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Advanced approach to information security management system utilizing maturity models in critical infrastructure.

1. Introduction

The use of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) is constantly increasing, which means that most organizations are becoming increasingly reliant on information systems [1]. Information security governance is an increasingly critical component of organizational management, and an overall system security structure that covers the attributes of a CPS environment is required [2][3]. Currently, organizations are collectively measuring and evaluating the capability of information security management; however, objectively evaluating a target system is difficult because security-level evaluation systems are not based on the individual characteristics of an organization or the organization's information security activities [4]. In addition, most standards-based information security management systems (ISMSs) have a silos effect because they do not have sufficient consideration of connectivity between security controls [5]. Specifically, in order to secure more than a certain level of security required by ISMSs, each department in the organization prioritizes security control activities that are easy to implement by considering each work efficiency first. However, each security control activity has correlation with each other and should be implemented sequentially considering this. For example, according to the results of analyzing the correlation between security controls for 15 power generation organizations in Korea, security controls with high correlation to other security controls such as Access Control, Maintenance and Contingency Planning can be confirmed [6]. This means that when implementing the control for Access Control, both Audit/Accountability and Personal Security should be considered at the same time for effectiveness. In addition, there are security control activities such as division of duties that should be preceded in order to implement account management and least privilege. The authoritative guideline, such as NIST SP 800 series and ISA / IEC 62443, which presents these security control activities, presents the security control items in a plan view and should be designed and used according to the target infrastructure field. National infrastructures that use industrial control systems with CPS environments also face the above problems. Therefore, this study proposes an information security maturity concept that can effectively evaluate and manage the level of information security for CPS environments in critical infrastructure. This concept was initially employed in the software engineering field [7], and its effectiveness and efficiency have already been verified [8]. So, this study introduces the maturity concept to information security. There are, of course, studies to apply maturity concepts to information security. Previous studies have considered a maturity model for information security; however, to the best of our knowledge, such studies have only presented abstract concepts and have not investigated practical applications [9]. ISA/IEC-62443, i.e., the standard for network and system security for industrial-process measurement and control, which is applicable to infrastructure cyber environments, recommends adoption of the maturity concept to assess an organization's information security management capacity [10]. However, the content of these guidelines is not enough to implement in practical. Therefore, we propose an advanced information security maturity assessment method for critical infrastructure, which is a concrete concept for the introduction of the above maturity concept into the field of information security. This proposed concept targets the thermal power generation field in Korea. Specifically, the specific maturity concept for the field is defined, and the methods and criteria for constructing each maturity tier are proposed. In addition, based on the proposed information security maturity concept, this study derives security activities for each maturity tier required for an infrastructure environment and simulates it relative to the Korean energy infrastructure. Through the simulation, this study confirms the applicability of the proposed maturity concept to cybersecurity by applying it to an actual service field. The overall procedure of the proposed assessment method is shown in Fig. 1.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses studies related to maturity concepts on information security. Section 3 describes the motivation for this study. Section 4 defines each maturity tier, describes the hierarchical structure of each tier, and discusses the methods and criteria that comprise each tier. The concepts described in Section 4 include information derived from focus groups conducted by a university professor from the Korea Infrastructure Protection Society, a web application server engineer with more than 10 years of experience, an executive from the Korea Air Force Vulnerability Analysis Team, and a project manager from the Infrastructure Management System Development Project. Implementation and simulation of the proposed assessment methods are described in Section 5. The simulation is conducted using the Korean energy infrastructure to derive and propose practical information security activities included in each information security maturity layer. The conclusion, limitations, and implication of this study are presented in Section 6.

2. Related Work

This section reviews previous research into cyber security maturity concepts and models. There are various types of ISMSs that focus on organizational information security objectives; among them, this study focuses on a maturity model that measures the security level of an organization based on defined levels. Thus, studies that deal with the concept of precise maturity, which predefines the concepts of each level, are reviewed. And this section reviews studies that consider the overall concept of maturity and those that focus on the application of maturity concept in a particular field.

Lessing's study was based on the hypothesis that existing information security governance models are similar to information security maturity models (ISMMs). Governance models include all relevant aspects that can affect information security [11]. In other words, governance models include the elements that an organization's information security should consider for effective management. Governance models also describe best practices that can be implemented to reduce costs. The maturity concept in lessing's study comprises five stages [12]. It also explains relationship between risk and effort based on maturity concepts. The maturity concept of the five tiers defined here is somewhat abstract and simple, so we try to define and supplement the concept more specifically.

Security is important in all stages of a project, including planning, designing, and selecting architecture that can be implemented and deployed effectively and efficiently. This is only possible if security requirements are tied to business objectives. Devi (2011) stated that information security management should be based on organization management, organizational culture, system architecture, and service management. The proposed ISMM is based on the above four elements and represents a simple example of an evaluation method. The proposed ISMM is a qualitative method; however, a quantitative method is suggested as a future undertaking. Therefore, we propose a quantitative evaluation method based on the concept formation through qualitative methods.

