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Advancing individual and societal development at the community level: the role of NGO microcredit and leadership training.

Originating in Bangladesh in the 1970s, microfinance programs have been one of the great successes of the developing world. Such programs have assumed a special signifl'cance in countries where tradition and culture keep women from earning money. Equally if not more important is the training in leadership, organization, and management that often accompanies microcredit. A study of lO0 women in 17 Bangladeshi villages who participated in microcredit and leadership programs offered by the NGO Nari Uddog Kendra provided strong evidence that such programs boosted family incomes, empowered women, increased their confidence, enhanced their decision-making skills, and increased their awareness of gender equity (in inequity) issues.

Background and Introduction

The reduction of poverty in South Asia has been bolstered by the great successes of microfinance programs first initiated in Bangladesh in the 1970s. The country's independence in 1971 ignited the rise of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which filled a desperate need for institutionalized support for the people. Microfinance programs, which funded small enterprises through small loans to communities of women, became a key strategy for NGOs. Microfinance, born in Bangladesh through its Grameen Bank in 1976, is used extensively all over the world in the battle to reduce poverty. Empowering women through microcredit programs not only builds their economic status and that of their families, but also their business acumen, self-confidence, and political status in their communities. Moreover, microcredit programs do more than provide loans, they also offer business development and leadership training to the borrowers.

This study examined results of microcredit leadership and entrepreneurship training programs conducted by Nari Uddog Kendra, a Bangladeshi NGO with a microfinance department. In a related study (Lucy, Ghosh and Kujawa, 2008), Nari Uddog Kendra (NUK) clients reported that the micro-credit program led to sustainable income generating activities, improved family economic conditions, improved family and community status, increased mobility, and higher self-esteem. This paper examined five questions:

1. What was the level of respondents' participation in the NUK training programs?

2. What did NUK microcredit participants report they learned from the NUK training programs?

3. What did NUK participants seek to learn in future training programs?

4. What role does NUK's microcredit training programs play with empowering women and developing women's leadership skills?

5. What role does NUK's microcredit training play with developing women's entrepreneurship skills?

This paper provides 1) the background of the study, 2) the status of women and the challenges to women's socio-economic development including a definition of empowerment, 3) a description of training provided to women participants of microcredit NGO programs in Bangladesh, 4) a definition of leadership and a review of cross-cultural leadership research, an examination of cultural differences in the perception of leadership skills and the impact on leadership training curricula, and 5) a case study of NUK's leadership and small business training programs and its participants' perceptions of what they learned.

This descriptive study is based on interviews of 100 women who participated in programs run by NUK. Translated into English, NUK means the Center for Women's Initiatives. The field research centered on NUK's Poverty Alleviation & Family Development (PAFD) Project, now called Women Empowerment, Gender Awareness and Capacity Building Project (WEGACB), which seeks to raise the status of women within their rural communities. The project centers on access to education and health care and on income generating activities. This case study describes and analyzes NUK's efforts to support its microcredit loan recipients through its business development and leadership training programs.

Status of Women in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is one of the least developed countries of South Asia, as determined by indices of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). In 2008, the country had a population of 147.2 million (Population Reference Bureau, 2008a). The population growth rate has declined steadily from 1.8% in 1991 to 1.3% in 2007 (Asian Development Bank, 2008). In Bangladesh, Islam is the predominant religion, with 90% of the population reported as Muslims while 9% are Hindus (Population Reference Bureau, 2008a). Bangladesh is primarily an agriculture-based country, with nearly 77% of the population living in rural areas. In 2007, the agricultural sector accounted for 19% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP), a decline from 30% in 1991. The share of agriculture as a source of employment has declined from 66% in 1991 to 49% in 2006 (Asian Development Bank, 2008).

According to Population Reference Bureau (2008a), Bangladesh is ranked eighth of the 10 most populous countries in the world. It has the highest population density per square kilometer, almost three times that of India, which has the second-highest density. Table 1 provides key demographic factors related to Bangladesh from 1980 to 2008:

* Life expectancy of women has increased by 33% from 48 to 64 years.

* There has been a drop in Bangladeshi fertility rate from 6.1 to 2.7 children.

* By the age of 18, 46% of Bangladeshi women gave birth, as reported in 2008. There is no comparison data in 1980 to determine the rate of change in this variable.

