various areas specially in public health and related costs, but financial costs is one part of concerns due to overweight and obesity. Generally obese people are at the risk of developing serious chronic diseases and finally obese people will face reduced lifetime and early death. With changing in epidemiological pattern for diseases in developed and developing countries and rising hope in life, stress due to urbanization, sedentary and dietary pattern changes, high blood pressure, are the most important factor for heart diseases and serious related threats. The most important traditional risk factors include age and gender, smoking, high blood pressure, low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, family records, diabetes, life style, inactivity and diet which causes deposit of plaque accumulation in arteries [4,5]. Body activities especially aerobic exercise enhances fat metabolism and it affects blood lipids rates. On the other hand use of medicinal plants can be effective in controlling and treatment of heart-vascular dangerous factors. One of medicinal plants is fenugreek that we can use from fresh and dry leaves and its seeds. This plant reduces liver lipids and it increases effective enzymes activity in chylomicron catabolism and low density lipoprotein. Herbal supplemental consumption along with body activity reduces low-density cholesterol and triglyceride level and it increase high-density lipoprotein. Fenugreek is prescribing in traditional medicine for diseases such as diabetes, high cholesterol, constipation, bronchitis, indigestion and kidney problems. Accomplished studies on laboratory animals and clinical trials indicates that this plant decreases blood sugar level in people with diabetes and it also reduces cholesterol level and like other foods has high fiber and uses for constipation treatment.proper diet and aerobic exercise leads to weight losses and effect blood lipids rate. Aerobic and regular practices is one of non-pharmacological treatments in therapy of individuals with high blood pressure, high blood lipids and weight gain.Thus, the purpose of this research is to examine aerobic exercise along with fenugreek consumption on cholesterol and triglyceride changes in non-athletic women.

Methods:

This research project is base on cross, semiempirical and laboratory researches. Statistical society of this research were women that reffered to chougia health center of shiraz , that among them 40 candidate women with 39-40 age with body mass index greater than 25 kg per mA2 were divided to 4 groups that include control (N=10), aerobic exercise (N-10), fenugreek consumption (N=10), and aerobic exercise along with fenugreek consumption (N=10). Consent form and other information related to health conditions, diet, daily exercise, illness, pregnancy and taking any medicine were collected through questionnaire. control group did not had any exercises for four weeks and just we used them for controlling changes rate. Aerobic exercise group for four weeks, every week 3 session and every session 69 minutes walked with 50 to 60 percent reserved heart pulses that were performed on a flat surface without slope. fenugreek consumption group were used two 500 mgr fenugreek capsules daily that was made by medicine and supplementation NOW American company and aerobic exercise along with fenugreek consumption group, in addition of exercise schedule of aerobic activity, they used two 500 mgr fenugreek supplemental capsules daily for four weeks. It was advised to subjects that they should avoid any change in diet and exercise and any medicine consumption. Karvonen formula was used to determine aerobic intensity. blood sample of four groups was obtained after 12 hours fasting in sitting state for 15 minutes while leaning back with a garo tie in arm from left hand vein with amount of 5 ml blood by sterile venoject tubes that was containing blood anticoagulation material of ethylene tetra diamine and it sent to laboratory. For triglyceride measurement it used standard kit with GPO-PAP method and for total cholesterol measurement it used standard kit with CHOD-PAP method. One way Anova test was used to compare measured variable among groups. All statistical operations were performed by SPSS software, 18 version.

Results:

Table 1: Descriptive statistics of the characteristics of individual subjects in 4 groups that includes: 1-control 2- aerobic exercise 3- fenugreek consumption 4- aerobic exercise along with fenugreek consumption.

To investigate variable changes in the study it used one-way ANOVA test. according to [2,3] table results it obtained significant level for triglyceride and [4,5] table significant level for cholesterol that was smaller than a =.05 and it observed significant different statistic between triglyceride and cholesterol values in four groups. bonferroni post hoc test was used to determine differences between groups.