Karabacak et al. (2016) proposed a maturity model to measure the level of readiness for national infrastructure security. They stated that existing studies on ISMSs are overly reliant on best practices[9]. Therefore, their paper was based on a Delphi [13] questionnaire for experts. Their study identified the root causes of problems with national infrastructure cyber security, such as "cyber security of critical infrastructure is not perceived by national security authorities as a vital component of national security." Based on this, 40 maturity criteria were weighted using the Delphi technique. Each weighted item was evaluated numerically, and the score was calculated based on the arithmetic mean. This was simulated in Turkey; however, as the authors indicated, there are significant differences in the environment and characteristics of each country. Therefore, results based on expert group interviews in one country are not necessarily applicable to other countries.

Yulianto et al. (2016) pointed out that many organizations are now focusing on technology improvements rather than reviewing and improving current processes. Thus, the successful implementation of the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS) was considered to be dependent on an organization's overall information security capabilities rather than on the latest technologies. They proposed a maturity model consisting of four levels: none, initial, basic, and capable [14]. The ISMM for PCI-DSS (ISMM-PCI) is essentially based on best practices. Specifically, Yulianto et al. included the ISO/IEC 27001: 2013 control items based on the PCI-DSS requirements. These items were used to measure the information security management maturity level of the organization. The ISMM-PCI maturity measure is convenient; however, the maturation tier defined by the four levels is inclusive. In addition, the mapping or classification criteria of the items used for measurement are not specific. In order to be able to propose the maturity concept applicable to the field, it would be better if the specification of the criteria were a little more specific.

Various researches have studied the measurement of the information security maturity of target areas. However, to the best of our knowledge, studies to date are not enough to describe specific levels of measurement of organizational maturity or specific methods and criteria to construct them. Therefore, this paper propose the definition, criteria, and structure of information security maturity assessment to complement the research on information security maturity that has been going so far.

3. Motivation

To manage the inherent risks associated with infrastructure control systems, the organization must identify the minimum security criteria required for current system operations and provide an indicator to effectively understand the current level of security [14][15]. In regard this, in addition to the studies mentioned in Section 2, there are more than 50 studies on infrastructure information security management indexed to ACM Digital Library, IEEE Explore and Web of Science since 2000 [16]. However, most papers focus on the identification of vulnerabilities and threats to the industrial control systems targeted in each paper, and to quantify the risks based on them. Therefore, a measurement method is required to efficiently determine gaps between the current and required information security levels based on security activities. However, without considering the organic nature of security controls, it is difficult for information protection to penetrate the entire organization. Even in terms of security management, piecemeal security controls are causing disruption of intra-organizational communication. These problems can be solved by a maturity model that considers and reflects the relationship between security controls. A maturity model can be used to measure and reduce the gap between theory and practice [17]. In addition, maturity models can be applied to measure the capability of a specific area in an organization for effective management. Such models primarily measure the qualities of processes/structures, objects/technology, and people/culture. Typically, maturity models such as the capability maturity model, open-source maturity model, and the modeling maturity levels classification system are used in the software development field [18]. Thus, the effectiveness and efficiency of such models have been confirmed. Maturity concepts, such as capability maturity model integration (CMMI), used in the software development field may not be appropriate for the information security field. However, it is possible in terms of 'a common concepts of control'. That is, software development involves continuous control and information security also involves continuous control relative to unknown attacks. Therefore, this study intends to introduce the concept of maturity that can reflect the characteristics of security control as information security management system based on security control activities. Maturity as it relates to information security has been studied previously; however, to the best of our knowledge, no study has suggested how to define and construct maturity levels specifically for information security (Section 2). In addition, it has not been confirmed that the status of information security can be well observed using the concept of maturity. Therefore, this study proposes a practical method to measure maturity as it relates to information security in critical infrastructure. The proposed concept was developed based on information obtained from a group of experts involved in infrastructure information protection (Section 1). Previous approaches to establishing overall maturity concepts used a top-down approach, similar to that proposed by Becker et al. [17]. This study also presents the security activities of each proposed maturity concept and simulates them based on the Korean infrastructure to demonstrate practical application to information security.

4. Advanced Information Security Maturity Assessment methods

Advanced information security maturity assessment (AISMA) methods define each level of infrastructure security maturity, including the sub-criteria used to construct each level. AISMA methods measure and index the maturity of a target organization and present a roadmap to achieve information security. To overcome the limitations of previous conceptual studies, this study proposes concrete definitions for each level and detailed criteria and methods to construct them. The framework is based on CMMI defined for software engineering [12]. To construct an advanced information security maturity measurement framework suitable for infrastructure, FGIs were conducted with infrastructure security experts, including a web application server engineer with more than 10 years of experience, an executive from the Korea Air Force Vulnerability Analysis Team, and a project manager of the Infrastructure Management System Establishment Project [19]. Specifically, each element required for securing the security of the industrial control system and each phase for implementing it are discussed, and perspectives suitable for constructing additional criteria to building each maturity tier are derived. This was based on meeting the following three requirements. The first requirement must comply with existing maturity frames, and the second must cover the scope of existing information protection management system standards. The last should include clear criteria for constructing and assessing information security maturity. And it is based on a distributed control system, one of the industrial control systems with 50 servers and PCs, 50 pieces of network devices and 40 process control facilities in the power generation field. The structure of the derived AISMA methods is as follows. There are five tiers of maturity, with each tier having its own definition and characteristics. And detailed criteria were established for each maturity tier. The maturity model derived in this study is based on the thermal power generation sector, which is part of a country's critical infrastructure. An outline of advanced information security maturity assessment methods is shown in Fig. 2.