Women in Bangladesh increasingly play an important role, especially in the informal sector. In the formal sector, women's work is concentrated in the garment industry and service sector jobs, such as teachers, lawyers, public service, NGOs, and others (Asian Development Bank, 2001). According to the Asian Development Bank (2008), women's labor force participation rate increased from nearly 16% in 1996 to 29% in 2006. The male labor force participation, which was 84% in 2001, increased to 87% percent in 2006. Women are still associated overwhelmingly with the informal sector, such as unpaid family labor (Asian Development Bank, 2001).

Challenges to Women's Socio-economic Development

Jakimow and Kilby (2006) say that women's status in the Indian sub-continent is among the world's lowest. Development, according to United Nations Development Program (2006), helps to improve the living standards, which in turn enables individuals to live in freedom and dignity. According to Sen (1999), development brings about so that individuals can meet the basic needs of food, shelter, safety and participate in the economic, social, and political aspects of the community. Further, Sen (1999) suggests a close link between individual freedom and the development of the society. The World Bank (2007) reported nearly 41% of the Bangladeshi population lived on $1 per day from 1990 to 2005. About 84% of the population lived on $2 a day and 50% lived below the national poverty level. The World Bank (2007) noted about 31 million (21%) people are considered "ultra poor," facing chronic food insecurity and severe malnutrition. This suggests that a substantial portion of the population is deprived of freedom.

Sen (1999) posited that "poverty must be seen as the deprivation of basic capabilities rather than merely as lowness of income, which is the standard criterion of identification of poverty." He argues that poverty is a complex problem and that a number of physical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to economic conditions, that can aggravate the situation. First, regarding physical conditions: susceptibility to floods, natural disasters, and droughts can render individuals vulnerable, and thus, push them toward poverty. Bangladesh is subject to flooding and cyclones that displace many from their land, homes, and livelihood.

Second, discrimination towards girls and women makes them more vulnerable to food-based poverty. Sen (1999) points out that if the family income is not appropriately allocated toward the education and health care of females, in the long run they face multiple problems such as higher mortality, undernourishment, medical neglect, and others. Girls face this problem from a young age and throughout their lives. Additionally, girls grow up with limited access to education, which further impedes their ability to earn a living and forces them to seek work in the informal sector.

And last, the social position of an individual also influences the ability to acquire resources with which to improve one's economic situation (Sen, 1999). Based on existing research (Khan, 1999; Hadi, 2005; Salway, Jasmin, and Rahman, 2005), women in Bangladesh have limited choices compared with men because women are viewed as needing protection by men. In South Asia, gender-based inequalities are the result of uneven power relations at multiple levels including home, family, community, and the state. These institutionalized inequalities render women highly vulnerable and disadvantaged (Mehta and Gopalkrishnan, 2007). The social structure is patriarchal, and a woman's rights and responsibilities, mobility, and sexuality are determined by her status in the family. Society places higher value on males; boys receive preferential treatment from a young age and greater access to food, education, and health care (Rahman and Naoroze, 2007; Asian Development Bank, 2001). Girls and subsequently women's roles and importance are related to child-bearing and household responsibilities. This is reflected in the lower female literacy rate (41%) compared with male literacy of 58% (Population Reference Bureau, 2008b).

Role of NGOs in Advancing Women's Empowerment

Empowering women to improve their economic and social status is a key strategy of NGO programs. Narayan (2000a, 2000b, 2005a, 2005b, 2007) conducted extensive research on women's empowerment, defining the latter as "the expansion of assets and capabilities of poor people to participate in, negotiate with, influence, control, and hold accountable institutions that affect their lives." Further, Narayan (2005a) concluded that there is a fundamental need to increase opportunities so that the poor have the freedom to control their destiny economically, socially, culturally and politically. Measurement of women's empowerment is multidimensional. According to Mason (2005), norms, values, and culture must be considered when evaluating women's progress toward empowerment. Success in reducing the number of women and children living in poverty is one dimension of progress.

Poverty reduction strategies in poor countries link women's empowerment with microcredit loan programs. According to Kabeer (1998), microcredit loan programs not only reduce poverty, but also empower women. According to Moyle, Collard, and Biswas (2006) economic empowerment and personal empowerment are interlinked. Additional research indicates that microcredit programs may be associated with increasing women's political participation, access to health care and education, and their role in decision making (Karim, 2008; Mason, 2005; Narayan, 2005a; Malhotra, Pande and Grown, 2003).