Discussion And Conclusions:

In this research it was indicated that in aerobic activity, fenugreek supplemental and aerobic along with supplemental groups there is a significant decrease in the amounts of triglyceride in ratio with control group. triglyceride changes in aerobic exercise along with fenugreek supplemental group compared with aerobic activity and fenugreek supplemental also indicate significant differences. Thus, triglyceride decline can be due to exercise and fenugreek supplemental capsules comsumption. Results of this research is consistent with [19-15] researches, probably the reason of this consistent can be due to age, gender and intensity of selected exercise schedule that it is like previous researches, use of subjects that have overweight and are obese, but the results of this research wasn't consistent with the results of Atazadeh et al [20] researches, probably, the reason of this inconsistent can be due to differences in age, gender, nutritional conditions, intensity and duration of exercises that is different with this research. Many researches indicated that body activity can decrease the risk of heart-vascular diseases. One of mechanisms that reduce risk of heart-vascular diseases can be due to triglyceride decrease. Triglyceride generate through food or liver [21,16] probability, subjects serum triglycerides will break up to fatty acides while walking and secure muscles energy.Lipase lipoprotein, is a triglyceride degrading enzyme that release free fatty acides from triglyceride for providing aerobic activity energy. Thus, there is a strong relations between lipase lipoprotein enzyme activity and blood triglyceride removal. Therefore, it can concluded that walking causes lipide lipoprotein activity increase that also causes blood triglyceride increase and consume during activity. It is demonstrated that fenugreek consumption will increase fatty acide consumption as fuel source for body at rest and activity [24,23]. Probability, this fenugreek supplemental effect causes triglyceride be as a fuel source for body while walking and also at rest in supplemental consumption group alone. In this research significant statistical diversity were observed in the amount of cholesterol among this four groups after four weeks. bonferroni test results indicated that decrease in the amount of cholesterol in fenugreek supplemental group compared with control group is significant. Results of this research was consistent with [15,17,20,24,25] researches. Probability the reason of this consistent can be due to age, gender, and exercise schedule intensity. Most important changes during activity is plasma insulin decrease, so probability one of factors that can change plasma insulin is plasma insulin rate. Plasma insulin decrease causes lipolysis activation from adipose tissue, free fatty acides intensity increase and simultaneously with insulin decrease, glucagon will increase, so this changes is simultaneous while exercising causes more ketogenz activity and liver load and create changes in cholesterol preformation. One of major causes of lipozhenz increase is excitation of fatty tissue beta-adrenergic receivers. so that body activities of sympathetic nervous system excite catecholamines release. With placing above hormones on special receivers fat cells, special enzymes and lipolysis will act. Use of fats as a energy will changes with exercise intensity and low intensity activities will excite lipolysis [22,3]. Also fenugreek plant content solusion fibers that causes to decrease blood sugar and cholesterol level. Fenugreeek seeds are a rich source of chalet polysacharide of galaktoman. It bind to biliary lipids and it decrease blood cholesterol. Thus, fenugreek supplemental capsule consumption also can be one of reasons that decrease cholesterol, so base on research results use of aerobic exercise along with fenugreek supplemental consumption have a main role in blood fats decrease and subsequently it reduce risk of heart-vascular factors in individuals.

References

[1.] Atashak, S., M.A. Azerbaijani, And H. Sharafi, 1390. three months effect of progressive resistance exercises on interleukin-6 and leptin concentrations in obese men, Journal of Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 4: 154-161.

[2.] Zarghami, N., G.h. Mohammad Zadeh, S. Zahedi, And F. Hossein Panah, 1387. Serum leptin levels in women with different degrees of obesity and its association with anthropometric and hormonal factors, Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 3: 234-227.

[3.] Forsythe, k., J. Wallace, B. Livingstone, 2008. Obesity and inflammation: the effects of weight loss, Nutrition, Research. Reviews., 21: 117-133.

[4.] 4.Goudarzi, M., M. Badakhsh, N. Masinaei Nejad, And M. Abass Zadeh, 1383. the prevalence of high blood pressure in people over 18 years of Zabol, Zabol University of Medical Sciences Journal, 43: 821-828.