4.1 Maturity tier definitions

Each maturity level of the AISMA methods is based on the main concept of ISA/IEC-62443 and can be applied to other information security-related criteria and maturity concepts. ISA/IEC-62443 is used because the scope of the criteria and guides for industrial control systems is the widest [20][21]. Unlike other criteria and guides, this covers the concepts of risk assessment/level evaluation/management, asset identification and classification, threat/vulnerability assessment, and countermeasures[10]. The AISMA methods consist of five tiers. Each phase provides the strength of the security controls that the organization currently performs and the future development level. To this end, we have embodied each layer based on physical and environmental security, protection of explicitly critical IT infrastructure resources, consistent protection procedures and controls throughout the organization, organizational self-control, continuous review and optimization. Each phase is described in detail below.

A. Intial phase

The first tier is where basic control is performed without a formal policy or procedure. This tier performs basic manpower control, such as unauthorized physical access control to the organization's ICT equipment and information assets[22]. From an information security perspective, this tier involves a relatively basic concept; thus, the control items associated with this tier generally have readily acceptable characteristics.

B. Configuration phase

The second tier is the configuration phase. As information security is deemed important in an organization, protecting network infrastructure resources begins in this tier through various means, such as fraud detection systems, firewalls, encryption, and educating employees about security awareness [23]. The management targets in the configuration phase include various resources, such as hardware constituting the application system and commercial software, and the basic network infrastructure for both internal and external communication.

C. Management phase

The third tier is the management phase. In this tier, information security policies and procedures are established and managed for the entire organization. In addition, policies and procedures for security-conscious management are established and executed in this tier [24]. This protects critical infrastructure resources, application systems, and data from damage and unauthorized access through various methods such as authentication and authorization control. In the management tier, all application-level functions are managed and administered between applications and their user interfaces.

D. Control phase

The fourth tier is the control phase, in which self-organization control becomes possible, self-audit and responsibility policies and procedures are established, and risk analysis and management are performed. This tier includes business continuity planning and organizational self-assessment of information security. It focuses primarily on conscious security, conducting security awareness training for all employees, and observing employee behavior [25].

E. Optimization phase

The fifth tier is the optimization phase, which is implemented to continually review and improve information security processes by considering security measures from different perspectives. Note that reaching the fifth tier does not mean that an organization has implemented a system that guarantees perfect security. However, it does mean that such a system has been designed with a very high level of information security, which allows quick detection and recovery from incidents and establishes continuous monitoring and improvement processes.

AISMA methods encompass the main ISMM concepts and the scope of information security criteria, as shown in Table 1. And AISMA preserve the unique concept of maturity that originated in CMMI [16]. The information security management maturity model (ISM3) is an information security maturity concept established through its own consortium [26]. ISM3, ISMM, and Gartner have proposed representative concepts of information security maturity, and NIST and ISA/IEC-62443 are the broadest infrastructure information protection standards. Therefore, they are considered the basis of the proposed concept [27][28].

Specific security control activities for the above maturity hierarchy concepts are provided in section 5.

4.2 Structure of each maturity tier

Completion of each tier of the AISMA methods is an indicator of how well an organization is implementing appropriate levels of information security. Each tier comprises one or more security processes that must be performed to achieve that level. If the performance of the security processes of each tier is above a certain level, the security maturity of the given tier is achieved.

Each security process has several goals that must be achieved. Here, the goal is to determine the extent to which security processes are executed within an organization, e.g., emergency blocking and least privilege. However, the concept of these goals is abstract; therefore, it must be linked to practices that are described in detail. Practices are specific security activities that must be performed to meet specific objectives. An overview of the security processes, objectives, and practices is given in Table 2 [29].

Security practices consist of security processes and items involved in deriving the goals and security activities of each area of the infrastructure. Additional criteria for precisely configuring each maturity tier with security processes, goals, and practices are described in Section 4.3. Security practices comprise items involved in deriving security processes and goals, as well as security activities performed in each area of the infrastructure. The basic unit for understanding the security activity rate of each maturity tier is the security goal. In addition, the security goal is the minimum unit of decision-making for improving the security level of an organization.

4.3 Additional criteria for configuration each tier

To measure the information security maturity of an organization using a hierarchical definition, it is necessary to implement the abovementioned processes, goals, and practices. Security processes, goals, and practices are established in terms of infrastructure and security-related criteria (ISO 27001/27002, NIST 800-53/82, ISA 62443, etc.), and the definition of each tier (initial, configuration, management, control, and optimization) can be placed in the maturity level after establishment. Basically, each security process, goal, and practice is based on hierarchical definitions and related criteria. However, when deploying practices to hierarchical processes and goals for better classification in each maturity tier, it refers to the control and operational perspective and conscious and instrumental security criteria. In order to derive these criteria, it was discussed based on the propensity of the security control itself, the perspective on the operation of security control activities, and the security target of the security controls.

A. Control and operational perspective criteria

The control and operational perspective criteria refer to the concept of the dimensional structure maturity model. Among these, the control viewpoint criteria are added to improvement procedures for prevention, detection, and restoration, which are the three primary information security procedures. Existing information security controls are classified according to various criteria such as behavior, security objective, and function. It is divided into preventive control, detective control, and restorative control by behavior, and it is divided into integrity control, confidentiality control, and availability control by security objective. And by function, it is divided into administrative control, technical control, and operational control. In order to achieve security control at the highest level, it is necessary to continuously improve the security level. NIST SP 800-53, ISO / IEC 27001, ISO / IEC 15408, etc. The current security control related standards are also updated to include improvements. Therefore, in this study, improvement control is added based on the control classification by behavior as Table 3.

So, control viewpoints comprise recovery, detection, prevention, and improvement. Maturity levels 1 to 4 are related to recovery, detection, and prevention. Improvements are referenced in the deployment of practices to achieve the goals of the maturity tier five security process.

Implementation and operation of security controls, it can generally be based on a structure of the target system configuration. In case of the critical infrastructure subject to this paper, industrial control system can be categorized as Human Machine Interface, Controller, Sensor & Actuator, Maintenance according to NIST SP 800-82. Although security controls can be categorized and operated on the basis of this, it is difficult to consider the maturity level of security activities. Therefore, this study established the operational perspective criteria of the following concept as Table 4. The operational perspective considers the level of technology management, including the degree to which each process is exposed to both attackers and insiders, and the depth and cost of the knowledge required. It is based on two indexes, i.e., complexity and visibility, by referencing the dimensional structure maturity model, and is introduced by redefining the concepts of clarity and refinement.

B. Conscious and instrumental security criteria

In order to manage information security effectively, security objectives that each security activity is aiming for should be considered. For example, whether security activities target physical space or cyberspace. If the security activity falls into cyberspace, it is important to consider which layers, such as the operating system and software, are targeted. There are well-known OSI 7 layer and Cyber terrain concepts that can support this. The OSI 7 layer is a network-based concept, and Cyber terrain is a threat-centered concept of defense. Although both concepts can indicate the location of security activities, the proposed maturity concept should be able to include the security objectives and targets required in the entire organization. Therefore, in this study, conscious and instrumental security criteria which can include all of them were established and used. Conscious and instrumental security criteria are concepts that classify the elements to achieve information security and involve executing practices to achieve the goals of the security process defined in each tier.

Instrumental security involves technology that safeguards information from forgery, alteration, and leakage, and protects assets from various physical threats, such as theft, destruction, and fire. Instrumental security can be achieved by constructing various physical and information security systems, and a system that links, measures, and analyzes such systems should be established. This concept includes vaccines, intrusion detection systems, intrusion prevention systems, and server access control, as well as the encryption of CCTV, access control, and motion sensors. In addition, as the instruments security concept is advanced, it implies active security, which is fused with the conscious security concept. Here, highly sophisticated implementation is required.

The conscious security criteria represent the knowledge and attitudes of an organization's members relative to the security of the physical environment and information assets. In other words, having conscious security criteria means that members understand and respond to the potential risks of information security, such as intentional or accidental deception, damage, and theft of information assets. Typical ways to achieve conscious security include security awareness training relative to trade secrets, personal information security, and access control policies. Conscious security increases as the level of security maturity increases, while the degree of clarity becomes lower and that of refinement increases. If conscious security is relatively low, security awareness education should be implemented throughout the organization. On the contrary to this, as the level increases, security processes, such as policies and procedures for security conscious management, auditing, and responsibility, will be established systematically. A high level of conscious security provides various advantages, such as enabling members to use security functions appropriately, allowing employees to report potential security issues, and understanding the overall importance of security.

5. Simulation : Thermal Power Generation in Korea

The validity of the method of managing information security begins with the applicability of the method. The purpose of this simulation is to show that the method is not "accurate" but rather practical [30]. Therefore, we show that adopting such a method is reasonable in managing infrastructure information security.

A simulation was performed to confirm that the proposed maturity concept is applicable to information security. Through this simulation, by identifying causal relationships in existing security controls, the proposed maturity concept can more organically assess the status of information security. The advanced information security maturity assessment method described in Section 4 was simulated using the procedure shown in Fig. 1 (Section 1). The implemented assessment method was simulated for power generation facilities among Korea's critical infrastructure facilities. Specifically, this was done in conjunction with the research project for the improvement of infrastructure information security system, five thermal power plants equipped with an industrial control system were measured. Information security maturity was measured based on the security control activities carried out at each power plant.

5.1 Outline of AISMA derived for simulation

A total of 185 information security control activities were derived to measure maturity. It is mainly based on ISA/IEC-62443, which covers the broadest concept, and reflects ISO/IEC 27001/27002 and NIST SP 800-53/82 [31][32][33]. The 185 security practices were classified into 81 security objectives and 17 security processes according to the detailed criteria (Section 4.3), such as control and operation viewpoints, and were mapped to each maturity level. Table 5 summarizes the details derived according to the maturity level criteria (Section 4) used to assess the information security maturity of the target facilities. We constructed a checklist based on the 185 security control activities derived and conducted the measurements. Practitioners of five thermal power plants, which were the targets of the project to establish infrastructure information security management system, participated in this. Two facilities were measured through on-site visits and three were performed online. Specifically, responses to the implementation of each security control activity consist of 'Yes', 'No', 'Partial', and 'N / A'. A 'Yes' response indicates compliance with applicable security control activities and that it has relevant evidence and documentation of compliance. The 'No' response corresponds to the case where the organization being evaluated does not meet the criteria and there are no relevant grounds and documents. The 'Partial' response means that the level of compliance of the security control activity is insufficient, or the relevant grounds and documents are partially ma intained.

The 'N/A' response is selectable if the security control activity is not correlated with the industrial control system business process being measured. Each is given 1 point for Yes, 0 points for No, and 0.5 points for Partial, and N / A (Not Applicable) is excluded from the score calculation. Since security control activities have already been deployed at each mature level, no separate weighting was taken into account in the score calculation.

5.2 Simulation Result

In the simulation, the process fulfillment rate of each maturity tier, the security maturity level of each facility, and the level of implementation of individual processes and targets were confirmed. The simulation derived the priority security process and goals for each facility and finalized security practices that require implementation and supplementation to achieve.

The results of the assessments of five facilities based on the AISMA established in section 5.1 are shown in Table 6. The answers to derive results and scores were organized into four categories according to the description in section 5.1 for each tier. Result means security activities corresponding to Yes (1) / Partial (0.5) / No (0) / NA and Score indicates average values based on this.

The security controls themselves may not be applied to the target facilities according to the size of the facility, equipment's aging condition, the operation policy, etc. to be assessed. These items are classified as N/A. Therefore, although the distributional deviation of the N/A item may occur depending on the facilities to be assessed, it is possible to maintain some degree of assessment equality. In the case of the five facilities that were the subject of this simulation, remote access, wireless access, mobile device access control and remote maintenance were not used originally. Thus, items corresponding to these can be excluded in common from the next assessment. This can be refined as assessments and improvements are repeated.

The overall fulfillment results of the simulation are as follows: Tier 1 81% (initial phase), Tier 2 65% (configuration phase), Tier 3 65% (management phase), Tier 4 63% (control phase), and Tier 5 58% (optimization phase). These results show that the process fulfillment rates decreased as the tiers advanced. In general, the maturity concept adopts 75% to 85% or more of the implementation rate of the activities included in each tier as a reference value for achieving the maturity tier. In this study, if the implementation rate of the information security activities included in a given maturity tier is greater than or equal to 80%, the corresponding maturity level is achieved. This can be adjusted after application 2 or 3 times in the field being assessed. An outline of the measurement results for the five facilities is shown in Fig. 3.

Facilities A and B have a security maturity level of 5 because the hierarchical process fulfillment rates for all five tiers are more than 80% for these facilities. In case of facility C, tiers 1 and 2 show 89% and 94% process fulfillment rates, respectively; however, the process fulfillment rates of tiers 3, 4, and 5 are less than 80%, thereby resulting in maturity level 2. For facilities D and E, the process fulfillment rates of all tiers are less than 80%; thus, these facilities have not even achieved security maturity level 1.

For facilities (D, E) that have not reached maturity level 1, the security control belonging to the initial phase should be performed first and maturity level 1 should be achieved. Security activities at maturity level 1 and maturity level 2 are not based on information security policies and procedures. Therefore, in the case of E facilities, level 2 is expected to be achieved faster than other higher levels after achieving maturity level 1 when performing security enhancements. D facilities, since policies and procedures for information security have been partly established and the implementation of their own organizational control has begun, it will be effective to implement tier 2 and tier 3 in parallel after achieving level 1. C facilities are considered to be achievable in the final maturity tier. Details for facility C are shown in Fig. 4.

The fulfillment rates of the security process for facility C are 89% in tier 1 (initial phase), 94% in tier 2 (configuration phase), 77% in tier 3 (management phase), 78% in tier 4 (control phase), and 71% in tier 5 (optimization phase); thus, facility C achieved level 2 security maturity. In this case, since the process fulfillment rates of tiers 3, 4, and 5 are all greater than 70%, it is possible to improve the security maturity level to 5 by selecting and executing the priority target according to the implementation status. In other word, sufficient tier 2 security maturity has been accomplished; thus, it is necessary to improve processes belonging to tier 3 rather than those belonging to tiers 1 and 2. From the index of the results for facility C, we can derive the priority items required to achieve tier 3, i.e., mobile code and VOIP, which are goals included in the communication and system protection process.

By implementing the practices included in the above goal, facility C will acquire security maturity level 3 and security maturity level 4 will be accomplished by implementing the supply-chain protection goal of the system and service acquisition process. In the same manner, security maturity level 5 can be achieved by complementing tier 5's audit and accountability, security assessment and authorization, planning, and configuration management processes. Compare to overall security improvement, the indicators shown in Fig. 4 suggest that facility C only needs to complement 37% of security activities to achieve security maturity level 3. It is also possible to make efficient decisions about improvement activities performed after supplementing security control activities to achieve maturity level 4. Specifically, in the indicators proposed in this study, security control activities to achieve the same security goal are distributed according to the level defined in each tier. Table 5 shows the contents of this. Therefore, according to the result obtained after evaluating the target organization, it is possible to complement the items that can be linked with the upper item among the security control activities of each layer, before the other items, for the security goal that needs to be supplemented. For example, in the case of facility C, after completing the priority improvement items for achieving the fourth stage of maturity tier, the security control activities are selectable which should be preceded before performing security control activities such as system usage notice and audit and responsibility.

Note that it is very difficult to implement all recommended security activities. Therefore, effective strategies are needed to meet the level of security required by an organization. The AISMA methods presented in this paper can be a good solution to this issue. And, this will make intuitive decision-making possible and a strong basis for this. This study has also confirmed that the simulation of AISMA methods allows us to evaluate information security from a maturity perspective.

6. Conclusion, limitations and implication

An overall management system that considers both physical and cyber characteristics is required to achieve information security for critical infrastructure. In other words, it is evident that detailed technology is important; however, an ISMS must cover an entire organization [34]. Currently, the information security of the critical infrastructure is checked and diagnosed; however, the existing ISMS does not define a specific maturity level for information security controls. In addition, there are no criteria or methods available to measure the maturity level. And the level of guidance provided by ISO / IEC, 62443, and related studies alone will be difficult to define and accurately measure the maturity level. Because each standard and guideline that provides the security controls used information security management has a different focus and coverage, there is also a need for a way to implement it properly. This study proposed AISMA which can complement the above problems. This was based on the concept of maturity that can effectively perform and measure each security control activity. The proposed method and criteria for configuration each tier and detailed maturity level items have been presented and simulated relative to five energy facilities in the Republic of Korea to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed definitions of each maturity tier, as well as the methods and criteria involved in each tier. In addition, security activities applicable to actual fields required for each layer of infrastructure security maturity have been derived and presented. Because of the sensitivity and criticality of the infrastructure, it was not possible to apply the results derived from the simulation in batches. However, we confirmed the practicability of this information security management method through simulation. Therefore, the proposed concept of information security maturity and the security control activities mapped to the concept are practical.

There were limitations to this study. The source of the data collected for the simulation of this study is limited to the infrastructure of Korea. In other words, the results collected are limited to the characteristics of the Korean thermal power generation such as environmental characteristics, operational policies and organizational culture. Therefore, when data is collected by applying AISMA to various national infrastructures, the content of the proposed method can be tuned more precisely. Another important limitation is the fact that it is very difficult to gain the authority to survey and collect data for each organization due to the closed nature of the critical infrastructure. Therefore, in this study, the primary results were derived based on the collected data, but the feedback to these results could not be confirmed. If on-site feedback is possible, more accurate validation of the proposed method will be possible.

Existing security activities in the information security field were predominantly preventive. However, current trends in information security field's security activities are shifting from traditional prevention to sustainable security emphasized by international standards such as ISO / IEC 27001 and NIST SP 800-53. In this context, the results of this study show that there is an organization that is far below the level of security maturity, which has the final goal of continuous review and improvement of the organization itself. In other words, despite the fact that they belong to the same generation field in the same industry field, there is a big gap between organizations in the maturity of the security perspective. Therefore, in order to respond to the core concept required for information security, it is considered that the index for sustainable security such as AISMA suggested in this study is required.

Lastly, the proposed criteria for constructing maturity model can be useful for establishing maturity model in other fields. And, it is expected that the results demonstrated in this paper will advance similar future research in fields other than infrastructure.

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Youngin You received M.S degree from Korea University. He is now a Ph.D student at the school of information security, Korea University. He is also a member of risk management laboratory in Korea University. His current research interests include Cloud security, Machine learning and Information security management.

Junhyoung Oh received B.S degree from Korea University. He is currently studying as an Unified Master's and Doctor's Course Students at Korea University. He is also a member of risk management laboratory in Korea University. His research interests include Usable security, Security Evaluation, Privacy in IoT.

Sooheon Kim received his B.S. in International Studies and Business from Korea University in 2017. His research interests include Natural Language processing, cyber security, and machine learning.

Kyungho Lee received his Ph.D degree from Korea University. He is now a professor in the school of information security at Korea University, and has been leading the risk management laboratory in Korea University since 2012. He was a former CISO at NAVER Corporation, and now he is serving as a president of Office of Information Technology & Service Center in Korea University.

Youngin You (1), Junhyoung Oh (1), Sooheon Kim (2) and Kyungho Lee (1)

(1) Institute of Cyber Security & Privacy (ICSP), Korea University Anamro 145, Seoul, KOREA [e-mail: {crenius, ohjun02, kevinlee}@korea.ac.kr]

(2) Data Marketing Korea Research Lab Teheran Rd. 53 gil 16, Seoul, KOREA [e-mail: sooheon.kim@datamarketing.co.kr]

(*) Corresponding author: Kyungho Lee

Received February 27, 2018; revised May 3, 2018; accepted May 15, 2018; published October 30, 2018

This research was supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, Korea, under the Information Technology Research Center support program (IITP-2017-2015-0-00403) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information & Communications Technology Promotion).

http://doi.org/10.3837/tiis.2018.10.020
Table 1. Coverage of Advanced information security maturity assessment
method

Tier                     Other Security Maturity Concepts
       CMMI              ISM3          ISMM               Gartner

1      Process           Physical      -                  No
       absence/          Security                         information
       unpredictability                                   security
                                                          program or
                                                          documentation
2      Documentati       Records       Define some        Develop
       on, planning,     of            roles and          official
       execution,        information   responsibilities   policy for
       observation,      security      related to         critical areas
       control, and      processes     security           / Designate
       application of                  section            security
       processes                                          team
3      Application       Use           Approve            Introduction
       of process        process       common             of strategic
       standards,        results to    policies and       security
       procedures,       improve       processes          program
       and tools at      individual    across the
       the               processes     organization
       organization
       level
4      Process           -             -                  -
       management
       using
       statistical and
       quantitative
       techniques
5      Continual         Improve       Optimization       Continuous
       improvement       information   of processes       process
       and               security      and                improvement
       management                      procedures
       of processes

Tier
       CMMI              NIST              ISA/IEC        AISMA
                                           62443

1      Process           Policy            Physical and   Physical
       absence/          Placement         environmental  access
       unpredictability                    security       control
2      Documentati       Use policies      Staff          Conduct
       on, planning,     and               training and   critical
       execution,        procedures        security       infrastructure
       observation,      (define IT        awareness      resource
       control, and      security                         protection
       application of    responsibilities                 and security
       processes         and                              awareness
                         expected                         training
                         behavior)
3      Application       Implement         Element:       Establish
       of process        consistent IT     Security       policies and
       standards,        security          policies and   procedures
       procedures,       procedures        procedures     for
       and tools at      and controls                     protecting
       the                                                applications
       organization                                       and
       level                                              application
                                                          systems and
                                                          managing
                                                          security
                                                          consciousness
4      Process           Testing,          Conformance    Self-control
       management        corrective                       (self-audit
       using             actions for                      and testing,
       statistical and   vulnerabilities,                 vulnerability
       quantitative      mitigation of                    testing,
       techniques        risk                             etc.)
5      Continual         Implement         Review,        Continuous
       improvement       appropriate       improve,       review and
       and               security          and            improvement
       management        levels for all    maintain the
       of processes      policies and      CSMS
                         procedures

Table 2. Concepts of information security process, goals and practice

Category    Description

Security    - Activities to be performed to achieve the security level
Processes     of the layer are placed at levels 1 to 5
Goals       - Goals to be achieved in the security process area
            - Criteria for determining the degree to which each security
              process is performed within the organization
Practices   - Specific security activities to meet the objective that
              constitute each security process area

Table 3. Control Perspective criteria for Security Maturity
Configuration

Category      Description

Improvement   Concepts of continuous monitoring, evaluation, and
              follow-up of the information security process
Prevention    Concepts applicable to all tiers, including policies,
              procedures, controls, and processes to protect information
              from unauthorized modification or exposure
Detection     Concepts to detect anomalous behavior in a system at an
              early tier
Restoration   The concept that the detection process must precede to
              make sense, the procedure for timely response to accidents
              and abnormality detection

Table 4. Operational Perspective criteria for Security Maturity

Category     Description

Clarity      - Extent to which security practices are exposed to
               insiders
             - Degree of clarity increases as maturity level goes down
               (the higher the clarity, the more vulnerable it is to
               attack)
Refinement   - Level of depth, cost, technology, and management of
               knowledge required for security practices
             - The higher the refinement index, the higher the level of
               knowledge, cost, and skills required to implement and
               manage security practices

Table 5. Derived security activities for Critical Infrastructure

Maturity       Security Processes         Goals
level                                     (n): number of practices

               Audit and accountability   Auditable events (1),
                                          Response to audit processing
                                          failure (1), Reduces
                                          unnecessary audits and
                                          generates reports (1)
               Security assessment        Policies and procedures for
               and authorization          security assessment and
                                          certification (2), Security
                                          assessment (3), Continuous
                                          monitoring (3)
Optimization   Configuration              Control over configuration
phase          management                 changes (1), Restrict access
                                          to configuration changes (1)
               Business continuity        Testing and implementing
               planning                   business continuity planning
                                          (1)
               Planning                   Planning for system security
                                          (1)
               Risk assessment            Vulnerability scan (3)
               System and                 Actions against system
               information integration    defects (1)
               Access control             Separation of duties (4),
                                          System usage notice (2),
                                          Access control for mobile
                                          devices (2)