NGOs play a crucial role in the lives of Bangladeshi inhabitants. Karim (2008) reported that NGOs have served as the primary support system for vulnerable groups, such as women in rural and urban areas. Many NGOs work closely with Western aid agencies that provide assistance through microcredit funds, education, and health care. Karim (2008) noted that the NGOs provide microcredit opportunities to the segment of the population left out by banks and traditional moneylenders.

In Bangladesh, NGOs have been responsible for the advancement of women by generating employment opportunities through microcredit programs, training to augment skills, raising literacy and increasing awareness about their rights (Asian Development Bank, 2001; Ulvila and Hossain, 2002; Hunt and Kasynathan, 2001; Feldman, 2003; Hossain and Matin, 2007). They also offer leadership and business development training for the microcredit loan borrowers. In spite of these efforts in the last three decades, women continue to face discrimination in the areas of health, nutrition, access to education, employment, and political participation (Narayan, et. al, 2000b).

Leadership Development Across Cultures

For decades, leadership research focused on the Western world, usually with a business orientation. Currently, the study of leadership is multifaceted and inspires many definitions. Rost (1991) documented at least 100 definitions, but one construct remains consistent: leadership does not exist in a solitary context; it is learned and practiced in groups. Northouse (2007) posited that leadership is a process that creates change; whereby an individual influences others to achieve a common goal. Northouse (2009) further contended that leadership is a "multidimensional process that can be described as a trait, ability, skill, behavior or relationship."

A vast field of research in the past 15 years has explored how culture affects leadership. A massive research endeavor, known as the GLOBE studies, examined leadership from the perspective of cultures from 60 countries (House, et. al. 2004). These studies sought to answer questions related to universal leader behaviors in and across cultures, societal and organizational influences on leader behaviors, the impact of cultures on the members of society, and the association of cultural factors and international competitiveness. In summary, the studies identified six global leadership dimensions and universally desirable and undesirable, culturally contingent attributes of leadership. Many cross-cultural leadership researchers purported that leadership effectiveness may depend upon multicultural contexts (House, et al., 2002; House, et al, 2004; Yan and Hunt, 2005; Hofstede, 2006). Further, Hofstede (1980) suggested that in collectivist societies, the group's interests prevail over those of the individual, and success results from the collective work of the group. Hofstede categorized South Asian cultures as among those demonstrating collectivist attitudes and behaviors.

It is interesting to compare Hofstede's concepts to Iles and Preece (2006) theory of leadership development, which distinguishes between leader development and leadership development as observed in cross-cultural research. In the case of leader development, training is focused on "developing individual-level intrapersonal competencies and human capital; cognitive, emotional, self-awareness skills." In contrast leadership development is described as "collective leadership processes and social capital in the organization and beyond, involving relationships, networking, trust, and commitments as well as an appreciation of the social and political context." In this definition, there are collective benefits of leadership training when relationships are developed in the process, and organizations or societies benefit.

Yan and Hunt (2005) suggest that this distinction between leader development and leadership development is reflected in the differences between the process of leadership development in the United States compared with other countries. They suggest that U.S.-based programs focus on leader development, while non-Western countries focus on leadership development.

Collectivist cultures contribute to the success of group-based economic activities such as microcredit loan programs. NGOs in collectivist cultures generally favor group training and self-help groups over individual training (Deshmukh-Ranadive, 2004; Moyle, Dollard, and Biswas, 2006; Karim, 2008). In such cultures, the prospect of losing face within one's community is unthinkable. In Bangladesh, women are the upholder of the family's honor. Karim (2008) makes a powerful assertion that the institution of NGOs intentionally utilizes the potential loss of face to shame their loan recipients to ensure loan repayment. In Bangladesh, a collectivist culture, loss of face becomes a powerful motivator for loan repayment.

NGO's strategy for reaching women at the bottom of the socioeconomic strata in South Asia is to form self-help groups (SHGs). These SHGs have been successful in going beyond the issue of loan repayment to support one another in their common goal to build entrepreneurial ventures. NGOs and governments utilize SHGs to achieve empowerment and poverty alleviation, as well as promote women's self-esteem (Deshmukh-Ranadive, 2004; Moyle, Dollard, Biswas, 2006; Jakimow and Kilby, 2006; Aiyar, Narayan and Raju, 2007). According to Deshmukh-Ranadive (2004), SHGs lead to increased security, economic space, socio-cultural, political space, and physical space. Jakimow and Kilby (2006) warn that these outcomes emerge when the community is built from a bottom-up motivation rather than as an institutional top-down implementation.