[5.] Terradoss, N., G. Valcarcel, R. Venta, 2010. New cardiovascular risk factors and physical activity, Apunt. Med. Esport.,45: 201-208.

[6.] Saounatsou, M., O. Patsi, Fasio, M. Stylianou, A. Kavga, O. Economou, 2009. The Effects of a proprietary fenugreek extract on Strength & Body Composition, TEXAS. AMERICAN. COLLEGE. OF SPORTS. MEDICINE., 4: 1527.

[7.] Yataco, A., J. Busby-Whitehead, D. Drinkwater, L. Katzel, 1997. Relationship of body composition and cardiovascular fitness to lipoprotein lipid profiles in master athletes and sedentary men, Aging. (Milano)., 9: 88-94.

[8.] Kasper, D., E. Braunwald, A. Fauci, S. Hauser, D. Lonso, J. Lameson, 2005. Haerrison's principles of internal medicine, 6 th edition. New York: Mc Graw-Hill, 68-95.

[9.] Ikeuchi, M., K.. Yamaguchi, T. Koyama, Y. Sono, k. Yazawa, 2006. Effect of Fenugreek Seed (Trigonella Fonum Greaecum) Extract on Endurance Capacity in Mice, Nutr. Sci. Vitaminal., 52: 287-292.

[10.] Lamfon, H., 2012, Effect of fenugreek seed extract on carbendazim inhibited spermatogenesis in albino rats, Journal. of Applied. Pharmaceutical. Science., 2: 9-13.

[11.] Moosa, A., M. Asadi, N. Ara, M. Uddin, A. Ferdaus, 2006. Hypolipidemic effects of fenugreek seed powder, Bangladesh. J. Pharmacol., 1: 64-67.

[12.] Pipelzadeh, M., A.M. Dezfulian, M. Koochek, M. Moradi, 2003. Comparison Between Fenugreek and Lovastatin in Restoration of Endothelial Function in an Experimental Old Rat Model, Acta. Medica. Iranica., 41: 84-90.

[13.] Rahimiyan, Z., R. Attazadeh, And the J. Arian Nejad, 1389. Effects of aerobic exercise and diet program on cardiovascular risk factors - blood pressure and cardiovascular disease in women with overweight, obesity and high blood pressure, Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 4: 376-384.

[14.] Analava, M., B. Debaprasad, 2006. Dose-dependent effects of Fenugreek composite in Diabetes with dislipidaemia, Internet. Journal. of Food. Safety., 8: 49-55.

[15.] Constancio, E., C. Wilborn, L. Taylor, C. Foster, B. Bushey, C. Poole, E. Pena, T. Jones, R. Kreider, 2009. The Effects of a proprietary fenugreek extract on Strength & Body Composition, Int. J. Exerc. Sci., 2: 1-21.

[16.] Etemad, Z., And N. Esmaeil Nasab, 1391. The relationship between levels of physical activity and heart coronary risk factors in college students, Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, 17: 35-25.

[17.] Siahkouhian, M., A. Javadi, R. Gharkhanloo, And F. Nazem, 1382. Comparison of the aerobic exercise effect on cardiovascular risk factors disease in adult men. Olympic Quarterly, 2: 5366.

[18.] Poole, C., B. Bushey, C. Foster, B. Campbell, D. Willoughby, R. Kreider, L. Taylor, C. Wilborn, 2010. The effects of a commercially available botanical supplement on strength, body composition, power output, and hormonal profiles in resistance-trained males, Journal. of the International. Society. of Sports. Nutrition., 7: 2-9.

[19.] Sowmya, P., P. Rajyalakshmi, 1999. Hypocholesterolemic effect of germinated fenugreek seeds in human subjects, Plant. Foods. Hum. Nutr., 53: 359-65.

[20.] Attazadeh, R., A. Shamsian, S. Abbasian, And M. Ghahramani, 1390. The effect of Ramadan fasting and physical activity on anthropometric parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure in healthy male students, Journal of Medical Scientific, 97: 1-13.