               Audit and accountability   Audit and responsibility
                                          policies and procedures
                                          (2), Auditable events
                                          (2), Audit incidents (1)
Control        Security assessment and    Security assessment (1)
phase          authorization
               Configuration              Security impact analysis (1)
               management
               Business continuity        Policies and procedures
               planning                   for business continuity
                                          planning (2), Testing an
                                          implementing business
                                          continuity planning (2),
                                          Control system recovery
                                          and reconfiguration (1)
               Incident response          Incident response
                                          training (1), Incident
                                          response testing and
                                          practice (1), Incident
                                          handling (1), Incident
                                          response plan (1)
               Physical and               Physical access monitoring (1)
               environmental
               protection
               Planning                   Behavioral rules (1),
                                          Personal information
                                          impact assessment (1)
               Privacy                    Transfer of personnel
                                          (1), Personal sanctions (1)
               Risk assessment            Risk management (1),
                                          Vulnerability scan (3)
               Acquisition of             Purchase (1), Security
               systems and                engineering principles
               services                   (1), Supply chain
                                          protection (1)
               System and                 Actions against system
               information                defects (3)
               integration
               Awareness and              Security training (1)
               education
               Access control             Access control policies
                                          and procedures (2),
                                          Control system account
                                          management (10), Least
                                          privilege (1), Parallel
                                          session control (1),
                                          Session lock (3), Remote
                                          access (3), Wireless
                                          access (2), Access
                                          control for mobile
                                          devices (3)
               Audit and                  Response to audit processing
               accountability             failure (1)
               Configuration              Restrict access to
               management                 configuration changes (1)
               Business continuity        Alternative processing
               planning                   location (3)
               Identification and         Identification and
               authentication             authentication policies
                                          and procedures (2), User
                                          identification and
                                          authentication
                                          (institutional users)
                                          (1), Device verification
                                          and authentication (1),
                                          ID management (1)
Management     Incident response          Incident response policies
phase                                     and procedures (2)
               Maintenance                System maintenance policies
                                          and procedures (2), Remote
                                          maintenance (3), Maintenance
                                          personnel (1)
               Storage media              Storage media protection
               protection                 policies and procedures (2),
                                          Marking storage media (1)
               Physical and               Physical and environmental
               environmental              protection policies and
               protection                 procedures (2)
               Acquisition of             Software installed by the
               systems and                user (1)
               services
               Communication and          Application classification
               system protection          (1), Separation of security
                                          functions (1), Public access
                                          protection (1), Co-computing
                                          device (1), Mobile code (2),
                                          VOIP (2)
               System and                 Prevent malware (5),
               information                Anti-spam (2)
               integration
               Awareness and              Security awareness and
               education                  cation policies and
                                          procedures (2), Security
                                          training (1)
               Access control             Login attempt failed (2),
                                          System usage notice (2),
                                          ?emote access (3), Wireless
                                          access (3), Access control
                                          for mobile devices (3)
               Audit and                  Auditable events (2), Audit
               accountability             incidents (3)
               Configuration              Restrict access to
               management                 configuration changes (1)
Configuration  Identification and         Cryptographic module
phase          authentication             authentication (1)
               Maintenance                Remote maintenance (3)
               Storage media              Storage media access (1),
               protection                 Marking storage media (1)
               Communication and          Information from a shared
               system protection          resource (1), Protection
                                          against denial of service
                                          (1), System boundary
                                          protection (4), Transport
                                          integrity (1), Transfer
                                          confidentiality (1),
                                          Terminate network connection
                                          (1), Trust path (1),
                                          Cryptographic key
                                          establishment and operation
                                          (1), Using passwords (1),
                                          Session authentication (1)
               Awareness and              Security awareness and
               education                  education policies and
                                          procedures (1)
               Storage media              Keep the storage media (4),
               protection                 move storage media (2)
Initial        Physical and               Physical access rights (3),
phase          environmental              Physical access monitoring
               protection                 (2), Outsider control (1),
                                          Emergency block (1),
                                          Emergency light (1), Fire
                                          prevention (1), Temperature
                                          and humidity control (1),
                                          Flood damage prevention (1),
                                          Component location (1)

Table 6. Assessment result by derived security activities

Maturity            Category   'A'              'B'        'C'
Tier                           Facility         Facility   Facility

Tier 1              Score      1.000            1.000      0.840
Tier 2              Score      0.962            0.929      0.946
Tier 3              Score      0.983            0.980      0.790
Tier 4              Score      1.000            1.000      0.783
Tier 5              Score      1.000            1.000      0.711
Excluding all                  Remote access,
facilities' score              Wireless accss,
calculation with               Access control
common N / A                   for mobile
                               devices, Remote
                               maintenance

Maturity             'D'        'E'
Tier                 Facility   Facility

Tier 1               0.625      0.545
Tier 2               0.571      0.308
Tier 3               0.447      0.127
Tier 4               0.464      0.100
Tier 5               0.211      0.000
Excluding all
facilities' score
calculation with
common N / A
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Author:You, Youngin; Oh, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooheon; Lee, Kyungho
Publication:KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems
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Date:Oct 1, 2018
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