These theories of cross-cultural leadership, leader development (focused on the individual's skills), and leadership development (focused on enhancing the skills of a community of individuals) are evident in the business practices of microcredit programs. They can be seen in action in their borrowing policies, which utilize the group not only to borrow together, but to encourage the group to repay their loans together. This system has been extraordinarily successful with women's microcredit groups.

Our field research centered upon NUK's Poverty Alleviation & Family Development (PAFD) Project, which seeks to raise the status of women within their rural communities, promoting gender equality in the economic development of the family and community. The project provides microcredit lending and trains participants to establish and run small enterprises or cottage industries, encourages cooperative partnerships among members to create economies of scale, and educates both women and the men on gender awareness and sensitivity and family peace building. Training programs include business and leadership development to support microcredit women entrepreneurs.

Methodology

Data was collected by interviewing 100 women from 14 villages participating in 17 microcredit loan groups of NUK. Sample size was influenced by the availability of participants during the time frame when the research team was conducting the survey in Bangladesh. The subjects, who were guaranteed anonymity, completed a survey through a translated interview conducted in the subjects' native language, Bangla. The survey instrument included 105 items, and interviews were conducted by a local team of researchers who spoke Bangla and English.

These data were analyzed in two segments. The first analysis was to understand the level of empowerment NUK women exhibited while participating in its program (Lucy, Ghosh, Kujawa, 2008). Data were analyzed about the subjects' personal and family background, current family situation, educational history, economic situation, experience with the program, role in personal, family, and business decision making, and participation in community activities. The preliminary findings suggested that NUK's microcredit program empowered its participants by increasing family income, land ownership, political participation, freedom of movement, and boosting their role in financial and family decision making. This previous study indicated that NUK women appeared empowered (Lucy, Ghosh, Kujawa, 2008).

The second analysis is reported in this paper, focusing on open-ended interview questions related to the respondents' experiences with NUK training programs. The five research questions are noted below, along with the survey items that provided the evidence for the corresponding research question.

1. Research question 1: What was the level of respondents' participation in the NUK training program?

* This research question was answered by interview item: In what training and/or leadership programs have you participated?

2. Research question 2: What did NUK microcredit participants seek to learn in future training programs?

* This research question was answered by interview item: What did you learn in the training and/or leadership programs?

3. Research question 3: What did NUK participants seek to learn in future training programs?

* This research question was answered by interview items: a) In what training programs are you hoping to participate? and b) What new skills or topics would you like to learn?

4. Research question 4: What role does NUK's microcredit training program play with empowering women and developing women's leadership skills?

* This research question was answered by data from interview item: What did you learn from the training and/or leadership programs?

5. Research question 5: What role does NUK's microcredit training play in developing women's entrepreneurship skills?

* This research question was answered by data from interview item: What did you learn from the training and/or leadership programs?

Responses to these survey questions were tabulated and displayed in distribution tables to determine the frequency of responses.

Demographic Data of Research Subjects

The median age of the subjects in the case study was 35 years old. Most were Muslim (86%) and 13% Hindus. Forty-nine percent of the subjects could read and write in Bangla, very similar to their husband's literacy level.

Table 2 responds to research question 1. As reflected in Table 2, 88 of the 100 subjects indicated that they participated in a micro-credit and women entrepreneurship development training program; 78 subjects participated in a leadership, empowerment and women human rights training program; and three or fewer participated in a primary health care or social awareness training program. Therefore, the focus of the research analysis was on the microcredit and women entrepreneurship development and leadership, empowerment and women human rights training programs. The sample for the primary health care and social awareness program was too small to include.

Table 3 answers research question 2 by presenting the responses on what was learned from the training programs focused primarily on business concepts of savings (31), income generating activities (31), and credit (29) and on social concepts of leadership (27), empowerment (21), women's development (20), and equality (18). To a lesser extent, loan management (12) and profit and loss (11) were mentioned for business. Legal items, such as family laws (14), early marriage and divorce laws (14), and dowry (7), were reported. An area of interest to the researchers was the number of times the importance of group process (15) was mentioned. Primary and child health care (9) were mentioned to a lesser extent. All other comments were stated less than five times.

Table 4, which addresses research question 3, indicates the highest interest in awareness training, with 40 responses. After awareness training, a variety of specific trainings were preferred: Technical skills for agriculture including cow fattening (16), goat rearing (14), fish farming (5), poultry (5), and gardening (5). Tailoring (15) and sewing (5) were also mentioned for garment businesses. From an entrepreneurship perspective, subjects wanted to learn more about income generating activities (11). Leadership (10) and human rights and laws (9) were closely identified with the leadership, empowerment, and women human rights training offered previously. Health (9) was suggested even though fewer than three subjects had attended this type of workshop previously.

Table 5 illustrates evidence for research question 3. It shows that subjects wanted to learn more about sewing (24), tailoring (17), and embroidery and batik (6). For agriculture, subjects wanted to know more about poultry (21), cow fattening (21), fish farming (13), agriculture (9), goat rearing (8), and gardening (5). Health (7), awareness (5), and nursery (7) were the only ones mentioned not related to business opportunities.

Table 6 provides information responding to research questions 4 and 5. The researchers were interested in differences that might be found between respondents who attended only one of the training programs: 1) micro-credit & women entrepreneurship development, or 2) leadership, empowerment, and women human rights training. In Table 6, 19 respondents attended only the micro-credit and women entrepreneurship development training program, and 10 respondents attended only the leadership, empowerment and women human rights training program. The data indicated that subjects who only attended the leadership, empowerment, and women human rights training program were more likely to identify learning about women and human rights (80%), family laws (20%), leadership concepts (40%), empowerment (30%), and equality (50%) compared with those who didn't attend these workshops and identified women and human fights (11%), family laws (5%), leadership concepts (5%), empowerment (0%), and equality (0%).

Those who attended the micro-credit and women entrepreneurship development training program identified business concepts (0%), savings (26%), profit/loss (5%), credit (16%), and IGA (5%) compared with those who only attended leadership, empowerment, and women human rights training programs, who identified business concepts (20%, savings (30%), profit/ loss (20%), credit (20%), and IGA (40%). This was a surprise and would indicate that the leadership, empowerment, and women human rights training programs were more effective at achieving both the business/entrepreneurship and empowerment objectives of the NUK and the leadership and empowerment objectives.

Analysis and Conclusion

The training programs appear to offer subjects support for organizing and managing their small businesses, as well as encouragement in building self-confidence and decision-making for their families. Respondents offered a variety of responses to the question: "What did you learn in the training and/or leadership program? Some examples were: "Men and women are equal," "disadvantage of early marriage," "family planning," "human fights," "disadvantage of dowry," "got courage," "gardening," "negotiation," "how to manage small trade," "how to manage credit," "how to pay installments," "identify the role of savings in revolving fund raising," "community participation," "leadership and different types of leaders."

It is clear that the training sessions most in demand were related to microcredit employment opportunities including training to augment skills and women's human fights training (Ulvila and Hossain, 2002). Participation in primary health care and social awareness sessions was extremely limited. Subjects most often mentioned income-generating activities, savings, and credit as knowledge they obtained from the training programs. Given the success of 100% loan repayment, it could be said that the training contributed to the overall success of this particular NGO. In addition, leadership concepts, empowerment, women's development, and equality were most often mentioned by subjects. Lucy, Ghosh, Kujawa (2008) indicated that these NUK women were empowered in the decision-making process and to exercise leadership in their business and family. Again, it could be said that the training program contributed to the success. A final observation is that many subjects mentioned the importance of the group in the development process. NGOs stress the importance of working in groups to provide support as well as pressure to meet the group's expectations (Aiyar, Narayan and Raju, 2007; Deshmukh-Ranadive, 2004).

The future topic in highest demand was awareness, mentioned over two times more than the next topic for consideration. It may be that subjects have experienced a great deal of success and are now ready to move toward the greater issues of attempting to transform their traditional roles in society. However, when asked what skills they preferred in future training, awareness was given lower priority. Respondents indicated a strong interest in business skills and other-income generating activities, such as agriculture, sewing/tailoring, and animal husbandry. To a lesser extent health, leadership, and human rights and laws were requested for future training opportunities.

Data for those respondents who only attended the microcredit training programs or the leadership and empowerment training programs yield some surprises. The data in Table 6 revealed that the leadership and empowerment training program seemed more successful at teaching both business concepts and leadership and empowerment. The microcredit entrepreneurship training program did not promote the results on business concepts that might be expected. When applying Iles and Preece (2006), it appears that NUK's leadership, empowerment and women human rights training program offered both leader development and leadership development, while the microcredit and women entrepreneurship development training program offered less of leader development and leadership development. Given the comments regarding the NUK microcredit training program, there may need to be review of its overall effectiveness.

Future studies might include 1) a control group of NUK microcredit loan participants who did not participate in any of the training programs, and 2) a comparative analysis measuring economic advancement based upon whether or not loan borrowers participated in NUK training programs.

Much of the leader and leadership research has focused on how leadership is defined and expressed in the context of the "Western world" and how American and European businesses can harness the power of leader development training to advance their business strategy. GLOBE research has made significant contributions to better understand the cross-cultural aspects of leadership and how to develop leaders and leadership. It is less clear whether these theories and practices are effective for achieving the NGOs' goal of empowering poor women. What is the most effective leadership development paradigm for NGO microcredit programs? What are the effects of business and leadership training on microcredit business success? Future research could explore if women microcredit entrepreneurs are best developed by teaching business operation skills and having business experience, or by training them to develop self-awareness and self-confidence, as in leader development programs. Research in the future should examine specific leadership training programs provided by other South Asian NGOs, and Bangladeshi NGOs, in particular.

In conclusion, this paper purports that NUK's leadership development with individuals in group settings leads to empowerment of women, both in local communities and society. A benchmark has been established that can be used for other training programs for comparison. Attention can be given to future workshops based on the needs stated by the subjects in the study. The importance of trying to assess the elements of the NGO is important information for organizations and leaders wishing to support the success of these programs.

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Denise M. Lucy, Dominican University of California

Jayati Ghosh, Dominican University of California

Edward Kujawa, Dominican University of California

Dr. Lucy is a professor of business and leadership and executive director of the Institute for Leadership Studies in the School of Business and Leadership at Dominican University. Dr. Ghosh teaches and directs the honors program in the same School of Business and Leadership, and Dr. Kujawa is also associated with the University.
Table 1. Demographic Indicators of Bangladeshi Women 1980-2008.

           Indicators               Bangladesh

                                    1980   2008

      Total Fertility Rate          6.1    2.7
 Female Life Expectancy (years)      48     64
 Sex Ratio (females/ 100 males)      93    105
Women giving birth by age 18 (%)     --     46

Source: Population Reference Bureau, 2008b

Table 2. In What Training and/or Leadership Programs Have
You Participated?

Training Programs                                    Participation

Micro-credit and Women Entre reneurshi Development        88
Leadership, Empowerment and Women Human Rights            78
Prim Health Care                                           3
Social Awareness                                           1

n=100

Table 3. What Did You Learn in the Training and/or Leadership
Programs?

Learning                                          Participation

IGA (Income Generating Activities)                     31
Savings                                                31
Credit                                                 29
Leadership Concepts                                    27
Empowerment                                            21
Women's Development                                    20
Equality                                               18
Importance of Groups/Somity in Development Process     15
Family Laws                                            14
Protect Early Marriage and Divorce Laws                14
Loan Management                                        12
Profit/Loss                                            11
Prima and Child Health Care                             9
Disadvantage of Dowry                                   7

n=100

Table 4. In What Training Programs Are You Hoping to Participate?

Topic                                 Responses

Awareness                                40
Cow Fattening                            16
Tailoring                                15
Goat Rearing                             14
Income Generating Activities (IGA)       11
Nurse                                    10
Leadership                               10
Human Rights and Laws                     9
Health                                    9
Microcredit and Entre reneurshi           7
Business Planning                         7
Fish Farming                              5
Poultry                                   5
Gardening                                 5
Sewing                                    5

n =100

Table 5. What New Skills or Topic Would You Like to Learn?

Skill or Topic         Responses

Sewing                    24
Poultry                   21
Cow Fattening             21
Tailoring                 17
Fish Farming              13
Agriculture                9
Goat Rearing               8
Health                     7
Nurse                      7
Embroidery and Batik       6
Gardening                  5
Awareness                  5

n=100

Table 6. Comparing Training Programs

                                         Leadership/
What Did You Learn?    Entrepreneurial   Empowerment
                          Training        Training

Women & Human Rights         11%             80%
Family Laws                   5              20
Leadership Concepts           5              40
Em owerment                   0              30
Equality                      0              50
Business Concepts             0              20
Savings                      26              30
Profit/Loss                   5              20
Credit                       16              20
IGA                           5              40

n = 19: Entrepreneurship Only
n = 10: Leadership/Empowerment Only
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Author:Lucy, Denise M.; Ghosh, Jayati; Kujawa, Edward
Publication:SAM Advanced Management Journal
Geographic Code:0BANK
Date:Jan 1, 2010
Words:5906
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