[21.] Imamura, H., Y. Yoshimura, K.. Okishima, R. Masuda, Y. Noda, 2009. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and Coronery Heart Disease Risk Factor in Collegiate Women, Journal. Of Health. Science., 55: 611-618.

[22.] Sayari, A., J. Hosseini, A. Alijani, M. Ferdowsi, 1386. Comparison of the effects of eight weeks of swimming and running on the amount of triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, in high school students that are obese in Boroujen city, Medical Scientific Journal, 4: 431-422.

[23.] Doshi, M., A. Mirza, B. Umarji, R. Karambelkar, 2012. Effect of Trigonella foenumgraecum (Fenugreek. Methi) on Hemoglobin Levels in Females of Child Bearing Age, Biomedical. Research, 23: 47-50.

[24.] Sharma, R., A. Sarkar, D. Hazra, B. Misra, J. Singh, B. Maheshwari, 1998. Toxicological Evaluation of Fenugreek Seeds: a Long Term Feeding Experiment in Diabetic Patients, Article. First. Published. Online., vol. 10, pp. 519-520.

[25.] Babu, R., K.. Yogesh, H. Raghavendra, S. Kantikar, K. Prakash, 2010. Antidiabetic and Histopathological Analysis of Fenugreek Extract on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats, International. Journal. of Drug. Development. Research, 2: 356-365.

Fatemeh Moeinzadeh Mirhosseini, Ebrahim Khoshnam, Asghar Nikseresht

Department of Physical Education, Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad university, Jahrom, Iran.

Corresponding Author

Asghar Nikseresht, Department of Physical Education, Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad university, Jahrom, Iran.

Tel:+989173913441; E-mail: nikseresht66@yahoo.com
Table 1: characteristics of individual subjects with group separation

 Group Average Standard
 deviation

Age (years) Control 41.90 5.98
 Aerobic Exercise 36 5.98
 Fenugreek consumption 36.80 4.46
 Aerobic exercise along 34.30 3.02
 with fenugreek
 consumption
Height (cm) Control 156.9 3.84
 Aerobic Exercise 158.8 5.05
 Fenugreek consumption 161.70 5.98
 Aerobic exercise along 163.8 4.44
 with fenugreek
 consumption
Weight (kg) Control 71.60 8.46
 Aerobic Exercise 73.10 9.8
 Fenugreek consumption 77.50 8.05
 Aerobic exercise along 72.30 12.81
 with fenugreek
 consumption
Body mass Control 29.22 3.93
 index (kilograms Aerobic Exercise 29.15 3.30
 Fenugreek consumption 29.92 2.97
 Aerobic exercise along 31.30 31.30
 with fenugreek
 consumption

Table 2: One--way ANOVA analysis to determine significant differences
in triglyceride values

Triglyceride Sum of square df Mean square f Sig

Between groups 4218. 075 3 1406.026 10.827 .0001

Table 3: Results of bonferroni post hoc test to determine differences
between groups

(I) group (J) group Mean Difference Std. Sig.
 (I-J) Error

Control shanbalileh 19.10000 * 5.09624 .004
Aerobic aerobic+shanbalileh -15.60000 * 5.09624 .025
Shanbalileh aerobic+shanbalileh -28.20000 * 5.09624 .000

*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

Table 4: One-way ANOVA to determine significant differences
in cholesterol values

Cholesterol Sum of df Mean Square F Sig.
 Squares

Between Groups 902.275 3 300.758 3.323 .030

Table 5: Results of Bonferroni post hoc test to determine differences
between groups

(I) group (J)group Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig.

Control shanbalileh 12.40000 4.25487 .037

*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.
COPYRIGHT 2013 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2013 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Mirhosseini, Fatemeh Moeinzadeh; Khoshnam, Ebrahim; Nikseresht, Asghar
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jun 1, 2013
Words:2487
Previous Article:Effects of mobile phone radiation on liver enzymes in immature male rats.
Next Article:The effect of inhibitory-concentrative exercises on increasing mathematics skills among girls with ADHD.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters